Pensacola, Florida
Overview
 
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle
Florida Panhandle
The Florida Panhandle, an informal, unofficial term for the northwestern part of Florida, is a strip of land roughly 200 miles long and 50 to 100 miles wide , lying between Alabama on the north and the west, Georgia also on the north, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Its eastern boundary is...

 and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Escambia County
Escambia County, Florida
Escambia County is the westernmost county in the U.S. state of Florida. The 2010 population was 297,619. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 296,772. Its county seat is Pensacola.- History :...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, United States of America. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 56,255 and as of 2009, the estimated population was 53,752. Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola – Ferry Pass – Brent Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with about 455,102 residents in 2009.

Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay
Pensacola Bay
Pensacola Bay is a bay located in the northwestern part of Florida, United States, known as the Florida Panhandle.The bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, is located in Escambia County and Santa Rosa County, adjacent to the city of Pensacola, Florida, and is about 13 miles long and 2.5 miles ...

, which connects to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

.
Encyclopedia
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle
Florida Panhandle
The Florida Panhandle, an informal, unofficial term for the northwestern part of Florida, is a strip of land roughly 200 miles long and 50 to 100 miles wide , lying between Alabama on the north and the west, Georgia also on the north, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Its eastern boundary is...

 and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Escambia County
Escambia County, Florida
Escambia County is the westernmost county in the U.S. state of Florida. The 2010 population was 297,619. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 296,772. Its county seat is Pensacola.- History :...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, United States of America. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 56,255 and as of 2009, the estimated population was 53,752. Pensacola is the principal city of the Pensacola – Ferry Pass – Brent Metropolitan Statistical Area, an area with about 455,102 residents in 2009.

Pensacola is a sea port on Pensacola Bay
Pensacola Bay
Pensacola Bay is a bay located in the northwestern part of Florida, United States, known as the Florida Panhandle.The bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, is located in Escambia County and Santa Rosa County, adjacent to the city of Pensacola, Florida, and is about 13 miles long and 2.5 miles ...

, which connects to the Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

. A large United States Naval Air Station
Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola , "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits...

, the first in the United States, is located southwest of Pensacola (near the community of Warrington
Warrington, Florida
Warrington is a census-designated place in Escambia County, Florida, United States, and was once the westernmost incorporated town in Florida. Warrington is located between downtown Pensacola, Florida, and the state line with Alabama; it is six miles away from both.The population was 15,207 at...

) and is home to the Blue Angels
Blue Angels
The United States Navy's Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, popularly known as the Blue Angels, was formed in 1946 and is currently the oldest formal flying aerobatic team...

 flight demonstration team and the National Naval Aviation Museum. The main campus of the University of West Florida
University of West Florida
The University of West Florida, also known as West Florida and UWF, is a mid-sized public university located in Pensacola, Florida, United States. UWF is a member institution of the State University System of Florida. The University of West Florida is a Research University, which specializes in...

 is situated north of the city center.

Pensacola is nicknamed "The City of Five Flags" due to the five governments that have flown flags over it during its history: the flags of Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 (Castile
Crown of Castile
The Crown of Castile was a medieval and modern state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then King Ferdinand III of Castile to the vacant Leonese throne...

), France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

, the Confederate States of America
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

, and the United States. Other nicknames include "World's Whitest Beaches" (due to the white sand prevalent along beaches in the Florida panhandle), "Cradle of Naval Aviation" (Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola , "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits...

 is the home of both the legendary Blue Angels
Blue Angels
The United States Navy's Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, popularly known as the Blue Angels, was formed in 1946 and is currently the oldest formal flying aerobatic team...

 and the National Museum of Naval Aviation
National Museum of Naval Aviation
The National Museum of Naval Aviation is a military and aerospace museum located at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. The museum opened in 1962....

), "Western Gate to the Sunshine State", "America's First Settlement", "Emerald Coast
Emerald Coast
The Emerald Coast is an area in the US state of Florida on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico which stretches about 100 miles through four counties, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, and Bay, from Gulf Breeze on the east side of Pensacola Bay to Panama City on the east side of the St...

", "Redneck Riviera", "Red Snapper Capital of the World", and "P-Cola"

History


The original inhabitants of the Pensacola Bay
Pensacola Bay
Pensacola Bay is a bay located in the northwestern part of Florida, United States, known as the Florida Panhandle.The bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, is located in Escambia County and Santa Rosa County, adjacent to the city of Pensacola, Florida, and is about 13 miles long and 2.5 miles ...

 area were Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 peoples. At the time of European contact a Muskogean-speaking tribe known to the Spanish as the Pensacola
Pensacola people
The Pensacola were a Native American people who lived in the western part of what is now the Florida Panhandle from the time of first contact with Europeans until early in the 18th century. They spoke a Muskogean language. They are the source of the name of Pensacola Bay and the city of Pensacola...

 lived in the region. This name is not recorded until 1677, but the tribe appear to be the source of the name "Pensacola" for the bay and thence the city. The area's recorded history begins in the 16th century, when the first European explorers
European colonization of the Americas
The start of the European colonization of the Americas is typically dated to 1492. The first Europeans to reach the Americas were the Vikings during the 11th century, who established several colonies in Greenland and one short-lived settlement in present day Newfoundland...

 arrived. Pensacola Bay was visited by the expeditions of Pánfilo de Narváez
Pánfilo de Narváez
Pánfilo de Narváez was a Spanish conqueror and soldier in the Americas. He is most remembered as the leader of two expeditions, one to Mexico in 1520 to oppose Hernán Cortés, and the disastrous Narváez expedition to Florida in 1527....

 in 1528 and Hernando de Soto in 1539, at which time it was known as the Bay of Ochuse.

In 1559 Tristán de Luna y Arellano
Tristán de Luna y Arellano
Tristán de Luna y Arellano was a Spanish Conquistador of the 16th century. Born in Borobia, Spain, he came to New Spain in about 1530, and was sent on an expedition to conquer Florida in 1559...

 landed with over 1,400 people on 11 ships from VeraCruz
Veracruz, Veracruz
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located in the central part of the state. It is located along Federal Highway 140 from the state capital Xalapa, and is the state's most...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. A notable early attempt to settle in Florida, the purpose of the expedition was to establish an outpost, called by de Luna Ochuse, from which to launch further efforts to colonize Santa Elena
Santa Elena, la Florida
Santa Elena was a Spanish settlement founded by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés on what is now Parris Island, South Carolina. There had been a number of earlier attempts to establish colonies in the area by both the Spanish and the French, who had been inspired by earlier accounts of the plentiful land...

 (present-day Parris Island, South Carolina
Parris Island, South Carolina
Parris Island is a former census-designated place , currently a portion of Port Royal in Beaufort County, South Carolina, United States. The population was 4,841 at the 2000 census. As defined by the U.S. Census Bureau, Parris Island is included within the Beaufort Urban Cluster and the larger...

.) However, the colony was decimated by a hurricane on September 19, 1559, which killed hundreds, sank five ships, grounded a caravel
Caravel
A caravel is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean. The lateen sails gave her speed and the capacity for sailing to windward...

, and ruined supplies. The 1,000 survivors divided to relocate/resupply the settlement, but due to famine and attacks, the effort was abandoned in 1561. About 240 people sailed to Santa Elena, but another storm hit there, so they sailed to Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

 and scattered. The remaining 50 at Pensacola were taken back to Mexico, and the Viceroy's advisers concluded northwest Florida was too dangerous to settle, a view which stood for 135 years.

In the late 17th century, however, the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 began exploring the lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
The Mississippi River is the largest river system in North America. Flowing entirely in the United States, this river rises in western Minnesota and meanders slowly southwards for to the Mississippi River Delta at the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains...

 with the intention of colonizing the region as part of Louisiana
Louisiana (New France)
Louisiana or French Louisiana was an administrative district of New France. Under French control from 1682–1763 and 1800–03, the area was named in honor of Louis XIV, by French explorer René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle...

. Fearful that these overtures would threaten Spanish territory in both Florida and Mexico, the Spanish determined to found a new settlement to check the French. In 1698 they finally established a fortified town near what is now Fort Barrancas
Fort Barrancas
Fort Barrancas or Fort San Carlos de Barrancas is a historic United States military fort in the Warrington area of Pensacola, Florida, located physically on Naval Air Station Pensacola....

, laying the foundation for the modern city of Pensacola. The Spanish built three presidios in Pensacola:
  • Presidio Santa Maria de Galve
    Presidio Santa Maria de Galve
    The Presidio Santa Maria de Galve, founded in 1696 by Spanish colonists, was in the area of Fort Barrancas at Naval Air Station Pensacola in northwest Florida, USA....

    (1698–1719): the presidio included fort San Carlos de Austria (east of present Fort Barrancas
    Fort Barrancas
    Fort Barrancas or Fort San Carlos de Barrancas is a historic United States military fort in the Warrington area of Pensacola, Florida, located physically on Naval Air Station Pensacola....

    ) and a village with church;
  • Presidio Isla de Santa Rosa (1722–1752): this next presidio was on Santa Rosa Island
    Santa Rosa Island, Florida
    Santa Rosa Island[p] is a 40-mile barrier island located in the U.S. state of Florida, thirty miles east of the Alabama state border...

     near the site of present Fort Pickens
    Fort Pickens
    Fort Pickens is a pentagonal historic United States military fort on Santa Rosa Island in the Pensacola, Florida, area. It is named after American Revolutionary War hero Andrew Pickens. The fort was completed in 1834 and remained in use until 1947...

    , but hurricanes battered the island in 1741 and 1752, and the presidio was closed and moved to the mainland;
  • Presidio San Miguel de Panzacola (1754–1763): the final presidio was about five miles east of the first presidio, over in the present-day historic district of downtown Pensacola, named from "Panzacola".


The Spanish ceded Florida to the British in 1763 as a result of the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
The French and Indian War is the common American name for the war between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to 1763. In 1756, the war erupted into the world-wide conflict known as the Seven Years' War and thus came to be regarded as the North American theater of that war...

, and Pensacola was made capital of the new British colony of West Florida
West Florida
West Florida was a region on the north shore of the Gulf of Mexico, which underwent several boundary and sovereignty changes during its history. West Florida was first established in 1763 by the British government; as its name suggests it largely consisted of the western portion of the region...

. From 1763, the British went back to the mainland area of fort San Carlos de Barrancas, building the Royal Navy Redoubt. After Spain joined the American Revolution
American Revolution
The American Revolution was the political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break free from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America...

 late, in 1779, the Spanish captured the city in the 1781 Battle of Pensacola
Battle of Pensacola (1781)
The Siege of Pensacola was fought in 1781, the culmination of Spain's conquest of the British province West Florida during the American War of Independence.-Background:...

, gaining control of West Florida. After the war the British officially ceded both West Florida and East Florida
East Florida
East Florida was a colony of Great Britain from 1763–1783 and of Spain from 1783–1822. East Florida was established by the British colonial government in 1763; as its name implies it consisted of the eastern part of the region of Florida, with West Florida comprising the western parts. Its capital...

 to Spain. In 1819 Spain and the United States negotiated the Adams-Onis Treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or the Purchase of Florida, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain . It settled a standing border dispute between the two...

, in which Spain sold the Floridas to the United States for US$5 million. In 1821, with Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States . Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , and the British at the Battle of New Orleans...

 as provisional governor, Pensacola became part of the United States.

St. Michael's Cemetery was established in the 18th century at a location which was located in a south central part of the city that would become the Downtown area. Initially owned by the Church of St. Michael, it is now owned and managed by St. Michael's Cemetery Foundation of Pensacola, Inc. Preliminary studies indicate that there are over 3200 marked burials as well as a large number unmarked.

Topography

Pensacola is located at 30°26′13"N 87°12′33"W (30.436988, -87.209277). According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 39.7 square miles (102.8 km²), consisting of 22.7 square miles (58.8 km²) of land and 17 square miles (44 km²) (42.77%) water.

Climate

The climate of Pensacola is humid subtropical
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

 (Köppen
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa), with short, mild winters and hot, humid summers. Typical summer conditions have highs in the low 90s °F (32-34 °C) and lows in the mid 70s (23-24 °C). Afternoon or evening thunderstorms are common during the summer months. Due partly to the coastal location, temperatures above 100 °F (37.8 °C) are rare, and last occurred in June 2011, when two of the first four days of the month recorded highs of over 100 °F. The hottest temperature ever recorded in the city was 106 °F (41.1 °C) on July 14, 1980.

The average high in January is 61.2 °F (16.2 °C), and the low is 42.8 °F (6 °C), though freezing temperatures occur on an average fifteen nights per season. Temperatures below 20 °F (-6.7 °C) rarely occur, and last occurred in January 2003, when a low of 18 °F (-7.8 °C) was seen. The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was 5 °F (-15 °C) on January 21, 1985
January 1985 Arctic outbreak
The 1985 Arctic outbreak was a meteorological event, the result of the shifting of the polar vortex further south than is normally seen. Blocked from its normal movement, polar air from the north pushed into nearly every section of the eastern half of the United States and Canada, shattering record...

.

Snow
Snow
Snow is a form of precipitation within the Earth's atmosphere in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes that fall from clouds. Since snow is composed of small ice particles, it is a granular material. It has an open and therefore soft structure, unless packed by...

 is rare in Pensacola, but does occasionally fall. The most recent snow event occurred on February 12, 2010.

The city receives 64.28 inches (1,632.7 mm) of precipitation per year, with a rainy season in the summer. The rainiest month is July, with 8.02 inches (204 mm), with April being the driest month at 3.89 inches (99 mm).

Hurricanes

Pensacola's location on the Florida Panhandle
Florida Panhandle
The Florida Panhandle, an informal, unofficial term for the northwestern part of Florida, is a strip of land roughly 200 miles long and 50 to 100 miles wide , lying between Alabama on the north and the west, Georgia also on the north, and the Gulf of Mexico to the south. Its eastern boundary is...

 makes it vulnerable to hurricanes. Major hurricanes which have made landfall at or near Pensacola include Eloise
Hurricane Eloise
Hurricane Eloise was the most destructive tropical cyclone of the 1975 Atlantic hurricane season. The fifth tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the season, Eloise formed as a tropical depression on September 13 to the east of the Virgin Islands...

 (1975)
1975 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1975 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1975, and lasted until November 30, 1975. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin...

, Frederic
Hurricane Frederic
Hurricane Frederic was the sixth tropical cyclone, third hurricane and second major hurricane of the 1979 Atlantic hurricane season. Frederic was the costliest hurricane to ever hit the U.S. Gulf Coast at that particular time...

 (1979)
1979 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1979 Atlantic hurricane season was the first in which the Atlantic hurricane naming list included both male and female names. It officially began on June 1 and lasted until November 30, and there was tropical cyclone activity in every month. The dates conventionally delimit the period of each...

, Juan
Hurricane Juan (1985)
Hurricane Juan was a hurricane that formed in October 1985 and looped twice near the Louisiana coast, causing torrential flooding for several days. Juan was the costliest hurricane of the 1985 Atlantic hurricane season, and at the time was among the costliest of all historical U.S. hurricanes...

 (1985)
1985 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1985 Atlantic hurricane season had the most U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones since 1916. The season officially began on June 1, 1985, and lasted until November 30, 1985...

, Erin
Hurricane Erin (1995)
Hurricane Erin was the fifth named tropical cyclone and the second hurricane of the unusually active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season. Erin began as a tropical wave off the west coast of Africa on July 22, and crossed the Atlantic ocean without ever developing. On July 31, the last day of the month,...

 (1995
1995 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season was the third most active Atlantic hurricane season on record. It officially began on June 1, 1995, and lasted until November 30, 1995. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the north Atlantic ocean...

), Opal
Hurricane Opal
Hurricane Opal was a Category 4 hurricane that formed in the Gulf of Mexico in September 1995.Opal was the ninth hurricane and the strongest of the abnormally active 1995 Atlantic hurricane season...

 (1995
1995 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season was the third most active Atlantic hurricane season on record. It officially began on June 1, 1995, and lasted until November 30, 1995. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the north Atlantic ocean...

), Georges
Hurricane Georges
Hurricane Georges was a very destructive, powerful and long-lived Cape Verde-type Category 4 hurricane. Georges was the seventh tropical storm, fourth hurricane, and second major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season...

 (1998
1998 Atlantic hurricane season
The 1998 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 1998, and lasted until November 30, 1998. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin; however, the season extended through December 1 as Hurricane Nicole remained...

), Ivan
Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde-type hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season...

 (2004
2004 Atlantic hurricane season
The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season officially began on June 1, 2004, and lasted until November 30, 2004. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin...

), and Dennis
Hurricane Dennis
Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the very active 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season...

 (2005
2005 Atlantic hurricane season
The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, repeatedly shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and ruinous with an estimated 3,913 deaths and record damage of about $159.2 billion...

).

Pensacola and several surrounding areas were devastated by Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde-type hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season...

. Pensacola found itself on the eastern side of the eyewall, which sent a large storm surge into Escambia Bay that eventually destroyed most of the I-10 Escambia Bay Bridge
Escambia Bay Bridge
The Escambia Bay Bridge is a six-lane freeway bridge that carries Interstate 10 across Escambia Bay near Pensacola, Florida.-History:The original four-lane bridge opened in 1968...

 and completely destroyed the fishing bridge that spanned Pensacola Bay alongside the Phillip Beale Memorial Bridge or locally known as The Three Mile Bridge.
The storm heavily damaged the bridge. It knocked 58 spans off of the eastbound and westbound bridges and misaligned another 66 spans causing the bridge to close to traffic in both directions. Over six billion dollars in damage occurred in the metro area and more than 10,000 homes were destroyed, with another 27,000 heavily damaged. NASA
NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

 created a comparison image to illustrate the massive damage. Hurricane Ivan drove up the cost of housing in the area, leading to a severe shortage of affordable housing.
In July 2005, Hurricane Dennis
Hurricane Dennis
Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the very active 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season...

 made landfall just east of the city, sparing it the blow it had received from Ivan the year before. However, hurricane and near-hurricane force winds were recorded in downtown, causing moderate damage.

Although Pensacola only received a glancing blow from 2005's devastating Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

, light to moderate damage was reported in the area. Katrina also undermined a large percentage of Pensacola's tourist base from Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

Statistics

Cantonment Clinch
Cantonment Clinch
Cantonment Clinch was an Army fort in Pensacola, Florida during the 1820s and 1830s.Army Meteorological Register summarizes observations that the Post Surgeon began in 1822. Army troops escaping yellow fever at other forts and in Pensacola city built this cantonment at the head of Bayou Chico...

 began providing meteorological observations in the 1830s. Observations from the Pensacola area continued intermittently over the next several decades. Weather statistics today originate at the airport.

Demographics

As of the census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 56,255 people, 24,524 households, and 14,665 families residing in the city, and 402,000 people in the Pensacola
Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
30° 26′ 0″ N, 87° 12′ 0″ WThe Pensacola metropolitan area is the metropolitan area centered on Pensacola, Florida.The Office of Management and Budget has designated Escambia and Santa Rosa counties as the Pensacola-Ferry Pass-Brent Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan statistical area used...

 MSA
United States metropolitan area
In the United States a metropolitan statistical area is a geographical region with a relatively high population density at its core and close economic ties throughout the area. Such regions are not legally incorporated as a city or town would be, nor are they legal administrative divisions like...

. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 2,478.7 people per square mile (956.8/km²). There were 26,995 housing units at an average density of 1,189.4 per square mile (459.2/km²). The racial makeup of the city is 64.91% European American, 30.58% African American, 1.77% Asian, 0.52% Native American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, and 1.61% from two or more races. 2.07% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 24,524 households out of which 24.6% had children living with them, 39.7% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.2% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.92.

Of the people in Pensacola, 45.9% identify with a religion, slightly lower than the national average of 48.34%. Over 48% of Pensacolians who do practice a religion consider themselves Baptists (22.14% of all city residents). Other Christian denominations include Roman Catholics (9.22% of city residents), Pentecostal (3.82%), Methodist (3.77%), Episcopalian (1.11%) and Presbyterian (1.08%).

Pensacola is home to a small (0.15% of city residents) but significant Jewish
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

 community, whose roots stretch back to the mid-to-late 19th century. The first Florida chapter of B'nai Brith was founded downtown in 1874, as well as the first temple
Synagogue
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. This use of the Greek term synagogue originates in the Septuagint where it sometimes translates the Hebrew word for assembly, kahal...

, Beth-El
Temple Beth-El (Pensacola, Florida)
The Temple Beth-El , located in downtown Pensacola, Florida, is the oldest dedicated Jewish house of worship in Florida. The temple was founded in 1876....

, in 1876. Paula Ackerman
Paula Ackerman
Paula Ackerman was the first woman to perform rabbinical functions in the United States, leading the Beth Israel congregation in Meridian, Mississippi from 1950-53 and the Beth-El congregation in Pensacola, Florida from 1962-63...

, the first woman who performed rabbinical functions in the United States, was a Pensacola native and led services at Beth-El. Apart from the Reform
Reform Judaism
Reform Judaism refers to various beliefs, practices and organizations associated with the Reform Jewish movement in North America, the United Kingdom and elsewhere. In general, it maintains that Judaism and Jewish traditions should be modernized and should be compatible with participation in the...

 Beth-El, Pensacola is also served by the Conservative
Conservative Judaism
Conservative Judaism is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s.Conservative Judaism has its roots in the school of thought known as Positive-Historical Judaism,...

 B'nai Israel Synagogue.

Longtime opposition to annexation in the areas surrounding the city has held its 2000 Census population figure at 56,255.

Architecture

Pensacola has over 20 tall buildings, but because of a height restriction law put in place in 1990, the buildings can no longer be over 100 feet. The Crowne Plaza Grand Hotel, the cities tallest building is 155 feet tall but was built before the law. Pensacola Beach has numerous high rises but also has a height law stating the buildings can not go over 20 floors.

Personal income

The median income for a household in the city was $34,779, and the median income for a family was $42,868. Males had a median income of $32,258 versus $23,582 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $21,438. About 12.7% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over.

Military

The city has been referred to as "The Cradle of Naval Aviation". Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola
Naval Air Station Pensacola or NAS Pensacola , "The Cradle of Naval Aviation", is a United States Navy base located next to Warrington, Florida, a community southwest of the Pensacola city limits...

 (NASP) was the first Naval Air Station commissioned by the U.S. Navy in 1914. Tens of thousands Naval Aviators have received their training there including John H. Glenn, USMC who became the first American to orbit the earth in 1962 and Neil Armstrong
Neil Armstrong
Neil Alden Armstrong is an American former astronaut, test pilot, aerospace engineer, university professor, United States Naval Aviator, and the first person to set foot upon the Moon....

 who became the first man to set foot on the moon in 1969. The Navy's Flight Demonstration Squadron, the Blue Angels
Blue Angels
The United States Navy's Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, popularly known as the Blue Angels, was formed in 1946 and is currently the oldest formal flying aerobatic team...

, is stationed there.

The National Museum of Naval Aviation
National Museum of Naval Aviation
The National Museum of Naval Aviation is a military and aerospace museum located at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida. The museum opened in 1962....

 is located on the Naval Air Station and is free to the public. The museum cares for and exhibits hundreds of vintage Naval Aviation aircraft and preserves the history of Naval Aviation through displays, symposiums, IMAX movies and tours.

Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center
Corry Station Naval Technical Training Center
The Center for Information Dominance Corry Station, located in Myrtle Grove, Florida, is the home of the Navy's Center for Information Dominance or CID. Myrtle Grove is a western suburb in the Pensacola metropolitan area....

 serves as an annex for the main base and the Center for Information Dominance. CW03 Gary R. Schuetz Memorial Health Clinic is at Corry Station, Naval Hospital Pensacola, as is the main Navy Exchange and Defense Commissary Agency
Defense Commissary Agency
The Defense Commissary Agency is an agency of the United States Department of Defense that operates more than 250 commissaries worldwide...

 commissary complex for both Corry Station and NAS Pensacola. The Army National Guard B Troop 1-153 Cavalry is stationed in Pensacola.

Hospitals

  • Baptist Health Care
  • Gulf Breeze Hospital – Baptist Health Care
  • Naval Hospital – United States Navy
  • Sacred Heart Hospital – Sacred Heart Health System
  • Santa Rosa Medical Center –
  • West Florida Hospital – West Florida Healthcare
  • Nemours Children's Clinic


Tourism

There are a number of annual festivals, events, historic tours, and landmarks. The Pensacola Seafood Festival and The Pensacola Crawfish Festival held in the heart of historic Downtown has been held for nearly 30 years with live music acts. The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival
Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival
The Great Gulfcoast Arts Festival is an annual three-day, juried art show in historic Seville Square in downtown Pensacola, Florida. The Festival is held the first full weekend in November...

 is held annually in November in Seville Square
Seville Square
Seville Square in Pensacola, Florida is the center of the old settlement of Pensacola by the Spanish after several unsuccessful attempts beginning in 1559. This was the earliest known attempt at settlement on the North American continent...

 often drawing more than 200 regional and international artists as well as The Children's Art Festival which is held in the same park featuring art by children from local area schools.

There are several walking tours of the historic 18th century era restored neighborhoods.

Pensacola is the site of The Vietnam Veteran's Wall South. There are a number of historical military installations from the Civil War including Fort Barrancas
Fort Barrancas
Fort Barrancas or Fort San Carlos de Barrancas is a historic United States military fort in the Warrington area of Pensacola, Florida, located physically on Naval Air Station Pensacola....

. Fort Pickens
Fort Pickens
Fort Pickens is a pentagonal historic United States military fort on Santa Rosa Island in the Pensacola, Florida, area. It is named after American Revolutionary War hero Andrew Pickens. The fort was completed in 1834 and remained in use until 1947...

 served as a temporary prison for Geronimo
Geronimo
Geronimo was a prominent Native American leader of the Chiricahua Apache who fought against Mexico and the United States for their expansion into Apache tribal lands for several decades during the Apache Wars. Allegedly, "Geronimo" was the name given to him during a Mexican incident...

. There is the National Naval Aviation Museum at NAS Pensacola.

Law and government

Council Members
District Council Member
1 P.C. Wu
2 Sam Hall
3 Maren DeWeese
4 Larry B. Johnson
5 John Jerralds
6 Jewel Canada-Wynn
7 Ronald Townsend
8 (at large) Diane Mack
9 (at large) Megan B. Pratt

The City of Pensacola is governed by an elected City Council with nine seats, two of which are considered "at large." The city government also has an elected mayor; Ashton Hayward
Ashton Hayward
Ashton James Hayward III is the mayor of Pensacola, Florida, having taken office on January 10, 2011. He is the first mayor elected under the new "strong mayor" form of government adopted in 2009....

.

Politics

Like other parts of the South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 during Reconstruction, Pensacola was solidly Republican for years after the Civil War. The Republican government had numerous African American politicians, including several county commissioners, city aldermen, constables, state representatives, and even one African American Mayor—Salvador Pons. However, with the 1884 election of native Pensacolan and former Confederate General Edward Perry, a dramatic shift occurred. Perry, a Democrat who actually lost the Escambia County vote during the state-wide election, acted to dissolve the Republican city government of Pensacola and in 1885 replaced this government with hand-picked successors, including railroad magnate William D. Chipley. The only African American to remain in city government was George Washington Witherspoon, a pastor with the African Methodist Episcopal Church
African Methodist Episcopal Church
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church, is a predominantly African American Methodist denomination based in the United States. It was founded by the Rev. Richard Allen in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1816 from several black Methodist congregations in the...

 who was previously a Republican and switched parties to the Democrats. Following Governor Perry's dissolution of the Republican government, the city remained Democratic for more than a century after the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 with no African Americans serving in an elected capacity for nearly a century. Until the 1970s, most local elections were determined by the Democratic primary. However, from the 1960s onward, the staunchly conservative military and Bible Belt
Bible Belt
Bible Belt is an informal term for a region in the southeastern and south-central United States in which socially conservative evangelical Protestantism is a significant part of the culture and Christian church attendance across the denominations is generally higher than the nation's average.The...

 city became increasingly Republican. However, Democrats continued to win most elections at the state and local level well into the 1990s, though most of them were very conservative even by Southern Democratic
Southern Democrats
Southern Democrats are members of the U.S. Democratic Party who reside in the American South. In the 19th century, they were the definitive pro-slavery wing of the party, opposed to both the anti-slavery Republicans and the more liberal Northern Democrats.Eventually "Redemption" was finalized in...

 standards.

This changed in 1994, when Republican attorney Joe Scarborough
Joe Scarborough
Charles Joseph "Joe" Scarborough is an American cable news and talk radio host, lawyer, author, and former politician. He is currently the host of Morning Joe on MSNBC, and previously hosted Scarborough Country on the same channel...

 defeated Vinnie Whibbs, the son of popular former Democratic mayor Vince Whibbs
Vince Whibbs
Vince Whibbs, Sr. KSG was a popular politician and business leader in Pensacola, Florida. Vince served as mayor of Pensacola for an unprecedented seven consecutive terms, serving the city from 1978 to 1991. He was invested as a knight of the Order of St...

, in a landslide to represent , which is based in Pensacola. Republicans also swept all of the area's seats in the state legislature, the majority of which were held by Democrats. Since then, Republicans have dominated every level of government, although municipal elections are officially nonpartisan. In August 2005, registered Republicans outnumbered Democrats for the first time in the area's history. As of August 2005, in Escambia County, 44% of the residents are registered Republicans compared to 39.91% of the population having registered as Democrats with another 13.21% having no party affiliation.

In the 2004 presidential election
United States presidential election, 2004
The United States presidential election of 2004 was the United States' 55th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004. Republican Party candidate and incumbent President George W. Bush defeated Democratic Party candidate John Kerry, the then-junior U.S. Senator...

, 65% of Escambia County residents voted for George W. Bush over John Kerry. The Pensacola area has not supported a Democrat for President since John Kennedy in 1960. In 1968, Pensacola and the rest of North Florida supported American Independent Party candidate George Wallace
George Wallace
George Corley Wallace, Jr. was the 45th Governor of Alabama, serving four terms: 1963–1967, 1971–1979 and 1983–1987. "The most influential loser" in 20th-century U.S. politics, according to biographers Dan T. Carter and Stephan Lesher, he ran for U.S...

.

Chuck Baldwin
Chuck Baldwin
Charles Obadiah "Chuck" Baldwin is an American politician and founder-pastor of Crossroad Baptist Church in Pensacola, Florida. He was the presidential nominee of the Constitution Party for the 2008 U.S. presidential election and had previously been its nominee for U.S. vice president in 2004...

, the 2008 presidential nominee of the Constitution Party
Constitution Party (United States)
The Constitution Party is a paleoconservative political party in the United States. It was founded as the U.S. Taxpayers' Party by Howard Philips in 1991. Phillips was the party's candidate in the 1992, 1996 and 2000 presidential elections...

, is the pastor
Pastor
The word pastor usually refers to an ordained leader of a Christian congregation. When used as an ecclesiastical styling or title, this role may be abbreviated to "Pr." or often "Ps"....

 of Crossroad Baptist Church in Pensacola.

Regional representatives

Pensacola is currently represented in the U.S. House of Representatives by Jeff Miller
Jeff Miller
Jefferson B. "Jeff" Miller is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2001. He is a member of the Republican Party. The district includes all of Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, Walton, Holmes, and Washington Counties....

 (R
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

), in the state senate by Don Gaetz
Don Gaetz
Donald Jay Gaetz is a Republican member of the Florida Senate, representing the 4th District since 2007.-Early life:Donald Jay Gaetz was born January 22, 1948, in rural North Dakota. His father, Jerry, served as mayor of Rugby, North Dakota, and a state legislator while also working as a rancher,...

 (R) and Durell Peaden
Durell Peaden
Durell Peaden, Jr. was a Republican member of the Florida Senate, representing the 2nd District since 2001. He left office at the end of 2010 due to term limits....

 (R), and in the state house by Clay Ford (R), Dave Murzin (R), and Greg Evers
Greg Evers
Greg Evers is a member of the Florida House of Representatives and is currently a candidate for Florida Senate District 2, a Senate seat currently held by Senator Durrell Peaden of Crestview, Florida.Evers is the eldest child of John Robert and Jequita Evers...

 (R).

Libraries

The West Florida Regional Library
West Florida Regional Library
The West Florida Public Library System is an organization of libraries that serve the Pensacola, Florida area, with branch libraries in Escambia County, Florida....

 is a system of libraries with five locations throughout the Pensacola area. They offer fiction and non-fiction books, magazines, books on cassette or CD, DVD and VHS films and music. Each library offers public access computers, children's materials, and a variety of reading materials.

Genealogy and local history resources are available at the geneaology branch near the Pensacola State College. Library staff and various volunteers from the West Florida Genealogy Society are available to help start the research process. The Friends of the Library hold periodic book sales where donated and discarded items are sold to the public. Donations of books or audio-video items in good condition are welcome at the main library on Gregory Street.

Sister cities

According to Sister City International, Pensacola has the following sister cities: Chimbote
Chimbote
Chimbote is the largest city in the Ancash Region of Peru, and the capital of both Santa Province and Chimbote District.The city is located on the coast in Chimbote Bay, south of Trujillo and north of Lima on the North Pan-American highway. It is the start of a chain of important cities like...

, Peru Escazu, Costa Rica Gero
Gero, Gifu
is a city in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The city is famous for its hot springs. The Hida River runs throughout the city.-History:The city was established on March 1, 2004 by the merger of the towns of Gero, Hagiwara, Kanayama and Osaka, and the village of Maze, all from Mashita...

, Japan Horlivka
Horlivka
Horlivka is a city in the Donetsk Oblast of eastern Ukraine. As of 2001, the city's population was 292,000. It is a coal mining and chemical industry centre...

, Ukraine Miraflores
Miraflores District
Miraflores is a district of the Lima Province in Peru. Known for its shopping areas, gardens, flower-filled parks and beaches, it is one of the upscale districts that make up the city of Lima....

, Peru Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung is a city located in southwestern Taiwan, facing the Taiwan Strait on the west. Kaohsiung, officially named Kaohsiung City, is divided into thirty-eight districts. The city is one of five special municipalities of the Republic of China...

, Taiwan

Transportation

Pensacola is served by Interstate 10
Interstate 10
Interstate 10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90, I-80, and I-40. It is the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway, although I-4 and I-8 are further south. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at State Route 1 in Santa Monica,...

 and the Interstate 110
Interstate 110 (Florida)
Interstate 110 is a auxiliary route of the Interstate Highway System in Pensacola, Florida, running north from U.S. Highway 98 to Interstate 10. I-110 carries the hidden Florida Department of Transportation designation of State Road 8A...

 spur connecting I-10 with downtown Pensacola. Major air traffic in the Pensacola and greater northwest Florida area is handled by Pensacola International Airport. Airlines currently serving Pensacola Regional Airport are Air Tran Airways, American Eagle
American Eagle Airlines
American Eagle Airlines is a brand name used by American Eagle Airlines, Inc. , based in Fort Worth, Texas, and Executive Airlines based in San Juan, Puerto Rico, in the operation of passenger air service as regional affiliates of American Airlines. All three airlines are wholly owned subsidiaries...

, ASA
Atlantic Southeast Airlines
Atlantic Southeast Airlines is an American airline based in the A-Tech Center in College Park, Georgia, flying to 144 destinations as a Delta Connection carrier and, as of February 2010, commenced service as a United Express carrier. It is a wholly owned subsidiary of SkyWest, Inc. ASA operates...

, Comair
Comair
Comair is a wholly owned subsidiary of Delta Air Lines headquartered on the grounds of Cincinnati-Northern Kentucky International Airport in unincorporated Boone County, Kentucky, United States, west of Erlanger, and south of Cincinnati, Ohio...

, Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines
Continental Airlines was a major American airline now merged with United Airlines. On May 3, 2010, Continental Airlines, Inc. and UAL, Inc. announced a merger via a stock swap, and on October 1, 2010, the merger closed and UAL changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc...

, Continental Express
Continental Express
Continental Express is the operating brand name used by a number of independently owned regional airlines providing regional jet feeder service under agreement with Continental Airlines...

, Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines, Inc. is a major airline based in the United States and headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline operates an extensive domestic and international network serving all continents except Antarctica. Delta and its subsidiaries operate over 4,000 flights every day...

, SkyWest Airlines
Skywest Airlines
Skywest Airlines Pty Ltd is a regional airline company based in Perth, Western Australia, Australia; servicing key towns in the state of Western Australia, Darwin, Northern Territory and Melbourne, Victoria; as well as charter flights to Bali, Indonesia....

, United Express
United Express
United Express is a brand name under which eight regional airlines operate feeder flights for United Airlines. They primarily connect smaller cities with United's domestic hub airports and “focus cities,” although they offer some point-to-point service such as Sacramento to Eureka.As of Sept...

, and US Airways
US Airways
US Airways, Inc. is a major airline based in the U.S. city of Tempe, Arizona. The airline is an operating unit of US Airways Group and is the sixth largest airline by traffic and eighth largest by market value in the country....

. Greyhound
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 bus service is also available. From early 1993 through August 2005 Pensacola was served by the tri-weekly Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

 Sunset Limited
Sunset Limited
The Sunset Limited is a passenger train that for most of its history has run between New Orleans, Louisiana and Los Angeles, California, and that from early 1993 through late August 2005 also ran east of New Orleans to Jacksonville, Florida, making it during that time the only true transcontinental...

, but service east of New Orleans to Jacksonville
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the county seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968...

 and Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

 was suspended due to damage to the rail line of CSX during Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina of the 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was a powerful Atlantic hurricane. It is the costliest natural disaster, as well as one of the five deadliest hurricanes, in the history of the United States. Among recorded Atlantic hurricanes, it was the sixth strongest overall...

 in 2005. Attempts are being made to have service restored. This was previously the route of the Gulf Wind
Gulf Wind
The Gulf Wind was a streamlined passenger train inaugurated on July 31, 1949 as a joint operation by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad and the Seaboard Air Line Railroad...

 operated by the Louisville and Nashville Railroad
Louisville and Nashville Railroad
The Louisville and Nashville Railroad was a Class I railroad that operated freight and passenger services in the southeast United States.Chartered by the state of Kentucky in 1850, the L&N, as it was generally known, grew into one of the great success stories of American business...

.

The local bus service is the Escambia County Rosa Parks Transit System. In December 2007, ECAT announced that it would cut many of its routes citing poor rider frequency. However in January 2008, ECAT announced that it would expand service to neighboring Gulf Breeze and change existing routes to more convenient locations.

Education

Public primary
Primary education
A primary school is an institution in which children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as primary or elementary education. Primary school is the preferred term in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth Nations, and in most publications of the United Nations Educational,...

 and secondary education
Secondary education
Secondary education is the stage of education following primary education. Secondary education includes the final stage of compulsory education and in many countries it is entirely compulsory. The next stage of education is usually college or university...

 schools in Pensacola are administered by the Escambia County School District
Escambia County School District
The Escambia County School District is the organization responsible for the administration of public schools in Escambia County, Florida, in the United States...

. The current superintendent of schools for Escambia County is Malcolm Thomas
Malcolm Thomas
Malcolm Thomas was a Welsh international centre who played club rugby for Newport. He won 27 caps for Wales and was selected to play in the British Lions on two tours of Australia and New Zealand. A versatile player, Thomas found himself being moved between centre and wing and was chosen many...

. The University of West Florida
University of West Florida
The University of West Florida, also known as West Florida and UWF, is a mid-sized public university located in Pensacola, Florida, United States. UWF is a member institution of the State University System of Florida. The University of West Florida is a Research University, which specializes in...

, which resides north of the city, is the primary tertiary school in the area. UWF also has the largest library in the region, the John C. Pace Library
John C. Pace Library
The John C. Pace Library is the academic library of the University of West Florida and is the largest library in the Northwest Florida area. In addition to the main library on the main campus north of Pensacola, Florida, there is a branch library in Fort Walton Beach, Florida...

.

Universities and colleges

  • University of West Florida
    University of West Florida
    The University of West Florida, also known as West Florida and UWF, is a mid-sized public university located in Pensacola, Florida, United States. UWF is a member institution of the State University System of Florida. The University of West Florida is a Research University, which specializes in...

  • Pensacola State College
    Pensacola State College
    Pensacola State College, formerly known as Pensacola Junior College, is a public state college in Pensacola, Florida, and a member institution of the Florida College System....

  • Troy University - Pensacola
  • Fortis College
    Fortis College
    Fortis College is a private post-secondary, for-profit institution that was established in 1969 and is operated by Education Affiliates. It was formerly Bohecker College, a sister school to the Centerville, Ohio Rets Technical Institute...

     (private)
  • Pensacola Christian College
    Pensacola Christian College
    Pensacola Christian College is an unaccredited fundamentalist, Independent Baptist college in Pensacola, Florida, USA, founded in 1974 by Arlin Horton. The college is actively pursuing accreditation, and as of 7 November 2011 had been awarded candidate status with Transnational Association of...

     (private)
  • Virginia College
    Virginia College
    Virginia College is a non Regionally Accredited chain of private for-profit post-secondary institutions located primarily in the Southeastern United States. It is a Proprietary college which, in comparison to traditional colleges or universities, offers classes related to specific professions...

     (private)

Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-NAS Pensacola

High schools in the City of Pensacola

  • Aletheia Christian Academy
  • East Hill Christian School
  • Escambia High School
    Escambia High School
    Escambia High School is a high school located in Escambia County, Florida.Malcolm Thomas is the current Superintendent of Schools for the Escambia County School District-History:...

  • Pensacola School Of Liberal Arts
    Pensacola School Of Liberal Arts
    Pensacola School Of Liberal Arts is a private secondary school in Pensacola, Florida, established by William Holston to be an alternative to area public schools. Bill Holston, along with previous Alumni, operate in the School as both office staff and as teachers, assisting a wide array of students...

  • Pensacola Catholic High School
    Pensacola Catholic High School
    Pensacola Catholic High School is a Roman Catholic diocesan high school in Pensacola, Florida, under the jurisdiction of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Pensacola-Tallahassee. It is co-educational, organized on the 9-12 plan with an enrollment of over 600 students...

  • Pensacola High School
    Pensacola High School
    Pensacola High School is a secondary school located near downtown Pensacola, Florida, USA.The school celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2001 and graduated its 100th class of seniors in 2005; however, the school has not always been at its current location. It was moved to Maxwell Street in 1952...

     (Ranked as the 8th best high school in America by Newsweek
    Newsweek
    Newsweek is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City. It is distributed throughout the United States and internationally. It is the second-largest news weekly magazine in the U.S., having trailed Time in circulation and advertising revenue for most of its existence...

    magazine in 2004.)
  • Washington High School
    Booker T. Washington High School (Pensacola)
    Booker T. Washington High School is a secondary school currently located at 6000 College Parkway in Pensacola, Florida, and is part of the Escambia County School District. It was named after the African-American education pioneer Booker T. Washington. The previous location for the school is now in...

  • Pine Forest High School
    Pine Forest High School
    Pine Forest High School is a high school in Pensacola, Florida. It was opened in 1975.Pine Forest High is located on Longleaf Drive in a cluster of education buildings...

  • Pensacola Christian Academy
    Pensacola Christian Academy
    Pensacola Christian Academy is a private elementary through high school institution located in Pensacola, Florida, USA.-History:The school was founded as Pensacola Christian School in 1954 by Arlin Horton and his wife Beka...

  • Tate High School
  • West Florida High School of Advanced Technology
    West Florida High School of Advanced Technology
    West Florida High School of Advanced Technology is a magnet high school located in Pensacola, Florida.West Florida High School of Advanced Technology opened in August 2001 with 325 ninth graders...



Elementary schools

  • Allie Yniestra Elementary School
  • Bellview Elementary School
  • Beulah Elementary School
  • Blue Angels Elementary School[1]
  • Bratt Elementary School
  • Brownsville Elementary School
  • C.A. Weis Elementary School
  • Carver Century
  • Cordova Park Elementary School
  • Edgewater Elementary School
  • Ensley Elementary School
  • Ferry Pass Elementary School
  • George S. Hallmark Elementary School
  • Hellen Caro Elementary School
  • Holm Elementary School
  • Jim Allen Elementary School
  • Lincoln Park Elementary School
  • Longleaf Elementary School

  • McArthur Elementary School
  • Molino Park Elementary School
  • Montclair Elementary School
  • Myrtle Grove Elementary School
  • N.B. Cook Elementary School
  • Navy Point Elementary School
  • O.J. Semmes Elementary School
  • Oakcrest Elementary School
  • Pine Meadow Elementary School
  • Pleasant Grove Elementary School
  • R.C. Lipscomb Elementary School
  • Scenic Heights Elementary School
  • Sherwood Elementary School
  • Spencer Bibbs Elementary School
  • Warrington Elementary School
  • West Pensacola Elementary School
  • A.K. Suter Elementary School


Music scene and subculture

  • Jim White - singer, songwriter and guitarist
  • This Bike is a Pipe Bomb
    This Bike Is a Pipe Bomb
    This Bike Is a Pipe Bomb was a folk-punk band from Pensacola, Florida, USA. Their first recording was released in 1997 on Ghostmeat Records. Their later releases have been on Plan It X Records and No Idea Records, but now appear on their own label Plan-It X South. This Bike Is a Pipe Bomb...

     - a folk-punk band

The Arts and Theatre

There are a number of different performance venues in the Pensacola Area, including the Pensacola Civic Center, often used for big ticket events, and the Saenger Theater, used for performances and mid level events. Other theatres used for live performances, plays and musicals include the Pensacola Little Theatre, Pensacola Junior College, University of West Florida and Loblolly Theatre. Pensacola is also home to the Pensacola Opera, Pensacola Children's Chorus, Pensacola Symphony Orchestra, and the Choral Society of Pensacola.

Sports

There are several semiprofessional sports teams, including the Pensacola Lightning NAFL team, the Pensacola Pelicans
Pensacola Pelicans
The Pensacola Pelicans were a minor league baseball team based in Pensacola, Florida. In various incarnations, they played in three different independent baseball leagues from 2002–2010...

 of the American Association (of Independent Baseball) (AA), the Pensacola Ice Flyers
Pensacola Ice Flyers
The Pensacola Ice Flyers are a team of the Southern Professional Hockey League, their first season was the 2009-10 season. Home games are played at the Pensacola Civic Center, previously home to the ECHL's Pensacola Ice Pilots from 1996 until their folding in 2008.The "Ice Flyers" name has a...

 , and the Pensacola Blue Wahoos
Pensacola Blue Wahoos
The Pensacola Blue Wahoos are a minor league baseball team to be based in Pensacola, Florida. The Blue Wahoos will play in the Southern League and will be the Class Double-A affiliate of the Cincinnati Reds Major League Baseball team....

 Double-A Southern League Baseball Team.

Media

The largest daily newspaper in the area is the Pensacola News Journal
Pensacola News Journal
The Pensacola News Journal is a daily morning newspaper serving Escambia and Santa Rosa counties in Florida. It is Northwest Florida's most widely-read daily....

, with offices on Romana Street in downtown; the News Journal is owned by the Gannett Company
Gannett Company
Gannett Company, Inc. is a publicly-traded media holding company headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia, United States, near McLean. It is the largest U.S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation. Its assets include the national newspaper USA Today and the weekly USA Weekend...

. There is an alternative weekly newspaper, the Pensacola Independent News.

Pensacola is also home to WEAR-TV
WEAR-TV
WEAR is the ABC affiliated television station for the Mobile, Alabama/Pensacola, Florida viewing area. It is licensed to Pensacola and is one of two major commercial stations in the market that is licensed on the Florida side of the market, the other being sister station WFGX, a MyNetworkTV affiliate...

, the ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

 affiliate for Pensacola, Fort Walton Beach
Fort Walton Beach, Florida
Fort Walton Beach is a city in southern Okaloosa County, Florida, United States. As of 2005, the population estimate for Fort Walton Beach was 19,992, and as of 2010, the population estimate for Fort Walton Beach is 19,507 recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau...

, and Mobile, Alabama
Mobile, Alabama
Mobile is the third most populous city in the Southern US state of Alabama and is the county seat of Mobile County. It is located on the Mobile River and the central Gulf Coast of the United States. The population within the city limits was 195,111 during the 2010 census. It is the largest...

, and WSRE
WSRE
WSRE is the Public Broadcasting Service member Public television station for the Pensacola, Florida viewing area. The station has been broadcasting since 1967....

-TV, the local PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 member station, which is operated by Pensacola State College
Pensacola State College
Pensacola State College, formerly known as Pensacola Junior College, is a public state college in Pensacola, Florida, and a member institution of the Florida College System....

. Other television stations in the market include WALA-TV
WALA-TV
WALA-TV is the Fox-affiliated television station for Southern Alabama, Southeastern Mississippi, and the Western Florida Panhandle that is licensed to Mobile. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on VHF channel 9 from a transmitter in Spanish Fort, Alabama...

, the Fox affiliate; WKRG, the CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

 affiliate; and WPMI, the NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 affiliate, which all are located in Mobile. Cable service in the city is provided by Cox Communications
Cox Communications
Cox Communications is a privately owned subsidiary of Cox Enterprises providing digital cable television, telecommunications and wireless services in the United States...

 and AT&T U-Verse. WUWF is the area's NPR
NPR
NPR, formerly National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States. NPR was created in 1970, following congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting...

 affiliate and is based at the University of West Florida
University of West Florida
The University of West Florida, also known as West Florida and UWF, is a mid-sized public university located in Pensacola, Florida, United States. UWF is a member institution of the State University System of Florida. The University of West Florida is a Research University, which specializes in...

.

Pensacola Magazine, the city's monthly glossy magazine, and Northwest Florida's Business Climate, the only business magazine devoted to the region, are published locally. The News Journal also publishes Home & Garden Weekly magazine as well as the monthly Bella, devoted to women.

See also

  • Blue Angels
    Blue Angels
    The United States Navy's Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, popularly known as the Blue Angels, was formed in 1946 and is currently the oldest formal flying aerobatic team...

  • Brownsville Revival
    Brownsville Revival
    The Brownsville Revival was a widely-reported religious phenomenon that began within the Pentecostal movement on Father's Day June 18, 1995 at Brownsville Assembly of God in Pensacola, Florida...

  • Escambia Bay Bridge
    Escambia Bay Bridge
    The Escambia Bay Bridge is a six-lane freeway bridge that carries Interstate 10 across Escambia Bay near Pensacola, Florida.-History:The original four-lane bridge opened in 1968...

  • Escambia High School riots
  • Hurricane Dennis
    Hurricane Dennis
    Hurricane Dennis was an early-forming major hurricane in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico during the very active 2005 Atlantic hurricane season. Dennis was the fourth named storm, second hurricane, and first major hurricane of the season...

  • Hurricane Ivan
    Hurricane Ivan
    Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde-type hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season...

  • Interstate 10
    Interstate 10
    Interstate 10 is the fourth-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, after I-90, I-80, and I-40. It is the southernmost east–west, coast-to-coast Interstate Highway, although I-4 and I-8 are further south. It stretches from the Pacific Ocean at State Route 1 in Santa Monica,...

  • Interstate 110 (Florida)
    Interstate 110 (Florida)
    Interstate 110 is a auxiliary route of the Interstate Highway System in Pensacola, Florida, running north from U.S. Highway 98 to Interstate 10. I-110 carries the hidden Florida Department of Transportation designation of State Road 8A...



External links

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