Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet
Pierre-Marie-Alexis Millardet (13 December 1838 – 15 December 1902) was a French botanist and mycologist born in Montmirey-la-Ville
Montmirey-la-Ville is a communes in the Jura department in Franche-Comté in eastern France.- References :*...


He was a student at the Universities of Heidelberg and Freiberg, and later became a professor of botany at the Universities of Strasbourg
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, Alsace, France, is the largest university in France, with about 43,000 students and over 4,000 researchers....

 (1869), Nancy
Nancy-Université federates the three principal institutes of higher education of Nancy, in Lorraine, France:* Henri Poincaré University : natural sciences, wrapping several faculties and engineering schools...

 (1872), and Bordeaux
University of Bordeaux
University of Bordeaux is an association of higher education institutions in and around Bordeaux, France. Its current incarnation was established 21 March 2007. The group is the largest system of higher education schools in southwestern France. It is part of the Academy of Bordeaux.There are seven...


Millardet is chiefly remembered for his work dealing with plant pests. In the 1860s the vineyards of France were infested by the destructive Phylloxera
Grape phylloxera ; originally described in France as Phylloxera vastatrix; equated to the previously described Daktulosphaira vitifoliae, Phylloxera vitifoliae; commonly just called phylloxera is a pest of commercial grapevines worldwide, originally native to eastern North America...

, an aphid-like pest inadvertently introduced to Europe from the United States. Millardet and fellow botanist Jules Émile Planchon
Jules Émile Planchon
Jules Émile Planchon was a French botanist born in Ganges, Hérault.-Biography:After receiving his Doctorate of Science at the University of Montpellier in 1844, he worked for a while at the Royal Botanical Gardens in London, and for a few years was a teacher in Nancy and Ghent...

 controlled the infestation by using American grape vines as grafting stock, which were resistant to Phylloxera. He was also responsible for protecting grape vineyards from downy mildew
Downy mildew
Downy mildew refers to any of several types of oomycete microbes that are obligate parasites of plants. Downy mildews exclusively belong to Peronosporaceae. In commercial agriculture, they are a particular problem for growers of crucifers, grapes and vegetables that grow on vines...

A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria...

 (Plasmopara viticola). This he accomplished by implementing a mixture of hydrated lime, copper sulfate and water, which was to become known as the Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux mixture
Bordeaux mixture is a mixture of copper sulfate and slaked lime used as a fungicide in vineyards. It is used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungi, primarily downy mildew which can result from infections of Plasmopara viticola. It was invented in the Bordeaux...

. This mixture was the first fungicide
Fungicides are chemical compounds or biological organisms used to kill or inhibit fungi or fungal spores. Fungi can cause serious damage in agriculture, resulting in critical losses of yield, quality and profit. Fungicides are used both in agriculture and to fight fungal infections in animals...

to be used worldwide, and is still used today.


  • Histoire des principales variétés et espèces de vignes d'origine américaine qui résistent au phylloxera. (1885)


  • This article is based on a translation of equivalent articles from the French and German Wikipedia.
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