Phoenix Park
Overview
Phoenix Park is an urban park
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

 in Dublin, Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, lying 2–4 km west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey
River Liffey
The Liffey is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. Its major tributaries include the River Dodder, the River Poddle and the River Camac. The river supplies much of Dublin's water, and a range of recreational opportunities.-Name:The river was previously named An Ruirthech,...

. Its 16 km perimeter wall encloses 707 hectares (1,747 acre), one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the seventeenth century has been home to a herd of wild Fallow deer
Fallow Deer
The Fallow Deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. This common species is native to western Eurasia, but has been introduced widely elsewhere. It often includes the rarer Persian Fallow Deer as a subspecies , while others treat it as an entirely different species The Fallow...

. The English name comes from the Irish fionn uisce meaning "clear water".
After the Normans
Normans
The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish and Gallo-Roman stock...

 conquered Dublin and its hinterland in the 12th century Hugh Tyrell, 1st Baron of Castleknock
Castleknock
Castleknock is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is in the west of the modern administrative county of Fingal within the traditional county of Dublin. It is located west of the centre of Dublin....

, granted a large area of land, including what now comprises the Phoenix Park, to the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta , also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's...

.
Encyclopedia
Phoenix Park is an urban park
Urban park
An urban park, is also known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space or municipal gardens , is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, and visitors to, the municipality...

 in Dublin, Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, lying 2–4 km west of the city centre, north of the River Liffey
River Liffey
The Liffey is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. Its major tributaries include the River Dodder, the River Poddle and the River Camac. The river supplies much of Dublin's water, and a range of recreational opportunities.-Name:The river was previously named An Ruirthech,...

. Its 16 km perimeter wall encloses 707 hectares (1,747 acre), one of the largest walled city parks in Europe. It includes large areas of grassland and tree-lined avenues, and since the seventeenth century has been home to a herd of wild Fallow deer
Fallow Deer
The Fallow Deer is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. This common species is native to western Eurasia, but has been introduced widely elsewhere. It often includes the rarer Persian Fallow Deer as a subspecies , while others treat it as an entirely different species The Fallow...

. The English name comes from the Irish fionn uisce meaning "clear water".

History

After the Normans
Normans
The Normans were the people who gave their name to Normandy, a region in northern France. They were descended from Norse Viking conquerors of the territory and the native population of Frankish and Gallo-Roman stock...

 conquered Dublin and its hinterland in the 12th century Hugh Tyrell, 1st Baron of Castleknock
Castleknock
Castleknock is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is in the west of the modern administrative county of Fingal within the traditional county of Dublin. It is located west of the centre of Dublin....

, granted a large area of land, including what now comprises the Phoenix Park, to the Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta , also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's...

. They established an abbey at Kilmainham
Kilmainham
Kilmainham is a suburb of Dublin south of the River Liffey and west of the city centre, in the Dublin 8 postal district.-History:In the Viking era, the monastery was home to the first Norse base in Ireland....

 on the site now occupied by Royal Hospital Kilmainham. The knights lost their lands when Henry VIII
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. He was Lord, and later King, of Ireland, as well as continuing the nominal claim by the English monarchs to the Kingdom of France...

 confiscated monastic properties in 1537 and eighty years later the lands once more reverted to the ownership of the King's representatives in Ireland. On the restoration of Charles II
Charles II of England
Charles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...

, his Viceroy in Dublin, Lord Ormonde
James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde
James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde PC was an Irish statesman and soldier. He was the second of the Kilcash branch of the family to inherit the earldom. He was the friend of Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford, who appointeed him commander of the Cavalier forces in Ireland. From 1641 to 1647, he...

 established a Royal Hunting Park in 1662 which contained pheasants and wild deer, therefore it was necessary to enclose the entire area with a wall. The Park originally included the demesne of Kilmainham Priory south of the River Liffey, but with the building of the Royal Hospital at Kilmainham, which commenced in 1680, the Park was reduced to its present size, all of which is now north of the river. It was opened to the people of Dublin by Lord Chesterfield
Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield
Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield PC KG was a British statesman and man of letters.A Whig, Lord Stanhope, as he was known until his father's death in 1726, was born in London. After being educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he went on the Grand Tour of the continent...

 in 1745.

In 1882, it was the location for two famous murders
Phoenix Park Murders
The Phoenix Park Murders were the fatal stabbings on 6 May 1882 in the Phoenix Park in Dublin of Lord Frederick Cavendish and Thomas Henry Burke. Cavendish was the newly appointed Chief Secretary for Ireland, and Burke was the Permanent Undersecretary, the most senior Irish civil servant...

. The Chief Secretary for Ireland
Chief Secretary for Ireland
The Chief Secretary for Ireland was a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant, from the late 18th century until the end of British rule he was effectively the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland; usually...

 (the British Cabinet minister with responsibility for Irish affairs), Lord Frederick Cavendish
Lord Frederick Cavendish
Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish was an English Liberal politician and protégé of the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone...

, and his Undersecretary
Undersecretary
An under secretary is an executive government official in many countries, frequently a career public servant, who typically acts as a senior administrator or second-in-command to a politically-appointed Cabinet Minister or other government official...

 (chief civil servant), Thomas Henry Burke, were stabbed to death with surgical knives
Scalpel
A scalpel, or lancet, is a small and extremely sharp bladed instrument used for surgery, anatomical dissection, and various arts and crafts . Scalpels may be single-use disposable or re-usable. Re-usable scalpels can have attached, resharpenable blades or, more commonly, non-attached, replaceable...

 while walking from Dublin Castle
Dublin Castle
Dublin Castle off Dame Street, Dublin, Ireland, was until 1922 the fortified seat of British rule in Ireland, and is now a major Irish government complex. Most of it dates from the 18th century, though a castle has stood on the site since the days of King John, the first Lord of Ireland...

. A small insurgent group called the Invincibles
Irish National Invincibles
The Irish National Invincibles, usually known as "The Invincibles" were a radical splinter group of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and leading representatives of the Land League movement, both of Ireland and Britain...

 were responsible.

Features of interest

The Park is split between three civil parishes: Castleknock
Castleknock
Castleknock is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is in the west of the modern administrative county of Fingal within the traditional county of Dublin. It is located west of the centre of Dublin....

 to the north-west, Chapelizod
Chapelizod
Chapelizod is a picturesque Irish village preserved within the city of Dublin, Ireland. It lies in the verdant wooded valley of the River Liffey, on the way to the slopes of the Strawberry Beds, below the Phoenix Park. The village is associated with Iseult of Ireland and the location of Iseault's...

 to the south and St James' to the south. The last named is mainly centred south of the River Liffey
River Liffey
The Liffey is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. Its major tributaries include the River Dodder, the River Poddle and the River Camac. The river supplies much of Dublin's water, and a range of recreational opportunities.-Name:The river was previously named An Ruirthech,...

 around St James' parish church.

Áras an Uachtaráin

The residence of the President of Ireland
President of Ireland
The President of Ireland is the head of state of Ireland. The President is usually directly elected by the people for seven years, and can be elected for a maximum of two terms. The presidency is largely a ceremonial office, but the President does exercise certain limited powers with absolute...

, Áras an Uachtaráin, built in 1754, is located in the park. Originally named the Viceregal Lodge
Viceregal Lodge
Viceregal Lodge may refer to:Residences of the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland:* Áras an Uachtaráin, Dublin * Chapelizod House, County Dublin Residences of the Viceroy of India:* Rashtrapati Niwas, Simla...

 where the Lord Lieutenant
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
The Lord Lieutenant of Ireland was the British King's representative and head of the Irish executive during the Lordship of Ireland , the Kingdom of Ireland and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland...

 lived for most of the intervening years until the creation of the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
The Irish Free State was the state established as a Dominion on 6 December 1922 under the Anglo-Irish Treaty, signed by the British government and Irish representatives exactly twelve months beforehand...

 in 1922.

Dublin Zoo

Dublin Zoo
Dublin Zoo
Dublin Zoo , in Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland is the largest zoo in Ireland and one of Dublin's most popular attractions. Opened in 1831, the zoo describes its role as conservation, study, and education...

 is one of Dublin's main attractions. It houses more than 700 animals and tropical birds from around the world and was founded in 1830 and opened to the public on 1 September 1831, with animals from the London Society
Zoological Society of London
The Zoological Society of London is a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats...

, making it the third oldest zoo in the world. Within a year the zoo housed 123 species.

Papal Cross

The Papal Cross
Papal Cross
The papal cross or ferula is the pastoral staff used by the Pope. This is in contrast to other bishops, who use a crozier.The pastoral staff carried by the popes since Pope Paul VI is a contemporary single-barred cross, designed by the Italian artist Lello Scorzelli and carried in the same manner...

 was erected at the edge of Fifteen Acres for the visit of Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

 on 29 September 1979. Over one million people attended an open air mass in the park at the time. The white cross, which dominates its surroundings, is 35 metres (114.8 ft) high and was built with steel girders. It was installed with some difficulty: after several attempts, the cross was eventually erected just a fortnight before the Pope arrived.

Monuments

The Wellington Monument
Wellington Monument, Dublin
The Wellington Monument is an obelisk located in the Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland.The testimonial is situated at the southeast end of the Park, overlooking Kilmainham and the River Liffey...

 is a 62 metres (203.4 ft) tall obelisk
Obelisk
An obelisk is a tall, four-sided, narrow tapering monument which ends in a pyramid-like shape at the top, and is said to resemble a petrified ray of the sun-disk. A pair of obelisks usually stood in front of a pylon...

 commemorating the victories of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS , was an Irish-born British soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of the 19th century...

. It is the largest obelisk in Europe and would have been even higher if the publicly subscribed funding had not run out. A second notable monument is the "Phoenix Column", a Corinthian
Corinthian order
The Corinthian order is one of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The other two are the Doric and Ionic. When classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, two more orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order...

 column located on Chesterfield Avenue. A contemporary account described it in the following terms:

"About the centre of the park is a fluted column thirty feet high, with a phoenix
Phoenix (mythology)
The phoenix or phenix is a mythical sacred firebird that can be found in the mythologies of the Arabian, Persians, Greeks, Romans, Egyptians, Chinese, Indian and Phoenicians....

 on the capital, which was erected by the Earl of Chesterfield
Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield
Philip Dormer Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield PC KG was a British statesman and man of letters.A Whig, Lord Stanhope, as he was known until his father's death in 1726, was born in London. After being educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, he went on the Grand Tour of the continent...

 during his viceregality." (1747)

Deerfield Residence

The Deerfield Residence
Chief Secretary's Lodge
The Chief Secretary's Lodge known since the 1970s as Deerfield, is the official residence of the United States Ambassador to Ireland. The Lodge is an 18th century building in the centre of the Phoenix Park in Dublin.-History:...

 was the former residence of the Chief Secretary for Ireland
Chief Secretary for Ireland
The Chief Secretary for Ireland was a key political office in the British administration in Ireland. Nominally subordinate to the Lord Lieutenant, from the late 18th century until the end of British rule he was effectively the government minister with responsibility for governing Ireland; usually...

. It has been the official residence of the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Ambassador
United States Ambassador to Ireland
There have been a total of 30 Ambassadors of the United States to Ireland meaning the Republic of Ireland. All except one, Frederick A. Sterling, have been non-career appointees, while there were three under President George W. Bush.-List of Ambassadors:...

 to Ireland since 1927.

Phoenix Park Visitor Centre and Ashtown Castle

The oldest building in the park is Ashtown Castle
Ashtown Castle
Ashtown Castle is a fortified house in the Phoenix Park in Dublin.It was found hidden within the walls of a much larger and more recent building that was being used by the Papal Nuncio until 1978. At that time, the more recent and larger building was deemed structurally irreparable due to dry rot....

, a restored medieval tower house dating from the 15th century. Restoration began in 1989 and it is located beside the Visitor Centre which houses interpretive displays on the 5,500 years of park and area history.

People's Gardens

The Gardens, located close to the Parkgate Street entrance, comprise an area of 9 hectares (22.2 acre), and were re-opened in 1864. These gardens were initially established in 1840 as the Promenade Grounds. They display Victorian horticulture, including ornamental lakes, children's playground, picnic area and bedding schemes. A statue is in the gardens dedicated to executed Easter Rising
Easter Rising
The Easter Rising was an insurrection staged in Ireland during Easter Week, 1916. The Rising was mounted by Irish republicans with the aims of ending British rule in Ireland and establishing the Irish Republic at a time when the British Empire was heavily engaged in the First World War...

 leader Seán Heuston
Sean Heuston
Seán Heuston, , born Jack Heuston, and sometimes referred to as J. J. Heuston, was an Irish rebel and member of Fianna Éireann who took part in the Easter Rising of 1916. With about 20 Volunteers, he held the Mendicity Institution on the River Liffey for over two days, though it was originally only...

. There is a plaque in honour of the Irish sculptor Jerome Connor
Jerome Connor
Jerome Connor was an Irish sculptor.-Life:...

 on Infirmary Road, overlooking the Garden's which he frequently visited. The opening hours are 8am till dusk. Closing times vary during the year.

Magazine Fort

The Magazine Fort in the south east of the Park marks the location where Phoenix Lodge was built by Sir Edward Fisher in 1611. In 1734 the house was knocked down when the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset
Lionel Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset
Lionel Cranfield Sackville, 1st Duke of Dorset, PC was an English political leader and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. He was the son of the 6th Earl of Dorset and 1st Earl of Middlesex and the former Lady Mary Compton, younger daughter of the 3rd Earl of Northampton...

 directed that a powder magazine be provided for Dublin. An additional wing was added to the fort in 1801 for troops. It was the scene of the Christmas Raid
Christmas Raid
The term Christmas Raid is a name used within the folklore of the Irish Republican Army to describe a raid in the Republic of Ireland against the Irish Army, and the theft of a huge quantity of weapons and munitions from an Irish Army ammunition Magazine Fort storage depot in Dublin's Phoenix...

 in 1939.

The magazine fort has been satirically immortalised in a jingle by Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift
Jonathan Swift was an Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer , poet and cleric who became Dean of St...

 who wrote:

"Now's here's a proof of Irish sense,

Here Irish wit is seen,

When nothing's left that's worth defence,

We build a Magazine."

Other places of interest

  • In the south-western corner of the park is an area known as the Furry Glen which has a series of short walks centred around a small lake with birds, plants and wildlife.
  • The State Guest House, Farmleigh
    Farmleigh
    Farmleigh is the official Irish State guest house. It was formerly one of the Dublin residences of the Guinness family. It is situated on an elevated position above the River Liffey to the north-west of the Phoenix Park...

    , adjoins the park to the north-west.
  • The headquarters of the Irish national police force, the Garda Síochána
    Garda Síochána
    , more commonly referred to as the Gardaí , is the police force of Ireland. The service is headed by the Commissioner who is appointed by the Irish Government. Its headquarters are located in the Phoenix Park in Dublin.- Terminology :...

    , are located in the park.
  • The National Ambulance Service College
    National Ambulance Service College
    The National Ambulance Service College is a state-recognised educational institution of Ireland. It was first established in 1986 as the National Ambulance Training School and is based at St. Mary's Hospital in the Phoenix Park, Dublin with a second campus based in Ballinasloe, Co. Galway known as...

     is located at Saint Mary's Hospital on the Chapelizod side of the park.
  • Ordnance Survey Ireland
    Ordnance Survey Ireland
    Ordnance Survey Ireland is the national mapping agency of the Republic of Ireland and, together with the Ordnance Survey of Northern Ireland , succeeded, after 1922, the Irish operations of the United Kingdom Ordnance Survey. It is part of the Public service of the Republic of Ireland...

     is located in Mountjoy House near the Castleknock
    Castleknock
    Castleknock is a suburb of Dublin, Ireland. It is in the west of the modern administrative county of Fingal within the traditional county of Dublin. It is located west of the centre of Dublin....

     Gate. The house was built in 1728 and was originally known as Mountjoy Barracks as it quartered the mounted escort of the Lord Lieutenant who resided in the Vice-Regal Lodge (now Aras an Uachtarain).
  • Adjoining the park to the south east is the Irish Defence Forces
    Irish Defence Forces
    The armed forces of Ireland, known as the Defence Forces encompass the Army, Naval Service, Air Corps and Reserve Defence Force.The current Supreme Commander of the Irish Defence forces is His Excellency Michael D Higgins in his role as President of Ireland...

    ' Dick McKee
    Dick McKee
    Richard “Dick” McKee was a prominent member of the Irish Republican Army . He was also friend to some senior members in the republican movement, including Éamon de Valera, Austin Stack and Michael Collins...

     Barracks. Built in 1888 as Marlborough Barracks it once housed 822 military horses and still has an Equitation
    Equitation
    Equitation is the art or practice of horse riding or horsemanship.More specifically, equitation may refer to a rider's position while mounted, and encompass a rider's ability to ride correctly and with effective aids. In horse show competition, the rider, rather than the horse is evaluated...

     School.
  • Ratra House at the back of the Aras, was the home of Civil Defence Ireland since the organisation was established in 1950 until 2006 when the Head Quarters was decentralised to Roscrea, Co. Tipperary. Named Ratra House by the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde
    Douglas Hyde
    Douglas Hyde , known as An Craoibhín Aoibhinn , was an Irish scholar of the Irish language who served as the first President of Ireland from 1938 to 1945...

     who retired to the house in 1945 from his Presidency. He named it after his native Ratra Park in Frenchpark, Co. Roscommon where he had done much of his writing. Built in 1876, Winston Churchill
    Winston Churchill
    Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

     lived there from age two to six.
  • Grangegorman Military Cemetery
    Grangegorman Military Cemetery
    Grangegorman Military Cemetery is a British military cemetery in Dublin, Ireland.It is located on Blackhorse Avenue, off the Navan Road and beside the Phoenix Park.-History and Background:...

     lies just outside the walls of the Park on Blackhorse Avenue.
  • The park also contains several sports grounds for football
    Gaelic football
    Gaelic football , commonly referred to as "football" or "Gaelic", or "Gah" is a form of football played mainly in Ireland...

    , hurling
    Hurling
    Hurling is an outdoor team game of ancient Gaelic origin, administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association, and played with sticks called hurleys and a ball called a sliotar. Hurling is the national game of Ireland. The game has prehistoric origins, has been played for at least 3,000 years, and...

    , soccer, cricket
    Cricket
    Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on an oval-shaped field, at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. One team bats, trying to score as many runs as possible while the other team bowls and fields, trying to dismiss the batsmen and thus limit the...

     and polo
    Polo
    Polo is a team sport played on horseback in which the objective is to score goals against an opposing team. Sometimes called, "The Sport of Kings", it was highly popularized by the British. Players score by driving a small white plastic or wooden ball into the opposing team's goal using a...

    .
  • Bohemians Foootball Club was founded in the Gate Lodge beside the North Circular Road entrance in 1890. The club played its first games in the Park's Polo Grounds.
  • At Conyngham Road, near the South Circular Road junction, the regular wall takes on an unusual arch shape before levelling out again this marks the point where the Liffey Bridge
    Liffey Bridge (Phoenix Park Tunnel)
    The Liffey Railway Bridge is a rail bridge spanning the River Liffey near Dublin Heuston railway station in Dublin, Ireland.The bridge is a wrought iron box truss structure, and joins lines from Heuston Station to Connolly Station through the Phoenix Park tunnel.It is used regularly for freight...

     enters the Park via a rail tunnel that continues on beneath the Wellington monument. It is used regularly for freight traffic, and by certain limited special passenger services on match days to carry GAA
    Gaelic Athletic Association
    The Gaelic Athletic Association is an amateur Irish and international cultural and sporting organisation focused primarily on promoting Gaelic games, which include the traditional Irish sports of hurling, camogie, Gaelic football, handball and rounders...

     fans from southern lines to Connolly Station
    Dublin Connolly railway station
    Dublin Connolly, commonly called Connolly station , is one of the main railway stations in Dublin, Ireland, and is a focal point in the Irish route network. Opened in 1844 as Amiens Street Station, the ornate facade has a distinctive Italianate tower at its centre...

     for Croke Park
    Croke Park
    Croke Park in Dublin is the principal stadium and headquarters of the Gaelic Athletic Association , Ireland's biggest sporting organisation...

    .


Environment

There are 351 plant species in the park; three of these are rare and protected. The park has retained almost all of its old grasslands and woodlands and also has rare examples of wetlands. Deer were introduced into the park in the 1660s; the current 400–450 fallow deer descend from the original herd. 30% of the park is covered by trees, mainly broadleaf.

A Birdwatch survey in 2007–08 found 72 species of bird including buzzard, sparrowhawk, kestrel and jay.

The park also holds several streams, tributaries of the River Liffey
River Liffey
The Liffey is a river in Ireland, which flows through the centre of Dublin. Its major tributaries include the River Dodder, the River Poddle and the River Camac. The river supplies much of Dublin's water, and a range of recreational opportunities.-Name:The river was previously named An Ruirthech,...

.

In July and August 2006, the then Minister for Health, Mary Harney
Mary Harney
Mary Harney is a former Irish politician. She served as Tánaiste from 1997–2006, Minister for Enterprise, Trade and Employment from 1997–2004, and as Minister for Health and Children from 2004 to 2011...

, issued three orders exempting two new community nursing units, to be built at St. Mary's Hospital in the Park, from the usual legally required planning permission, despite the Phoenix Park being a designated and protected national monument. The Department of Health said the decision was made because of what it called the department's "emergency response to the accident and emergency crisis at the time", although the nursing units, in use since 2008, are mainly for geriatric care.

In a 2009 Conservative Management Plan for the Park, the Office of Public Works
Office of Public Works
The Office of Public Works is a State Agency of the Department of Finance in the Republic of Ireland...

 (a Department of Finance
Department of Finance (Ireland)
The Department of Finance is a department of the Government of Ireland. It is led by the Minister for Finance and is assisted by one Minister of State....

 agency) commented, "...the erection, without the necessity of resorting to normal planning procedures, of two major developments in St. Mary's Hospital illustrates the vulnerability of The Phoenix Park to internal development, which impacts significantly on the essential character of the Park and its unique value as a historic designed landscape." In a section entitled Pressures and Threats on the Park, subsection Planning Issues, the document expressed concern that, "Without appropriate planning designation, there is a risk that development can take place which is not in line with the co-ordinated vision of this Plan." The document warned of similar risks to the integrity of the Park such as "uncoordinated building and construction...and the current condition of certain historic buildings such as the Magazine Fort, the farm buildings below St. Mary's Hospital and Mountjoy House in the Ordnance Survey Complex."

Motor racing

Motor racing first took place in the Phoenix Park in 1903 when the Irish Gordon Bennett Race Speed Trials were held on the main straight for both cars and motorcycle
Motorcycle
A motorcycle is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycles vary considerably depending on the task for which they are designed, such as long distance travel, navigating congested urban traffic, cruising, sport and racing, or off-road conditions.Motorcycles are one of the most...

s. This was followed in 1929 by the Irish International Grand Prix; the first of three Irish motor racing grands prix. Racing took place between 1932 until the beginning of World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 in 1939 and was revived again in 1949 with a sprint on the Oldtown circuit followed the next year by a full racing meeting again and has been used virtually continuously until today. Over the years seven different circuits have been used, two of which are named after the famous Ferrari
Ferrari
Ferrari S.p.A. is an Italian sports car manufacturer based in Maranello, Italy. Founded by Enzo Ferrari in 1929, as Scuderia Ferrari, the company sponsored drivers and manufactured race cars before moving into production of street-legal vehicles as Ferrari S.p.A. in 1947...

 World Champion racing driver Mike Hawthorn
Mike Hawthorn
John Michael Hawthorn was a racing driver, born in Mexborough, Yorkshire, England, and educated at Ardingly College, West Sussex.-Racing career:...

.

Irish International Grand Prix winners

Season Date Race Name Location Winning Driver Chassis Engine
1929 12 July I Irish Grand Prix (Saorstát Cup) Phoenix Park   Boris Ivanowski
Boris Ivanowski
Boris Ivanovsky was an officer of the Russian Imperial Guard who went into exile after the Russian revolution and made his way to fame in the 1920s as a racecar driver...

 
Alfa Romeo 6C
Alfa Romeo 6C
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road, race and sports cars made between 1925–1954 by Alfa Romeo. 6C refers to a straight 6 engine. Bodies for these cars were made by coachbuilders such as James Young, Zagato, Touring, Castagna, and Pininfarina...

 
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910, in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars...

1929 13 July I Irish Grand Prix (Éireann Cup) Phoenix Park   Boris Ivanowski
Boris Ivanowski
Boris Ivanovsky was an officer of the Russian Imperial Guard who went into exile after the Russian revolution and made his way to fame in the 1920s as a racecar driver...

 
Alfa Romeo 6C
Alfa Romeo 6C
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road, race and sports cars made between 1925–1954 by Alfa Romeo. 6C refers to a straight 6 engine. Bodies for these cars were made by coachbuilders such as James Young, Zagato, Touring, Castagna, and Pininfarina...

 
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is an Italian manufacturer of cars. Founded as A.L.F.A. on June 24, 1910, in Milan, the company has been involved in car racing since 1911, and has a reputation for building expensive sports cars...

1930 18 July II Irish Grand Prix (Saorstát Cup) Phoenix Park Victor Gillow Riley 9 Brooklands
1930 19 July II Irish Grand Prix (Éireann Cup) Phoenix Park   Rudolf Caracciola
Rudolf Caracciola
Otto Wilhelm Rudolf Caracciola , more commonly Rudolf Caracciola , was a racing driver from Remagen, Germany. He won the European Drivers' Championship, the pre-1950 equivalent of the modern Formula One World Championship, an unsurpassed three times...

 
Mercedes SSK  Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...


Great Ireland Run

The Great Ireland Run
Great Ireland Run
The Great Ireland Run is an annual 10-kilometre road running competition which is held in Phoenix Park, Dublin, Ireland in mid-April. It is part of the Great Run series of athletics competitions and it also holds IAAF Bronze Label Road Race status...

, a 10 km running competition, has been held annually each April in Phoenix Park since 2003. It includes races for professional runners and the public and the 2010 edition attracted over 11,000 participants. Athletes such as Sonia O'Sullivan
Sonia O'Sullivan
Sonia O'Sullivan in Cobh, County Cork. She began her running career in Ballymore Running Club which is located in the eastern side of Cobh Town. She was one of the world's leading female 5000 m runners for most of the 1990s and early first decade of the 21st century...

 and Catherina McKiernan
Catherina McKiernan
Catherina McKiernan is a former long-distance runner from Ireland, who competed in the marathon, 10,000 metres and cross country....

 are among the race's past winners.

Concerts

Music concerts have been performed in the park by such acts as U2
U2
U2 are an Irish rock band from Dublin. Formed in 1976, the group consists of Bono , The Edge , Adam Clayton , and Larry Mullen, Jr. . U2's early sound was rooted in post-punk but eventually grew to incorporate influences from many genres of popular music...

, Coldplay
Coldplay
Coldplay are a British alternative rock band formed in 1996 by lead vocalist Chris Martin and lead guitarist Jonny Buckland at University College London. After they formed Pectoralz, Guy Berryman joined the group as a bassist and they changed their name to Starfish. Will Champion joined as a...

, Duran Duran
Duran Duran
Duran Duran are an English band, formed in Birmingham in 1978. They were one of the most successful bands of the 1980s and a leading band in the MTV-driven "Second British Invasion" of the United States...

, Robbie Williams
Robbie Williams
Robert Peter "Robbie" Williams is an English singer-songwriter, vocal coach and occasional actor. He is a member of the pop group Take That. Williams rose to fame in the band's first run in the early- to mid-1990s. After many disagreements with the management and certain group members, Williams...

, Red Hot Chili Peppers
Red Hot Chili Peppers
Red Hot Chili Peppers is an American rock band, formed in Los Angeles in 1983. The group's musical style primarily consists of rock with an emphasis on funk, as well as elements from other genres such as punk, hip hop and psychedelic rock...

, Ian Brown
Ian Brown
Ian George Brown is an English musician, best known as the lead singer of the alternative rock band The Stone Roses, which broke up in 1996 but are confirmed to reunite in 2012. Since the break-up of the Stone Roses he has pursued a solo career...

, Justice
Justice (French band)
Justice is a French electronic music duo consisting of Gaspard Augé and Xavier de Rosnay . The duo is one of the most successful groups on Ed Banger Records and is managed by the label's head, Pedro Winter...

, Kanye West
Kanye West
Kanye Omari West is an American rapper, singer, and record producer. West first rose to fame as a producer for Roc-A-Fella Records, where he eventually achieved recognition for his work on Jay-Z's album The Blueprint, as well as hit singles for musical artists including Alicia Keys, Ludacris, and...

, Arcade Fire and Tom Waits
Tom Waits
Thomas Alan "Tom" Waits is an American singer-songwriter, composer, and actor. Waits has a distinctive voice, described by critic Daniel Durchholz as sounding "like it was soaked in a vat of bourbon, left hanging in the smokehouse for a few months, and then taken outside and run over with a car."...

.

Phoenix Cricket Club

Phoenix Cricket Club
Phoenix Cricket Club
Phoenix Cricket Club is a Dublin-based club that currently fields five men's teams, one women's team, 8 schoolboy teams and a Tavern team.-History:...

, the oldest cricket club in Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, founded in 1830, by John Parnell, the father of Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell
Charles Stewart Parnell was an Irish landowner, nationalist political leader, land reform agitator, and the founder and leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party...

 is located in the park. During the 1930s, 1940s and 1970s, it was the dominant club in Leinster
Leinster
Leinster is one of the Provinces of Ireland situated in the east of Ireland. It comprises the ancient Kingdoms of Mide, Osraige and Leinster. Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the historic fifths of Leinster and Mide gradually merged, mainly due to the impact of the Pale, which straddled...

 cricket.

Popular culture

The park is featured prominently in James Joyce
James Joyce
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist and poet, considered to be one of the most influential writers in the modernist avant-garde of the early 20th century...

's novel, Finnegans Wake
Finnegans Wake
Finnegans Wake is a novel by Irish author James Joyce, significant for its experimental style and resulting reputation as one of the most difficult works of fiction in the English language. Written in Paris over a period of seventeen years, and published in 1939, two years before the author's...

,
and tangentially in Ulysses
Ulysses (novel)
Ulysses is a novel by the Irish author James Joyce. It was first serialised in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on 2 February 1922, in Paris. One of the most important works of Modernist literature,...

. It is occasionally used for open-air concert
Concert
A concert is a live performance before an audience. The performance may be by a single musician, sometimes then called a recital, or by a musical ensemble, such as an orchestra, a choir, or a musical band...

s and the annual Phoenix Park Motor Races.

In general, Dublin postal districts on the Northside are odd numbers, while Southside codes are even. One exception is the Phoenix Park, which is on the Northside but forms part of an even-numbered district (Dublin 8).

See also

  • Gardens in the Republic of Ireland
    Gardens in the Republic of Ireland
    List of gardens in the Republic of Ireland open to the public:*Avondale House, *Altamont Gardens, *Bay Garden, *Belvedere House and Gardens, *Birr Castle, *Butterstream, now closed indefinitely *Camas Park*Coolaught Gardens, *Dillon Garden, *Derreen,...

  • Phoenix Park Racecourse
    Phoenix Park Racecourse
    Phoenix Park Racecourse is a former horse racing venue in Ireland. It was located in the north-west corner of Dublin on the northern edge of Phoenix Park. The course was founded by J. H. H. Peard, and racing began there in 1902....


Further reading


External links

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