Parachute Landing Fall
A parachute landing fall (or PLF) is a safety technique that allows a parachutist
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag, or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift. Parachutes are usually made out of light, strong cloth, originally silk, now most commonly nylon...

 to land safely and without injury. The technique is performed by paratrooper
Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force.Paratroopers are used for tactical advantage as they can be inserted into the battlefield from the air, thereby allowing them to be positioned in areas not accessible by land...

s and novice recreational parachutists when using round parachutes deployed by static line
Static line
A static line is a fixed cord attached to a large, stable object. It is used for safety in construction andto open parachutes automatically for paratroopers and novice parachutists.-Use in parachuting:...


While landing under a parachute canopy
Canopy (Parachute)
The term Canopy is used by skydivers or parachutists to describe the actual parachute itself, as opposed to the parachute system as a whole....

, the jumper's feet strike the ground first and, immediately, he throws himself sideways to distribute the landing shock sequentially along five points of body contact with the ground:
  1. the balls of the feet
  2. the side of the calf
  3. the side of the thigh
  4. the side of the hip, or buttocks
  5. the side of the back (latissimus dorsi muscle
    Latissimus dorsi muscle
    The latissimus dorsi , meaning 'broadest muscle of the back' , is the larger, flat, dorso-lateral muscle on the trunk, posterior to the arm, and partly covered by the trapezius on its median dorsal region.The latissimus dorsi is responsible for extension,...


During a parachute landing fall, the jumper's legs are slightly bent at the knee, the chin is tucked in, and the parachute riser
Riser may refer to:* Riser , a reservoir in a manufacturing mold* Stair riser, the vertical elements in a set of stairs* Drilling riser, a device used on a ship or offshore drilling rig...

s may be grasped in an arm-bar protecting the face and throat, with the elbows tucked into the sides to prevent injury. Alternatively, the hands can be linked behind the neck with elbows tucked in close.

The fall is executed in one of six directions — left front, left side, left rear, right front, right side, right rear — depending on the jumper's direction of drift, the terrain, wind, and any oscillation of the jumper. With repeated practice by jumping from a shoulder height platform onto the ground or into a sawdust pit, parachutists can learn to make smooth falls automatically, with a reflex action. Experienced jumpers can deploy a parachute landing fall naturally during an accidental fall; this has reduced or prevented injuries.

The parachute landing fall is most commonly performed by jumpers who are using round canopies. Such parachutes allow less directional control and less lateral- or vertical-speed control than square parachutes. When square canopies are used, experienced jumpers can often land in a standing or short run position at a low vertical speed, so they can remain in a standing position on arriving at the ground. When arriving at greater vertical speed under a round canopy, the parachute landing fall prevents injuries to the feet, ankles, legs, hips, or upper body.


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