Pipe (material)
Overview

A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder
Cylinder (geometry)
A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment, the axis of the cylinder. The solid enclosed by this surface and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is also called a cylinder...

, usually but not necessarily of circular
Circle
A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius....

cross-section
Cross section (geometry)
In geometry, a cross-section is the intersection of a figure in 2-dimensional space with a line, or of a body in 3-dimensional space with a plane, etc...

, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.

In common usage the words pipe and tube
Tube (fluid conveyance)
A tube, or tubing, is a long hollow cylinder used to convey fluids .The terms "pipe" and "tube" are almost interchangeable, although minor distinctions exist — generally, a tube has tighter engineering requirements than a pipe. Both pipe and tube imply a level of rigidity and permanence,...

are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined.
Encyclopedia
A pipe is a tubular section or hollow cylinder
Cylinder (geometry)
A cylinder is one of the most basic curvilinear geometric shapes, the surface formed by the points at a fixed distance from a given line segment, the axis of the cylinder. The solid enclosed by this surface and by two planes perpendicular to the axis is also called a cylinder...

, usually but not necessarily of circular
Circle
A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius....

cross-section
Cross section (geometry)
In geometry, a cross-section is the intersection of a figure in 2-dimensional space with a line, or of a body in 3-dimensional space with a plane, etc...

, used mainly to convey substances which can flow — liquids and gases (fluids), slurries, powders, masses of small solids. It can also be used for structural applications; hollow pipe is far stiffer per unit weight than solid members.

In common usage the words pipe and tube
Tube (fluid conveyance)
A tube, or tubing, is a long hollow cylinder used to convey fluids .The terms "pipe" and "tube" are almost interchangeable, although minor distinctions exist — generally, a tube has tighter engineering requirements than a pipe. Both pipe and tube imply a level of rigidity and permanence,...

are usually interchangeable, but in industry and engineering, the terms are uniquely defined. Depending on the applicable standard to which it is manufactured, pipe is generally specified by a nominal diameter with a constant outside diameter (OD) and a schedule that defines the thickness. Tube is most often specified by the OD and wall thickness, but may be specified by any two of OD, inside diameter (ID), and wall thickness. Pipe is generally manufactured to one of several international and national industrial standards. While similar standards exist for specific industry application tubing, tube is often made to custom sizes and a broader range of diameters and tolerances. Many industrial and government standards exist for the production of pipe and tubing. The term "tube" is also commonly applied to non-cylindrical sections, i.e., square or rectangular tubing. In general, "pipe" is the more common term in most of the world, whereas "tube" is more widely used in the United States.

Both "pipe" and "tube" imply a level of rigidity and permanence, whereas a hose
Hose (tubing)
A hose is a hollow tube designed to carry fluids from one location to another. Hoses are also sometimes called pipes , or more generally tubing...

(or hosepipe) is usually portable and flexible. Pipe assemblies are almost always constructed with the use of fittings
Piping and plumbing fittings
Fittings are used in pipe and plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow...

such as elbows, tees, and so on, while tube may be formed or bent into custom configurations. For materials that are inflexible, cannot be formed or where construction is governed by codes or standards, tube assemblies are also constructed with the use of tube fittings.

## Uses

• Domestic water systems
• Pipelines
Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquids and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air are also used....

transporting gas or liquid over long distances
• Scaffolding
Scaffolding
Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes or tubes, although it can be from other materials...

• Structural steel
Structural steel
Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and mechanical properties...

• As components in mechanical systems such as:
• Rollers in conveyor belts
• Compactors (E.g.: steam rollers)
• Bearing casing
• Casing for concrete pilings used in construction projects
• High temperature or pressure manufacturing processes
• The petroleum industry:
• Oil well casing
• Oil refinery equipment
• Delivery of fluids, either gaseous or liquid, in a process plant from one point to another point in the process
• Delivery of bulk solids, in a food or process plant from one point to another point in the process
• The construction of high pressure storage vessels (note that large pressure vessel
Pressure vessel
A pressure vessel is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure substantially different from the ambient pressure.The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Consequently, their design,...

s are constructed from plate, not pipe owing to their wall thickness and size).

## Manufacture

There are three processes for metallic pipe manufacture. Centrifugal casting of hot alloyed metal is one of the most prominent process. Ductile iron
Ductile iron
Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spherulitic graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of cast iron invented in 1943 by Keith Millis...

pipes are generally manufactured in such a fashion. Seamless (SMLS) pipe is formed by drawing a solid billet over a piercing rod to create the hollow shell. Historically seamless pipe was regarded as withstanding pressure better than other types, and was often more easily available than welded pipe. Advances since the 1970's in materials, process control and non-destructive testing allow correctly specified welded pipe to replace seamless in many applications. Welded
Welding
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes...

(also Electric Resistance Welded ("ERW"), and Electric Fusion Welded ("EFW")) pipe is formed by rolling plate and welding the seam. The weld flash can be removed from the outside or inside surfaces using a scarfing blade. The weld zone can also be heat treated to make the seam less visible. Welded pipe often has tighter dimensional tolerances than seamless, and can be cheaper if manufactured in the same quantities. Large-diameter pipe (25 centimetres (9.8 in) or greater) may be ERW, EFW or Submerged Arc Welded ("SAW")
Submerged arc welding
Submerged arc welding is a common arc welding process. Originally developed by the Linde - Union Carbide Company. It requires a continuously fed consumable solid or tubular electrode...

pipe.

Tubing, either metal or plastic, is generally extruded
Extrusion
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section...

.

## Materials

Pipe are made in many materials including ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

, fiberglass
Fiberglass
Glass fiber is a material consisting of numerous extremely fine fibers of glass.Glassmakers throughout history have experimented with glass fibers, but mass manufacture of glass fiber was only made possible with the invention of finer machine tooling...

, many metal
Metal
A metal , is an element, compound, or alloy that is a good conductor of both electricity and heat. Metals are usually malleable and shiny, that is they reflect most of incident light...

s, concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

and plastic
Plastic
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce production costs...

. In the past wood and lead
Lead is a main-group element in the carbon group with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable poor metal. It is also counted as one of the heavy metals. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed...

(Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

plumbum, from which we get the word plumbing
Plumbing
Plumbing is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping...

) were commonly used.

Metallic pipes are commonly made from steel
Steel
Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has a carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten...

or iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

; the finish and metal chemistry are peculiar to the use, fit and form. Typically metallic piping is made of steel or iron, such as unfinished, black (lacquer) steel, carbon steel, stainless steel
Stainless steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5 or 11% chromium content by mass....

or galvanized steel, brass
Brass
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties.In comparison, bronze is principally an alloy of copper and tin...

, and ductile iron
Ductile iron
Ductile iron, also known as ductile cast iron, nodular cast iron, spheroidal graphite iron, spherulitic graphite cast iron and SG iron, is a type of cast iron invented in 1943 by Keith Millis...

. Aluminum pipe or tubing may be utilized where iron is incompatible with the service fluid or where weight is a concern; aluminum is also used for heat transfer tubing such as in refrigerant systems. Copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

tubing is popular for domestic water (potable) plumbing
Plumbing
Plumbing is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping...

systems; copper may be used where heat transfer is desirable (i.e. radiators or heat exchangers). Inconel
Inconel
Inconel is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys. Inconel alloys are typically used in high temperature applications. It is often referred to in English as "Inco"...

, chrome moly, and titanium
Titanium
Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It has a low density and is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant transition metal with a silver color....

steel alloys are used in high temperature and pressure piping in process and power facilities. When specifying alloys for new processes, the known issues of creep and sensitization effect must be taken into account.

Lead piping is still found in old domestic and other water distribution
Water pipe
Water pipes are pipes or tubes, frequently made of polyvinyl chloride , ductile iron, steel, cast iron, polypropylene, polyethylene, or copper, that carry pressurized and treated fresh water to buildings , as well as inside the building.-History:For many centuries, lead was the favoured material...

systems, but it is no longer permitted for new potable water piping installations due to its toxicity
Toxicity
Toxicity is the degree to which a substance can damage a living or non-living organisms. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell or an organ , such as the liver...

. Many building code
Building code
A building code, or building control, is a set of rules that specify the minimum acceptable level of safety for constructed objects such as buildings and nonbuilding structures. The main purpose of building codes are to protect public health, safety and general welfare as they relate to the...

s now require that lead piping in residential or institutional installations be replaced with non-toxic piping or that the tubes' interiors be treated with phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid
Phosphoric acid, also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric acid, is a mineral acid having the chemical formula H3PO4. Orthophosphoric acid molecules can combine with themselves to form a variety of compounds which are also referred to as phosphoric acids, but in a more general way...

. According to a senior researcher and lead expert with the Canadian Environmental Law Association
The Canadian Environmental Law Association is a non-profit, public interest organization established in 1970 to use existing laws to protect the environment and to advocate environmental law reforms...

, “...there is no safe level of lead [for human exposure]”.

Plastic tubing is widely used for its light weight, chemical resistance, non-corrosive properties, and ease of making connections. Plastic materials include polyvinyl chloride
Polyvinyl chloride
Polyvinyl chloride, commonly abbreviated PVC, is a thermoplastic polymer. It is a vinyl polymer constructed of repeating vinyl groups having one hydrogen replaced by chloride. Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene. PVC is widely used in...

(PVC), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
Chlorinated Polyvinyl chlorideDensity1.56 g/cm3Young's modulus 2.9-3.4 GPaTensile strength50-80 MPaElongation @ break20-40%Notch test2-5 kJ/m2Glass temperature 106 - 115 °CMelting point212 °CVicat B106 to 115 °C...

(CPVC), fibre reinforced plastic (FRP), reinforced polymer mortar (RPMP), polypropylene
Polypropylene
Polypropylene , also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications including packaging, textiles , stationery, plastic parts and reusable containers of various types, laboratory equipment, loudspeakers, automotive components, and polymer banknotes...

(PP), polyethylene
Polyethylene
Polyethylene or polythene is the most widely used plastic, with an annual production of approximately 80 million metric tons...

PEX
Cross-linked polyethylene, commonly abbreviated PEX or XLPE, is a form of polyethylene with cross-links. It is formed into tubing, and is used predominantly in hydronic radiant heating systems, domestic water piping and insulation for high tension electrical cables...

(PEX), polybutylene
Polybutylene
Polybutylene is a polyolefin or saturated polymer with the chemical formula n. It should not be confused with polybutene, a low molecular weight oligomer with a different repeat unit....

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene is a common thermoplastic. Its melting point is approximately 105 °C ....

(ABS), for example. In many countries, PVC pipes account for most pipe materials used in buried municipal applications for drinking water distribution and wastewater mains.

Pipe may be made from concrete
Concrete
Concrete is a composite construction material, composed of cement and other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag cement, aggregate , water and chemical admixtures.The word concrete comes from the Latin word...

or ceramic
Ceramic
A ceramic is an inorganic, nonmetallic solid prepared by the action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic materials may have a crystalline or partly crystalline structure, or may be amorphous...

, usually for low-pressure applications such as gravity flow or drainage. Pipes for sewage are still predominantly made from concrete or vitrified clay. In other applications plastic pipes provide better properties and processing options.
Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete
Reinforced concrete is concrete in which reinforcement bars , reinforcement grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. It was invented by French gardener Joseph Monier in 1849 and patented in 1867. The term Ferro Concrete refers only to concrete that is...

can be used for large-diameter concrete pipes. This pipe material can be used in many types of construction, and is often used in the gravity-flow transport of storm water. Usually such pipe will have a receiving bell or a stepped fitting, with various sealing methods applied at installation.

## Sizes

Pipe sizes can be confusing because the terminology may relate to historical dimensions. For example, a half-inch iron pipe does not have any dimension that is a half inch. Initially, a half inch pipe did have an inner diameter of 0.5 inches (12.7 mm)—but it also had thick walls. As technology improved, thinner walls became possible, but the outside diameter stayed the same so it could mate with existing older pipe, increasing the inner diameter beyond half an inch. The history of copper pipe is similar. In the 1930s, the pipe was designated by its internal diameter and a 1/16 in wall thickness. Consequently, a 1 inches (25.4 mm) copper pipe had a 1+1/8 in outside diameter. The outside diameter was the important dimension for mating with fittings. The wall thickness on modern copper is usually thinner than 1/16 in, so the internal diameter is only "nominal" rather than a controlling dimension. Newer pipe technologies sometimes adopted a sizing system as its own. PVC pipe uses the Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers: a nominal pipe size for diameter based on inches, and a schedule for wall thickness...

.

Pipe sizes are specified by a number of national and international standards, including API
American Petroleum Institute
The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API, is the largest U.S trade association for the oil and natural gas industry...

5L, ANSI
American National Standards Institute
The American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international...

/ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers is a professional body, specifically an engineering society, focused on mechanical engineering....

B36.10M and B36.19M in the US, BS
British Standards
British Standards are the standards produced by BSI Group which is incorporated under a Royal Charter...

1600 and BS EN
European Committee for Standardization
The European Committee for Standardization or Comité Européen de Normalisation , is a non-profit organisation whose mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for...

10255 in the United Kingdom and Europe.

There are two common methods for designating pipe outside diameter (OD). The North American method is called NPS ("Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers: a nominal pipe size for diameter based on inches, and a schedule for wall thickness...

") and is based on inches (also frequently referred to as NB ("Nominal Bore")). The European version is called DN ("Diametre Nominal" / "Nominal Diameter") and is based on millimetres. Designating the outside diameter allows pipes of the same size to be fit together no matter what the wall thickness.
• For pipe sizes less than NPS 14 inch (DN 350), both methods give a nominal value for the OD that is rounded off and is not the same as the actual OD. For example, NPS 2 inch and DN 50 are the same pipe, but the actual OD is 2.375 inches or 60.33 mm. The only way to obtain the actual OD is to look it up in a reference table.

• For pipe sizes of NPS 14 inch (DN 350) and greater the NPS size is the actual diameter in inches and the DN size is equal to NPS times 25 (not 25.4) rounded to a convenient multiple of 50. For example, NPS 14 has an OD of 14 inches or 355.6 mm, and is equivalent to DN 350.

Since the outside diameter is fixed for a given pipe size, the inside diameter will vary depending on the wall thickness of the pipe. For example, 2" Schedule 80 pipe has thicker walls and therefore a smaller inside diameter than 2" Schedule 40 pipe.

Steel pipe has been produced for about 150 years. The pipe sizes that are in use today in PVC and galvanized were originally designed years ago for steel pipe. The number system, like Sch 40, 80, 160, were set long ago and seem a little odd. For example, Sch 20 pipe is even thinner than Sch 40, but same OD. And while these pipes are based on old steel pipe sizes, there is other pipe, like cpvc for heated water, that uses pipe sizes, inside and out, based on old copper pipe size standards instead of steel.

Many different standards exist for pipe sizes, and their prevalence varies depending on industry and geographical area. The pipe size designation generally includes two numbers; one that indicates the outside (OD) or nominal diameter, and the other that indicates the wall thickness. In the early twentieth century, American pipe was sized by inside diameter. This practice was abandoned to improve compatibility with pipe fittings that must usually fit the OD of the pipe, but it has had a lasting impact on modern standards around the world.

In North America and the UK, pressure piping is usually specified by Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers: a nominal pipe size for diameter based on inches, and a schedule for wall thickness...

(NPS) and schedule (SCH). Pipe sizes are documented by a number of standards, including API 5L, ANSI
Ansi
Ansi is a village in Kaarma Parish, Saare County, on the island of Saaremaa, Estonia....

/ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers is a professional body, specifically an engineering society, focused on mechanical engineering....

B36.10M (Table 1) in the US, and BS 1600 and BS 1387 in the United Kingdom. Typically the pipe wall thickness is the controlled variable, and the Inside Diameter (I.D.) is allowed to vary. The pipe wall thickness has a variance of approximately 12.5 percent.

In the rest of Europe pressure piping uses the same pipe IDs and wall thicknesses as Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size
Nominal Pipe Size is a North American set of standard sizes for pipes used for high or low pressures and temperatures. Pipe size is specified with two non-dimensional numbers: a nominal pipe size for diameter based on inches, and a schedule for wall thickness...

, but labels them with a metric Diameter Nominal (DN) instead of the imperial NPS. For NPS larger than 14, the DN is equal to the NPS multiplied by 25. (Not 25.4) This is documented by EN 10255 (formerly DIN
Din
DIN or Din or din can have several meanings:* A din is a loud noise.* Dīn, an Arabic term meaning "religion" or "way of life".* Din is one of the ten aspects of the Ein Sof in Kabbalah ....

2448 and BS 1387) and ISO 65, and it is often called DIN or ISO pipe.

Japan has its own set of standard pipe sizes, often called JIS pipe.

The Iron pipe size
Iron pipe size
Iron Pipe Size refers to an old pipe sizing system still in use by some industries, including major PVC pipe manufacturers, as well as some legacy drawings and equipment....

(IPS) is an older system still used by some manufacturers and legacy drawings and equipment. The IPS number is the same as the NPS number, but the schedules were limited to Standard Wall (STD), Extra Strong (XS), and Double Extra Strong (XXS). STD is identical to SCH 40 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 10, inclusive, and indicates .375" wall thickness for NPS 12 and larger. XS is identical to SCH 80 for NPS 1/8 to NPS 8, inclusive, and indicates .500" wall thickness for NPS 8 and larger. Different definitions exist for XXS, however it is never the same as SCH 160. XXS is in fact thicker than SCH 160 for NPS 1/8" to 6" inclusive, whereas SCH 160 is thicker than XXS for NPS 8" and larger.

Another old system is the Ductile Iron Pipe Size (DIPS), which generally has larger ODs than IPS.

Copper plumbing tube for residential plumbing follows an entirely different size system in America, often called Copper Tube Size (CTS); see domestic water system. Its nominal size
Nominal size
In manufacturing, a nominal size or trade size is a size "in name only" used for identification. The nominal size may not match any dimension of the product, but within the domain of that product the nominal size may correspond to a large number of highly standardized dimensions and tolerances.For...

is neither the inside nor outside diameter. Plastic tubing, such as PVC and CPVC, for plumbing applications also has different sizing standards.

Agricultural applications use PIP sizes, which stands for Plastic Irrigation Pipe. PIP comes in pressure ratings of 22 psi (151.7 kPa), 50 psi (344.7 kPa), 80 psi (551.6 kPa), 100 psi (689.5 kPa), and 125 psi (861.8 kPa) and is generally available in diameters of 6", 8", 10", 12", 15", 18", 21", and 24".

## Standards

The manufacture and installation of pressure piping is tightly regulated by the ASME "B31" code series such as B31.1 or B31.3 which have their basis in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This code has the force of law in Canada and the USA. Europe and the rest of the world has an equivalent system of codes. Pressure piping is generally pipe that must carry pressures greater than 10 to 25 atmospheres, although definitions vary. To ensure safe operation of the system, the manufacture, storage, welding, testing, etc. of pressure piping must meet stringent quality standards.

Manufacturing standards for pipes commonly require a test of chemical composition and a series of mechanical strength tests for each heat of pipe. A heat of pipe is all forged from the same cast ingot, and therefore had the same chemical composition. Mechanical tests may be associated to a lot of pipe, which would be all from the same heat and have been through the same heat treatment processes. The manufacturer performs these tests and reports the composition in a mill traceability report and the mechanical tests in a material test report, both of which are referred to by the acronym MTR. Material with these associated test reports is called traceable. For critical applications, third party verification of these tests may be required; in this case an independent lab will produce a certified material test report(CMTR), and the material will be called certified.

Some widely used pipe standards are:
• The API
American Petroleum Institute
The American Petroleum Institute, commonly referred to as API, is the largest U.S trade association for the oil and natural gas industry...

range - now ISO 3183. E.g.: API 5L Grade B - now ISO L245 where the number indicates yield strength in MPa
• ASME
American Society of Mechanical Engineers
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers is a professional body, specifically an engineering society, focused on mechanical engineering....

SA106 Grade B (Seamless carbon steel pipe for high temperature service)
• ASTM A312 (Seamless and welded austenitic stainless steel pipe)
• ASTM C76 (Concrete Pipe)
• ASTM D3033/3034 (PVC Pipe)
• ASTM D2239 (Polyethylene Pipe)

API 5L was changed in the second half of 2008 to edition 44 from edition 43 to make it identical to ISO 3183. It is important to note that the change has created the requirement that sour service, ERW pipe, pass a hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) test per NACE TM0284 in order to be used for sour service.
• ACPA [American Concrete Pipe Association]
• AWWA [American Water Works Association]
• AWWA M45

See this site for more specification summaries.

## Traceability and Positive Material Identification (PMI)

Maintaining the traceability
Traceability
Traceability refers to the completeness of the information about every step in a process chain.The formal definition: Traceability is the ability to chronologically interrelate uniquely identifiable entities in a way that is verifiable....

between the material and this paperwork is an important quality assurance issue. QA often requires the heat number to be written on the pipe. Precautions must also be taken to prevent the introduction of counterfeit materials. As a backup to etching/labeling of the material identification on the pipe, Positive Material Identification (PMI) is performed using a handheld device; the device scans the pipe material using an emitted electromagnetic wave (x-ray fluorescence/XRF
X-ray fluorescence
X-ray fluorescence is the emission of characteristic "secondary" X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays...

## Installation

Pipe installation is often more expensive than the material and a variety of specialized tools, techniques, and parts have been developed to assist this. Pipe is usually delivered to a customer or jobsite as either "sticks" or lengths of pipe (typically 20 feet) or they are prefabricated with elbows, tees and valves into a prefabricated pipe spool [A pipe spool is a piece of pre-assembled pipe and fittings, usually prepared in a shop so that installation on the construction site can be more efficient.]. They are usually tagged with a bar code and the ends are capped for protection. The Pipe and Pipe Spools are delivered to a warehouse on a large commercial job and they may be held indoors or in a gridded laydown yard. The Pipe or pipe spool is retrieved, staged, rigged, and then lifted into place. On large process jobs the lift is made using cranes
Crane (machine)
A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of...

and hoist
Hoist (device)
A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift-wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a...

and other material lifts. They are typically temporarily supported in the steel structure using beam clamps, straps, and small hoists until the Pipe Support
Pipe support
A pipe support is a device designed to carry the weight of the pipe, any in-line equipment and the material in the pipe over a defined span. The four main functions of a pipe support are to guide, anchor, absorb shock and support a specified load. Pipe supports used in high or low temperature...

s are attached or otherwise secured.

An example of a tool used for installation for a small plumbing pipe (threaded ends) is the pipe wrench
Pipe wrench
The pipe wrench is an adjustable wrench used for turning soft iron pipes and fittings with a rounded surface. The design of the adjustable jaw allows it to rock in the frame, such that any forward pressure on the handle tends to pull the jaws tighter together. Teeth angled in the direction of turn...

. Small pipe is typically not heavy and can be lifted into place by the installation craft laborer.

## Joining

Pipes are commonly joined by welding
Welding
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes...

, using threaded pipe and fittings; sealing the connection with a pipe thread compound, Polytetrafluoroethylene
Polytetrafluoroethylene
Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that finds numerous applications. PTFE is most well known by the DuPont brand name Teflon....

Thread seal tape, or teflon tape can be used in many ways, the most common use in America is to seal things. Thread seal tape — commonly known as "Teflon tape", "PTFE tape", "tape dope", or "plumber's tape"–is a polytetrafluoroethylene film cut to specified widths for use in sealing pipe...

, oakum
Oakum
Oakum is a preparation of tarred fiber used in shipbuilding, for caulking or packing the joints of timbers in wooden vessels and the deck planking of iron and steel ships, as well as cast iron plumbing applications...

, or PTFE string, or by using a mechanical coupling. Process piping is usually joined by welding using a TIG or MIG process. The most common process pipe joint is the butt weld. The ends of pipe to be welded must have a certain weld preparation called an End Weld Prep (EWP) which is typically at an angle of 37.5 degrees to accommodate the filler weld metal. The most common pipe thread in North America is the National Pipe Thread
National Pipe Thread Tapered Thread is a U.S. standard for tapered threads used on threaded pipes and fittings. The taper rate for all NPT threads is measured by the change of diameter over distance. The angle between the taper and the center axis of the pipe is 1° 47′ 24″...

(NPT) or the Dryseal
National Pipe Thread Tapered Thread is a U.S. standard for tapered threads used on threaded pipes and fittings. The taper rate for all NPT threads is measured by the change of diameter over distance. The angle between the taper and the center axis of the pipe is 1° 47′ 24″...

The British Standard Pipe thread is a family of standard screw thread types that has been adopted internationally for interconnecting and sealing pipe ends by mating an external with an internal thread.-Types:...

(BSPT), the garden hose thread (GHT), and the fire hose coupling (NST).

Copper pipes are typically joined by soldering
Soldering
Soldering is a process in which two or more metal items are joined together by melting and flowing a filler metal into the joint, the filler metal having a lower melting point than the workpiece...

, brazing
Brazing
Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is heated above and distributed between two or more close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal is brought slightly above its melting temperature while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux...

, compression fittings, flaring
Flare fitting
Flare fittings are a type of compression fitting used with metal tubing, usually soft steel and ductile copper, though other materials are also used.  Tube flaring is considered to be a type of forging operation, and is usually a cold working procedure.  During assembly, a flare nut is...

, or crimping
Crimp (joining)
Crimping is joining two pieces of metal or other malleable material by deforming one or both of them to hold the other. The bend or deformity is called the crimp.- Uses :...

.
Plastic pipes may be joined by solvent welding, heat fusion
Heat fusion
Heat fusion is a welding process used to join two different pieces of a thermoplastic. This process involves heating both pieces simultaneously and pressing them together. The two pieces then cool together and form a permanent bond. When done properly, the two pieces become indistinguishable from...

, or elastomeric sealing.

If frequent disconnection will be required, gasketed pipe flanges or union fittings provide better reliability than threads. Some thin-walled pipes of ductile material, such as the smaller copper or flexible plastic water pipes found in homes for ice makers and humidifiers, for example, may be joined with compression fitting
Compression fitting
Compression fittings are used in plumbing and electrical conduit systems to join two tubes or thin-walled pipes together. In instances where two pipes made of dissimilar materials are to be joined , the fittings will also be made of one or more compatible materials appropriate for the connection...

s.

Underground pipe typically uses a "push-on" gasket style of pipe that compresses a gasket into a space formed between the two adjoining pieces. Push-on joints are available on most types of pipe. A pipe joint lubricant must be used in the assembly of the pipe. Under buried conditions, gasket-joint pipes allow for lateral movement due to soil shifting as well as expansion/contraction due to temperature differentials. Plastic MDPE and HDPE gas and water pipes are also often joined with Electrofusion
Electrofusion
Electrofusion is a method of joining MDPE, HDPE and other plastic pipes with special fittings that have built-in electric heating elements which are used to weld the joint together....

fittings.

Large above ground pipe typically uses a flanged joint, which is generally available in ductile iron pipe and some others. It is a gasket style where the flanges of the adjoining pipes are bolted together, compressing the gasket into a space between the pipe.

Mechanical grooved couplings or Victaulic
Victaulic
Victaulic is a developer and producer of mechanical pipe joining systems. Victaulic provides products for Fire Protection, Data Centers, Shipbuilding, Commercial Buildings, Mining, BioFuels, and Industrial Manufacturing....

joints are also frequently used for frequent disassembly & assembly. Developed in the 1920s, these mechanical grooved couplings can operate up to 1,200psi working pressures and available in materials to match the pipe grade. Another type of mechanical coupling is a Swagelok brand fitting; this type of compression fitting is typically used on small tubing under 3/4 inch in diameter.

### Fittings and valves

Fittings are also used to split or join a number of pipes together, and for other purposes. A broad variety of standardized pipe fittings are available; they are generally broken down into either a tee, an elbow, a branch, a reducer/enlarger, or a wye. Valves control fluid flow and regulate pressure. The piping and plumbing fittings
Piping and plumbing fittings
Fittings are used in pipe and plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow...

and valve
Valve
A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category...

s articles discuss them further.

## Pipe Support

Pipes are either supported from below or hung from above. These devices are called pipe support
Pipe support
A pipe support is a device designed to carry the weight of the pipe, any in-line equipment and the material in the pipe over a defined span. The four main functions of a pipe support are to guide, anchor, absorb shock and support a specified load. Pipe supports used in high or low temperature...

s. Supports may be as simple as a pipe "shoe" which is akin to a half of an I-beam welded to the bottom of the pipe; they may be "hung" using a clevis or trapeze
Trapeze
A trapeze is a short horizontal bar hung by ropes or metal straps from a support. It is an aerial apparatus commonly found in circus performances...

type of devices called pipe hangers. Pipe Supports of any kind may incorporate springs, snubbers and/or dampers to compensate for thermal expansion, or to provide vibration isolation, shock control, or vibration excitation of the pipe due to earthquake motion. Some dampers are simply fluid dashpots whereas other dampers may be active hydraulic devices that have sophisticated systems that act to dampen peak displacements due to forcing functions. The forcing functions may be process derived (such as in a fluidized bed reactor) or from a natural phenomenon such as an earthquake (design basis event or DBE).

## Cleaning

The inside of pipes can be cleaned with the tube cleaning process, if they are contaminated with debris
Debris
Debris is rubble, wreckage, ruins, litter and discarded garbage/refuse/trash, scattered remains of something destroyed, or, in geology, large rock fragments left by a melting glacier etc. The singular form of debris is debris...

or fouling
Fouling
Fouling refers to the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces, most often in an aquatic environment. The fouling material can consist of either living organisms or a non-living substance...

. This depends on the process that the pipe will be used for and the cleanliness needed for the process. In some cases the pipes are cleaned using a displacement device formally known as a Pipeline Inspection Gauge or "pig"; alternately the pipes or tubes may be chemically flushed using specialized solutions that are pumped through. In some cases, where care has been taken in the manufacture, storage, and installation of pipe and tubing, the lines are blown clean with compressed air or nitrogen.

The British Standard Pipe thread is a family of standard screw thread types that has been adopted internationally for interconnecting and sealing pipe ends by mating an external with an internal thread.-Types:...

• Cast iron pipe
Cast iron pipe
Cast iron pipe is a historical pipe which found widespread use as a pressure pipe for transmission of water, gas and sewage, and as a water drainage pipe, during the 19th and 20th centuries. It comprises predominantly a gray cast iron tube and was frequently used uncoated, although later...

• Copper pipe
• Double-walled pipe
Double-walled pipe
A double-walled pipe is a secondary contained piping system. It is a pipe within a pipe, or encased in an outer covering, with an annulus between the two diameters. The inner pipe is the primary or carrier pipe and the outer pipe is called the secondary or containment pipe...

• Ductile iron pipe
Ductile iron pipe
Ductile iron pipe is a pipe commonly used for potable water distribution. The predominant wall material is ductile iron, a spheroidized graphite cast iron, although an internal cement mortar lining usually serves to inhibit corrosion from the fluid being distributed, and various types of external...

• Hollow structural section
Hollow structural section
A hollow structural section is a type of metal profile with a hollow tubular cross section. In some countries they are referred to instead as a structural hollow section ....

• Hydraulic pipes
National Pipe Thread Tapered Thread is a U.S. standard for tapered threads used on threaded pipes and fittings. The taper rate for all NPT threads is measured by the change of diameter over distance. The angle between the taper and the center axis of the pipe is 1° 47′ 24″...

• Panzergewinde
Panzergewinde
The Stahlpanzerrohrgewinde standard for screw threads, more often called by the shorter name Panzergewinde , is a technical standard created in Germany and subsequently used in various countries, such as the German-speaking zone and neighboring European countries...

• Pipe and tube bender
• Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport
Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods through a pipe. Most commonly, liquids and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air are also used....

• Piping
Piping
Within industry, piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid....

• Piping and plumbing fittings
Piping and plumbing fittings
Fittings are used in pipe and plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow...

• Plastic pressure pipe systems
• Plastic pipework
Plastic pipework
Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste water, chemicals, heating and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure liquids, slurries, gases, compressed air and vacuum system applications.- Materials used :...

• Plumbing
Plumbing
Plumbing is the system of pipes and drains installed in a building for the distribution of potable drinking water and the removal of waterborne wastes, and the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures in such systems. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping...

• Reinforced thermoplastic pipe
Reinforced thermoplastic pipe
RTP is a generic term referring to a reelable high strength synthetic fibre reinforced thermoplastic pipe, initially developed in the early 1990s by Wavin Repox, Akzo Nobel and by Tubes d'Aquitaine from France, who developed the first pipes reinforced with synthetic fibre to replace medium...

s
• Trap (plumbing)
Trap (plumbing)
In plumbing, a trap is a U-, S-, or J-shaped pipe located below or within a plumbing fixture. An S-shaped trap is also known as the S-bend invented by Alexander Cummings in 1775 but became known as the U-bend following the introduction of the U-shaped trap by Thomas Crapper in 1880. The new U-bend...