Penis enlargement
Overview
Penis enlargement procedures (sometimes euphemistically
Euphemism
A euphemism is the substitution of a mild, inoffensive, relatively uncontroversial phrase for another more frank expression that might offend or otherwise suggest something unpleasant to the audience...

  referred to as male enhancement procedures in spam
Spam (electronic)
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately...

 email and television advertisements) are techniques alleged to make the human penis
Human penis
The human penis is an external sexual organ of male humans. It is a reproductive, intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.-Parts:...

 increase in girth, length, or hardness. Often, in the course of advertising fraudulent products, the distinction between temporary enlargement, i.e. erection, and permanent enlargement, is deliberately muddied
Quackery
Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe the promotion of unproven or fraudulent medical practices. Random House Dictionary describes a "quack" as a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, knowledge, or...

.

Procedures range from manual exercises to stretching devices and surgical procedures, with reports of successes and failures around the world.
Encyclopedia
Penis enlargement procedures (sometimes euphemistically
Euphemism
A euphemism is the substitution of a mild, inoffensive, relatively uncontroversial phrase for another more frank expression that might offend or otherwise suggest something unpleasant to the audience...

  referred to as male enhancement procedures in spam
Spam (electronic)
Spam is the use of electronic messaging systems to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately...

 email and television advertisements) are techniques alleged to make the human penis
Human penis
The human penis is an external sexual organ of male humans. It is a reproductive, intromittent organ that additionally serves as the urinal duct.-Parts:...

 increase in girth, length, or hardness. Often, in the course of advertising fraudulent products, the distinction between temporary enlargement, i.e. erection, and permanent enlargement, is deliberately muddied
Quackery
Quackery is a derogatory term used to describe the promotion of unproven or fraudulent medical practices. Random House Dictionary describes a "quack" as a "fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skill" or "a person who pretends, professionally or publicly, to have skill, knowledge, or...

.

Procedures range from manual exercises to stretching devices and surgical procedures, with reports of successes and failures around the world. While some of these are known to be outright hoaxes, other techniques have some measure of success.

Very little legitimate scientific research has been done on penile enlargement, so any claims of significant and permanent enlargement can be biased or anecdotal. Conversely, there is an element of risk to most of the procedures, with negative outcomes ranging from the tearing of skin and scarring, to permanent loss of sexual function. Due to the speculative nature of any hope for "improvement" and the many known cases of permanent injury involved in this endeavor, many medical professionals are skeptical of the subject.

At present there is no proof in the scientific community of any non-surgical technique that permanently increases either the thickness or length of the erect penis that already falls into the normal range (4 to 6 inches).

Surgical methods

The surgical method of penis lengthening is controversial in the medical community. It involves the cutting of 2 tendons that hold the penis up. By doing this, the penis is allowed to drop down and out lengthening it by 1-2 inches. Sometimes this method is combined with the clamping off of some blood vessels making for increased blood retention allowing for a harder and thus larger erection.

Cosmetic

Rather than attempt to change the actual size of the penis, one may make it appear bigger, by trimming the pubic hair
Pubic hair
Pubic hair is hair in the frontal genital area, the crotch, and sometimes at the top of the inside of the legs; these areas form the pubic region....

 or by losing weight.

Pills and supplements

"Penis enlargement pills", "penis patches" and ointments are commonly offered over the Internet. This is one of the most common topics for e-mail spam
E-mail spam
Email spam, also known as junk email or unsolicited bulk email , is a subset of spam that involves nearly identical messages sent to numerous recipients by email. Definitions of spam usually include the aspects that email is unsolicited and sent in bulk. One subset of UBE is UCE...

 messages. "Penis enlargement pills" contain natural ingredients, which, in theory, expand the capacity of the Corpus cavernosum penis
Corpus cavernosum penis
The corpus cavernosum penis is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the penis during penile erection...

, the two cylindrical tissues inside the penis that fill with blood during arousal, creating the hardness of the erection.

Penis pump

A penis pump is a cylinder that is fitted over the penis, with a manual or motorized pump to create suction. As the apparatus creates a partial vacuum
Vacuum
In everyday usage, vacuum is a volume of space that is essentially empty of matter, such that its gaseous pressure is much less than atmospheric pressure. The word comes from the Latin term for "empty". A perfect vacuum would be one with no particles in it at all, which is impossible to achieve in...

 around the penis, blood is drawn into the penis, helping it to become engorged. As vacuum increases, the difference between the inner blood pressure and the pump pressure increases as well; excessive pressure causes vascular damage rather than a harder penis.

Penis pumps, usually described in this context as vacuum pumps, have use in conventional alleviation of impotence. The pump itself is essentially as described above, although often made to higher standards of quality with a much higher price, and arrangements for distribution by suppliers of medical equipment. The purpose is not to cure the condition, but to attain an erection by mechanical and hydrodynamical means even if there is nerve and vascular damage preventing a full natural erection; once the penis is erect, a compression ring is slid on to maintain the erection which will otherwise subside immediately.

A flexible compression ring (or sometimes more than one), commonly called cock ring
Cock ring
A cock ring, or cockring, is a ring that is placed around a man's penis, usually at the base, primarily to slow the flow of blood from the erect penile tissue, thus maintaining erection for a much longer period of time....

s when used recreationally, must be used. It is fitted on the open end of the cylinder, then an erection is created by pumping. Then the ring is pushed by hand onto the base of the erect penis before releasing the vacuum. This restricts blood flow out of the now erect penis, enabling the erection to be held even in the presence of problems of the vascular or nervous system which would otherwise lead to immediate loss of erection. In the best circumstances erections can be maintained for a considerable time, but manufacturers' literature recommends that, for safety, rings should be removed after no more than 30 minutes. Very prolonged use (hours) will cause permanent harm.

A personal lubricant
Personal lubricant
Personal lubricants are specialized lubricants to reduce friction between body parts, or between body parts and other objects...

 of a type not harmful to the ring material is used, primarily to make a good seal at the base of the pump to prevent air leakage, in the same way that vacuum grease
Vacuum grease
Vacuum grease is a lubricant with low volatility and is used for applications in low pressure environments. Lubricants with higher volatility would evaporate, causing two problems:* They would not be present to provide lubrication....

 is used with a laboratory vacuum pump
Vacuum pump
A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. The first vacuum pump was invented in 1650 by Otto von Guericke.- Types :Pumps can be broadly categorized according to three techniques:...

. It also makes it easier to slide the ring off the cylinder, and later to remove the ring.

Pumping must be done very carefully to avoid serious injury: over-enthusiastic pumping can burst blood vessels and form blisters. In some cases the testicles can be unexpectedly pulled into the cylinder, causing discomfort, pain, and possibly injury. It is also believed that the rim of the cylinder can cut into the skin and over time cause damage to the ligaments surrounding the penis. Impatiently pumping without reading explanatory material can produce too much suction (any pressure lower than 10 torr
Torr
The torr is a non-SI unit of pressure with the ratio of 760 to 1 standard atmosphere, chosen to be roughly equal to the fluid pressure exerted by a millimetre of mercury, i.e., a pressure of 1 torr is approximately equal to 1 mmHg...

/1,333 Pa) and cause permanent and irreparable injury. Attempts at using vacuum cleaner units for this purpose have resulted in extremely severe injuries because the suction is far too powerful.

Pumps used with rings are virtually always effective, as they operate by a simple mechanical process, in cases of ED, even when pharmaceutical methods fail. They may nonetheless be found unsatisfactory due to the inconvenience and similar factors.

The effectiveness of penis pumps for permanent penis enlargement was examined by Kazem, Hosseini and Alizadeh. They studied 37 men with penis length less than 10 cm and found no significant change in penile length after using pumps for six months, although the follow-up have found 30% satisfaction with the method. The conclusion of the paper stated that vacuum treatment of the penis is not an effective method for penile elongation, but provides psychological satisfaction for some men.

A 31-patient study conducted by the Department of Urology at St Peter's Hospitals and the Institute of Urology in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

 investigating the usefulness of pumps to correct the penile curvature associated with Peyronie's disease
Peyronie's disease
Peyronie's Disease Peyronie's Disease Peyronie's Disease (also known as "Induratio penis plastica", or more recently Chronic Inflammation of the Tunica Albuginea (CITA), is a connective tissue disorder involving the growth of fibrous plaques in the soft tissue of the penis affecting up to 10% of men...

 found that "There was a clinically and statistically significant improvement in penile length, angle of curvature and pain after 12 weeks of using the vacuum pump". In this study, subjects with Peyronie's undertook two ten-minute pumping sessions per day for twelve weeks. The additional penis length was an unexpected side effect and not an intended aim of the study, but large enough to be statistically significant.

Stretching

Stretching consists of attaching a penis stretcher or "extender" device to the penis for set periods of time. The device exerts a constant traction on the penis, which, in theory, lengthens and widens the penis. The traction supposedly causes the cells in the penis to divide and expand.

Jelqing

Jelqing and "jikok" is a penis enlargement method intended to make the penis
Penis
The penis is a biological feature of male animals including both vertebrates and invertebrates...

 larger by "exercising" tissues in the penis, with the goal of permanently increasing the maximum erect size of the penis. This technique, also called "milking", involves wrapping the thumb and index finger around the penis while semi-erect and repeatedly drawing them away from one's body to force blood into the glans
Glans penis
The glans penis is the sensitive bulbous structure at the distal end of the penis. The glans penis is anatomically homologous to the clitoral glans of the female...

, thus encouraging more vascularity in the corpus cavernosum
Corpus cavernosum penis
The corpus cavernosum penis is one of a pair of sponge-like regions of erectile tissue which contain most of the blood in the penis during penile erection...

 and associated tissues.

Clamping

Clamping is a risky and dangerous technique. The goal of clamping is to increase the girth of the penis. This enlargement technique uses a constricting device, such as a shoe string, cable clamp, or a tight cock ring
Cock ring
A cock ring, or cockring, is a ring that is placed around a man's penis, usually at the base, primarily to slow the flow of blood from the erect penile tissue, thus maintaining erection for a much longer period of time....

. The device is firmly tied, clamped, or put, respectively, on the base of the erect penis while "edging
Orgasm control
Orgasm control, also known as "edging", "peaking", "surfing", and by other terms, is a sexual technique which involves the maintenance of a high level of sexual arousal for an extended period of time without reaching orgasm, although orgasm can be reached eventually. If orgasm is not reached after...

" (extended masturbation) with a firmly erect penis. Use of a metal cock ring is not advised because trapped blood engorging the penis can make it impossible to remove without amputation or emergency intervention such as sawing the ring off. Clamping is considered extremely dangerous by both practitioners and the medical community as it can cause permanent catastrophic damage to the penis.

Hanging

Weight hanging consists of attaching a device (usually a rope or a strap) that grips the glans
Glans
The glans is a vascular structure located at the tip of the penis in men or a homologous genital structure of the clitoris in women.-Structure:...

 or just behind the glans and allows a weight to be suspended for a specific amount of time. Then a conscious effort is made to exercise the penis by raising the weight in repetitions (lasting no more than 5 to 10 minutes at a time) starting with the smallest and lightest weight 1/16 pound to the heaviest usually 1/4 pound or more.

Weight hanging, however, can also carry serious risks, which include nerve damage, chronic pain, scarring and impotence. The idea behind weight hanging is to stretch the tunica albuginea
Tunica albuginea (penis)
The tunica albuginea is the fibrous envelope of the corpora cavernosa penis. It consists of approximately 5% elastin, an extensible tissue that is primarily made up of the amino acids glycine, valine, alanine, and proline...

 and other various tissues of the penis.

Hanging carries additional health risks due to the restriction of blood flow to the glans, including testicular cancer.

See also

  • Penis
    Penis
    The penis is a biological feature of male animals including both vertebrates and invertebrates...

  • Erectile dysfunction
    Erectile dysfunction
    Erectile dysfunction is sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual performance....

  • Clitoral pump
    Clitoral pump
    A clitoral pump is a sex toy designed for women's pleasure that is applied to the clitoris and/or labia to create suction and increase blood flow to the genitals...

  • Foreskin restoration
    Foreskin restoration
    Foreskin restoration is the process of expanding the residual skin on the penis, via surgical or non-surgical methods. It can be performed for several reasons, among them being a desire to create the appearance of a natural foreskin covering the glans penis, or to increase sexual sensitivity of...

  • Human penis size
    Human penis size
    Human penis size is the measured length and width of the human penis. The most accurate measurement of the human penis comes from several measurements at different times, as there is natural variability in size due to arousal level, time of day, room temperature, frequency of sexual activity, and...

  • Cock ring
    Cock ring
    A cock ring, or cockring, is a ring that is placed around a man's penis, usually at the base, primarily to slow the flow of blood from the erect penile tissue, thus maintaining erection for a much longer period of time....

  • Penile prosthesis
    Penile prosthesis
    A penile prosthesis is a medical device implanted in the penis requiring a surgical procedure. The device is often used for men with organic or treatment-resistant psychogenic impotence who suffer from erectile dysfunction...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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