Paravertebral ganglia
Along the length of the sympathetic trunk
Sympathetic trunk
The sympathetic trunks are a paired bundle of nerve fibers that run from the base of the skull to the coccyx.-Structure:...

 are ganglia known as ganglia of sympathetic trunk or paravertebral ganglia. The ganglia are distinguished as cervical
Cervical nerves
The cervical nerves are the spinal nerves from the cervical vertebrae.Although there are seven cervical vertebrae , there are eight cervical nerves . All nerves except C8 emerge above their corresponding vertebrae, while the C8 nerve emerges below the C7 vertebra...

, thoracic, lumbar
In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum ...

, and sacral
Sacral may refer to:*sacred*sacrum...

 and, except in the neck, they closely correspond in number to the vertebrae.


Only the cervical ganglia have specific names. They are arranged thus:
  • cervical ganglia
    Cervical ganglia
    The cervical ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system. These emerging postganglionic nerves synapse with preganglionic nerves from the thoracic spinal cord. They consist of three paravertebral ganglia:* superior cervical ganglion...

     - 3 ganglia

  • thoracic ganglia
    Thoracic ganglia
    The thoracic ganglia are paravertebral ganglia. The thoracic portion of the sympathetic trunk typically has 12 thoracic ganglia. Emerging from the ganglia are thoracic splanchnic nerves that help provide sympathetic innervation to abdominal structures.Also, the ganglia of the thoracic sympathetic...

     - 12 ganglia

  • lumbar ganglia
    Lumbar ganglia
    The lumbar ganglia are paravertebral ganglia. The lumbar portion of the sympathetic trunk typically has 4 lumbar ganglia. The lumbar splanchnic nerves arise from the ganglia here, and contribute sympathetic efferent fibers to the nearby plexuses....

     - 5 ganglia

  • sacral ganglia
    Sacral ganglia
    The sacral ganglia are paravertebral ganglia of the sympathetic trunk. As the sympathetic trunk heads inferiorly down the sacrum, it turns medially. There are generally four or five sacral ganglia...

    - 4 ganglia

External links

- "Autonomic Connections of the Spinal Cord"
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