Partizansk is a town in Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai
Primorsky Krai , informally known as Primorye , is a federal subject of Russia . Primorsky means "maritime" in Russian, hence the region is sometimes referred to as Maritime Province or Maritime Territory. Its administrative center is in the city of Vladivostok...

, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, located on a spur of the Sikhote-Alin
The Sikhote-Alin is a mountain range in Primorsky and Khabarovsk Krais, Russia, extending about 900 km to the northeast of the Russian Pacific seaport of Vladivostok...

 mountains, about 170 kilometres (105.6 mi) east of Vladivostok
The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

. Population:

The town was formerly known as Suchan and Gamarnik.


A number of creeks flow through the town into the nearby Partizanskaya River
Partizanskaya River
Partizanskaya River is a river in Primorsky Krai.Its length is 142 km, a square of basin is 4140 km2. Its sources are in South Sikhote-Alin in Partizansky District, the mouth is Nakhodka Bay near Nakhodka. The main tributary is Tigrovaya River . Other ones are Melniki River and Vodopadnaya...

, previously known as the Suchan.

Medieval history

From the middle of the 9th century, the kingdom of Balhae
Balhae was a Manchurian kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. After Goguryeo's capital and southern territories fell to Unified Silla, Dae Jo-yeong, a Mohe general, whose father was Dae Jung-sang, established Jin , later called Balhae.Balhae occupied southern parts of Manchuria and...

 occupied Primorsky Krai, consisting of the Nanai, the Udege, the Evenks
The Evenks are a Tungusic people of Northern Asia. In Russia, the Evenks are recognized as one of the Indigenous peoples of the Russian North, with a population of 35,527...

, the Mohe and other descendants of the Tungus
Tungusic languages
The Tungusic languages form a language family spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria by Tungusic peoples. Many Tungusic languages are endangered, and the long-term future of the family is uncertain...

-speaking people. Prior to this occupation, Partizansk
and its neighbourhood were settled by Yulou Mohe (虞婁靺鞨 Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

 : 우루말갈 pinyin
Pinyin is the official system to transcribe Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet in China, Malaysia, Singapore and Taiwan. It is also often used to teach Mandarin Chinese and spell Chinese names in foreign publications and used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into...

 : Yúlóu Mòhé) tribes who were incorporated to Balhae Kingdom under King Seon
Seon of Balhae
Dae Insu, also known as King Seon was the 10th king of the Korean kingdom of Balhae. He restored national strength, and is remembered today as the last of the great Balhae rulers before its fall.- Background :...

's reign (818-830). During the Balhae kingdom period, a town called Jeongju (定州, Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

: 정주) was founded which was also the administrative centre of Jeongli Prefecture (定理府, Hangul : 정리부).

According to the Treaty of Nerchinsk
Treaty of Nerchinsk
The Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689 was the first treaty between Russia and China. The Russians gave up the area north of the Amur River as far as the Stanovoy Mountains and kept the area between the Argun River and Lake Baikal. This border along the Argun River and Stanovoy Mountains lasted until...

 of 1689 the area was under control of China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. It was transferred to Imperial Russia as the result of the Beijing Treaty of 1860.

Modern history

In the late 19th century, the Vladivostok-based Russian Pacific Fleet was in deep need of a source of coal. The Department of Mines sent a geological expedition to the area south of Ussuriysk
Ussuriysk is a city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, located in the fertile valley of the Razdolnaya River, north of Vladivostok and about from both the Chinese border and the Pacific Ocean. Population: -Medieval history:...

, working there from 1888 to 1893. Coal was found, which could be mined and sent to Nakhodka
Nakhodka is a port city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated on the Trudny Peninsula jutting into the Nakhodka Bay of the Sea of Japan, about east of Vladivostok...

 for the needs of the Fleet.

In 1896, the Department of Mines made a large order for coal from the Suchan River area, and the town was founded as a settlement for miners. The settlement was originally named Suchansky Rudnik, meaning Mining Pit of Suchan.

Later in 1896, more detailed prospecting was organized in Suchan, and commercial operations started at around that time. Suchan miners were living in dug-outs, cabins, and tents, and living conditions were awful. Only in 1900, when 46 highly qualified miners from Gorlovka arrived, construction of the mine #1 and of ten houses started. Government-owned coal mines were also established at that time. The first migrants started to move to Suchan.

The government often neglected to maintain good living conditions for Suchan workers. For the period of 1896–1922, only one two-storey house was built. Suchan itself was just a group of several badly planned mine settlements. In 1905 and 1906 State schools were opened and a hospital for 50 people was built.

In the period of 1905–1914, several new mines were opened in Suchan. Wooden barracks and individual houses also appeared. Construction was carried out without proper planning, with each artel
Artel is a general term for various cooperative associations in Russia and Ukraine, historical and modern.Historically, artels were semi-formal associations for various enterprises: fishing, mining, commerce, of loaders, loggers, thieves, beggars, etc. Often artels worked far from home and lived...

 building a barrack for its workers. Some of those buildings remain intact to the present day. The founders of the Suchansky mine pit had not carried out much work up to 1914. After the beginning of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, development completely stopped. Many workers were called up for military service, extraction of coal reduced greatly, and construction works were cut down. Difficult years of need and hardship started.

In 1917 there were eleven mines which annually extracted up to 300,000 tons of coal. In 1918–1922, during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

, the supporters of the Bolsheviks conducted an active partisan
Partisan (military)
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity...

 struggle in the region. After the establishment of Soviet Authority in Primorye, coal remained the region's main production.

After 1922, restoration of old mines and building of new ones started. Spread settlements merged into one large locality. Construction of multi-storey buildings began.

At this time great attention was paid to cultural development of the town. In 1917 the People's House was built, which later transformed into a club of miners. It became a cultural center of the town. With the growth of mines and the population of the town necessity in new clubs arose. In 1926 a club for 350 people was built near mine #10. In 1932, a club for 200 people near mine #20 and for 250 people at timber plant were built. In 1933, the largest and the most beautiful Palace of Culture in Primorye with a hall for 1,200 people started functioning

Town status was granted in 1932, and the name shortened to Suchan. Soon after that Suchan was renamed Gamarnik , after revolutionary commissar Yan Gamarnik
Yakov Gamarnik
Jankel Borysovych Pukhdykovych , better known as Jan Gamarnik or Yakov Gamarnik was a Soviet politician of Jewish ethnicity.-Biography:...

; however, the name reverted to Suchan after Gamarnik's suicide (due to possible arrest during the Great Terror
Great Terror
Great Terror may refer to:* Reign of Terror , a period of extreme violence during the French Revolution, last weeks of which are sometimes referred to as the Red Terror or Great Terror...

) in 1937.

The town was again renamed as Partizansk in 1972, when the cleansing of Chinese names in Primorsky Krai took place. The nearby Suchan River, from which the town had taken its name, was renamed the Partizanskaya.

Economy and infrastructure

The economy of the town and its surrounding area remains largely reliant on coal mining, however the industry is currently in decline, with the previous coal reserves largely exhausted. Previous machine-building, chemical and pharmaceutical works have also been closed.

Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

 production has grown in importance in recent years.

Light industry also prospers, with garment factory, tannery, food-processing plant and brewery currently operating.

1970s witnessed some great effort in modernizing the town's industrial sector, crowned with building a power station which was later named after the town. 30 years later the Partizansk Power Station is being renovated and a new generator has recently been installed to boost the output. Despite being one of the less important stations in the energetic system of the region, especially with the reference to its minor share in the region's energy output, Partizansk Power Station has a vital role in supplying with electricity the town and the close vicinity.

The town lies on the branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

 leading to Nakhodka
Nakhodka is a port city in Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated on the Trudny Peninsula jutting into the Nakhodka Bay of the Sea of Japan, about east of Vladivostok...

, this section of the railroad was completed in 1935.

Historical and tourist attractions

A coal deposit in Oleny Klyuch (near mine #1) was for the first time mentioned by Vasily P. Margaritov, a member of the Geographic Society of Amur Krai. This place is now called "The First Coal" (as it was the first mine in the area). Today, the mine is no longer in operation, and is commemorated with a cast-iron sign placed there in 1932. The sign contains the following text: "In 1883 the first coal was found here. Here the mine begins."

The nearby area also includes a number of cliffs and waterfalls.

External links

Official website of Partizansk Unofficial website of Partizansk Brief History of Partizansk The formation of Balhae (발해의 선립과정) The capitals and the prefectures of Balhae Kingdom
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