Perm Governorate
Perm Governorate - an administrative unit of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 and the USSR in 1781-1923 years. Located on both slopes of the Ural Mountains
Ural Mountains
The Ural Mountains , or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan. Their eastern side is usually considered the natural boundary between Europe and Asia...

. The administrative center of the province was the city Perm
Perm is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River, in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains. From 1940 to 1957 it was named Molotov ....



November 20 (December 1) 1780 Catherine II signed a decree establishing the governorship of Perm in the two regions - Perm and Yekaterinburg, and the establishment of the provincial city of Perm. The first Governor-General of Perm and Tobol regions was appointed Lieutenant-General Yevgeny Petrovich Kashkin. In accordance with the decree of Emperor Paul I of December 12, 1796 "A new division of the state in the province," Perm and Tobolsk governor-generalship was divided in Perm and Tobolsk

Governorates. July 15, 1919 from the Perm province has been allocated Yekaterinburg Governorate, consisting of 6 uyezds, located in the east, beyond the Urals. November 4, 1920 its membership was included Sarapulsky Uyezd of Vyatka Governorate
Vyatka Governorate
Vyatka Governorate was a governorate of Russian Empire and USSR, with its capital in city Vyatka . Existed since 1796 to 1929...

. November 3, 1923 Perm province was abolished and its territory was included in the Ural Oblast
Ural Oblast
Ural Oblast was oblast of RSFSR, USSR. It existed since 1923 to 1934, was created November 3, 1923 by association of Perm, Yekaterinburg, Chelyabinsk and Tyumen Governorates. Oblast’s centre was city Yekaterinburg...

 with its center in Yekaterinburg.


Perm Governorate was bordered with Vologda Governorate
Vologda Governorate
The Vologda Governorate or Government of Vologda was a guberniya in the historical northern region of the European part of Russian Empire.In its size it was second right after the neighboring Archangelgorod Governorate...

 (to the north), Tobolsk Governorate (to the east), Orenburg
Orenburg Governorate
Orenburg Governorate was an administrative division of the Russian Empire with the center in the city of Orenburg.The governorate was created in 1744 from the lands annexed from Siberian and Astrakhan Governorates...

 and Ufa
Ufa Governorate
Ufa Governorate was a governorate of Russian Empire with its capital in city Ufa. Was created in 1865 by separation from Orenburg Governorate. March 23, 1919 the governorate was transformed to Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic...

 governorates (to the south) and Vyatka Governorate (to the west).
Governorate’s area was 332,052 km², 181,000 of them – in Europe and 151,000 – in Asia. Ural mountains, that crossed governorate from north to south for 640 km was a border between European and Asian parts. Highest point of governorate was Konzhakovsky Kamen (1565 m). European part of Perm governorate situated in basin of Kama River
Kama River
Kama is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; in fact, it is larger than the Volga before junction....

, Asian part – in basin of Tobol River
Tobol River
Tobol is a river in Kurgan and Tyumen Oblasts in Russia and Kazakhstan, left tributary of the Irtysh. The length of the Tobol River is 1591 km. The area of its drainage basin is 426,000 km². Average discharge at mouth is 805 m³/s. The lower reaches of the river freeze up in late October -...

. Drainage basin of Pechora River
Pechora River
The Pechora River is a river in northwest Russia which flows north into the Arctic Ocean on the west side of the Ural Mountains. It lies mostly in the Komi Republic but the northernmost part crosses the Nenets Autonomous Okrug. It is 1,809 km long and its basin is 322,000 square kilometers...

 occupied extreme north of Cherdynsky Uyezd.

Administrative division

Perm Governorate was divided into 12 uyezds.

European part:
  • Permsky Uyezd
    Permsky Uyezd
    Permsky Uyezd was an administrative unit of Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. Existed before 1923, center of uyezd and of governorate was city Perm.- Geography :...

  • Krasnoufimsky Uyezd
    Krasnoufimsky Uyezd
    Krasnoufimsky Uyezd was an uyezd of Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. It existed since 1781 to 1923, capital was city of Krasnoufimsk.- Geography :...

  • Kungursky Uyezd
    Kungursky Uyezd
    Kungursky Uyezd was an administrative unit of Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. It existed since 1781 to 1921, its capital was city of Kungur.- Geography :It was situated in south of central part of governorate, to the west of Ural Mountainous....

  • Osinsky Uyezd
    Osinsky Uyezd
    Osinsky Uyezd was an administrative unit of Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. It existed since 1781 to 1923. Center was city Osa.It was located in southwestern part of Perm Governorate, its area was 19,246 km². East and north of uyezd are mostly hilly. Kama River formed western border of...

  • Okhansky Uyezd
    Okhansky Uyezd
    Okhansky uyezd was an uyezd of Perm Governorate. The uyezd, which existed before 1923, had its administrative center at the city of Okhansk.It was located in southwestern part of Perm Governorate, with an area of 14,280.17 km²...

  • Solikamsky Uyezd
    Solikamsky Uyezd
    Solikamsky Uyezd was an uyezd of Perm Governorate, existed since 1781 to 1923. Administrative center was city Solikamsk.- Geography :It was located in European part of governorate, uyezd’s area was 29,334.3 km². Kama River was crossed uyezd from north to south, dividing it into two almost...

  • Cherdynsky Uyezd
    Cherdynsky Uyezd
    Cherdynsky Uyezd – a former administrative unit of Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. It existed before 1923, administrative center was city Cherdyn.- Geography :It was located in northwest part of Governorate, its area was 70,790 km²...

Asian part:
  • Verkhotursky Uyezd
    Verkhotursky Uyezd
    Verkhotursky uyezd was an uyezd of Perm Governorate, Russian Empire. It existed before 1923. Administrative center was town of Verkhoturye.District’s area was 60,117 km². It was situated in northeast part of governorate, to the east of Ural Mountains. Region’s economy was based mostly on...

  • Yekaterinburgsky Uyezd
  • Irbitsky Uyezd
  • Kamyshlovsky Uyezd
  • Shadrinsky Uyezd.


In early 19th century population of governorate was approx. 940,000. According 1896 data population of region was 2,968,472 (1 433 231 of them are male and 1 535 211 are female). According 1897 Census population was 2,994,302.

Major cities was:
  • Perm – 45,205
  • Yekaterinburg – 43,239
  • Irbit
    Irbit is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located from Yekaterinburg by train or by car on the right bank of the Nitsa River. It is crossed by long distance railway Yekaterinburg–Tavda–Ustye-Akha and by road traffic routes, directed to Kamyshlov, Artyomovsk, Turinsk, and Tyumen. Total area...

     – 20,062

According 1897 Census, for 90.3% of governorate’s population used Russian as their native language, 3.1% used Komi-permyak language, 2.9% – Bashkir language
Bashkir language
The Bashkir language is a Turkic language, and is the language of the Bashkirs. It is co-official with Russian in the Republic of Bashkortostan.-Speakers:...

, 1.6% – Tatar language
Tatar language
The Tatar language , or more specifically Kazan Tatar, is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars of historical Kazan Khanate, including modern Tatarstan and Bashkiria...

. Most of population was Orthodox Christians with Old Believers (7.29%) and Muslim (5.06%) minorities.


Economy of governorate was based on industry, however in some parts of region prevailed agriculture sector. Arable lands was 33,000 km² (approx. 9.53% of total area). Main crops were: rye, oat and barley. Wheat was cultivated mostly in southern areas. Livestock breeding was well developed in Shadrinsky Uyezd, among Bashkir people.
Despite of plenty of rivers, fishing was developed only in Cherdynsky Uyezd. Commercial hunting was also only in the north of region, in Cherdynsky Uyezd.

Industry was based by mining, main minerals included copper, iron ore, gold, coal and salt.
Most of mining and metallurgical plants was situated in central part of Ural Mountains.
Perm Governorate was well connected by railroads with other regions of Russian Empire. Main rivers also had great transport significance.
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