Orthodontics
Overview
 
Orthodontics, orthodontia, or orthodonture (from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 orthos "straight or proper or perfect"; and odous "tooth") is the first specialty
Specialty (dentistry)
In the United States, Canada, and Australia, there are nine recognized dental specialties in which some dentists choose to train and practice, in addition to or instead of general dentistry....

 of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusion
Malocclusion
A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The term was coined by Edward Angle, the "father of modern orthodontics", as a derivative of occlusion, which refers to the manner in which opposing teeth meet.-Presentation:Most people have...

s (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth
Tooth
Teeth are small, calcified, whitish structures found in the jaws of many vertebrates that are used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are embedded in the Mandible bone or the Maxillary bone and are...

 irregularity, disproportionate jaw
Jaw
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of...

 relationships, or both. Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or can deal with the control and modification of facial growth.
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Encyclopedia
Orthodontics, orthodontia, or orthodonture (from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 orthos "straight or proper or perfect"; and odous "tooth") is the first specialty
Specialty (dentistry)
In the United States, Canada, and Australia, there are nine recognized dental specialties in which some dentists choose to train and practice, in addition to or instead of general dentistry....

 of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusion
Malocclusion
A malocclusion is a misalignment of teeth or incorrect relation between the teeth of the two dental arches. The term was coined by Edward Angle, the "father of modern orthodontics", as a derivative of occlusion, which refers to the manner in which opposing teeth meet.-Presentation:Most people have...

s (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth
Tooth
Teeth are small, calcified, whitish structures found in the jaws of many vertebrates that are used to break down food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or for defensive purposes. The roots of teeth are embedded in the Mandible bone or the Maxillary bone and are...

 irregularity, disproportionate jaw
Jaw
The jaw is any opposable articulated structure at the entrance of the mouth, typically used for grasping and manipulating food. The term jaws is also broadly applied to the whole of the structures constituting the vault of the mouth and serving to open and close it and is part of the body plan of...

 relationships, or both. Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or can deal with the control and modification of facial growth. In the latter case it is better defined as "dentofacial orthopaedics". Orthodontic treatment can be carried out for purely aesthetic reasons with regards to improving the general appearance of patients' teeth. However, there are orthodontists who work on reconstructing the entire face rather than focusing exclusively on teeth.

History of orthodontics

Edward Angle
Edward Angle
Edward Hartley Angle was an American dentist, widely regarded as the father of modern orthodontics.Edward Angle is frequently described as "the father of modern orthodontics." He was trained as a dentist, but made orthodontics his speciality and dedicated his life to standardizing the teaching...

 was the first orthodontist—the first dentist to limit his practice to orthodontics only. He is considered the "father of modern orthodontics."

Modern Orthodontics

The use of digital models in orthodontics is rapidly increasing as the industry undergoes analog to digital conversions in record keeping. The University of Minnesota recently developed Three Dimensional Dental Models for Computer Automated Treatment Simulation that can be used to reduce the amount of human input needed for orthodontic treatment planning. This software tool has the ability to automatically segment teeth from one another and the gums. Digital laboratories are currenlty being used by many orthodontists, but can be very expensive. This software provides an efficient and cost-effective method for completing the segmentation process.

Methods

For comprehensive orthodontic treatment, most commonly, metal wires (Juste) are inserted into orthodontic brackets (see dental braces), which can be made from stainless steel or a more aesthetic ceramic material. The wires interact with the brackets to move teeth into the desired positions. Other methods may include (1) invisalign. Invisalign
Invisalign
Invisalign is a series of clear, removable teeth aligners that both orthodontists and dentists use as an alternative to traditional metal dental braces. As of April 2008, more than 730,000 patients have completed or are currently in treatment....

 consists of clear plastic aligners that 'level and align', but require more patient compliance than traditional braces. In most cases, invisalign is not a suitable replacement for traditional braces. (2) Suresmile
Suresmile
SureSmile is a type of braces used by orthodontists to straighten teeth. With SureSmile the orthodontist combines 3-D imaging, treatment planning software and a robot to create the wires. The technique is reported in The World Journal of Orthodontics to decrease the time required to complete...

, a dental treatment system that uses 3-D imaging and a robot to shorten the time to straight teeth.
Additional components—including removable appliances ("plates"), headgear, expansion appliances, and many other devices—may also be used to move teeth and jaw bones. Functional appliances, for example, are used in growing patients (age 5 to 14) with the aim of modifying the jaw dimensions and relationship if these are altered. This therapy, termed Dentofacial Orthopedics, is frequently followed by fixed multibracket therapy ("full braces") to align the teeth and refine the occlusion
Occlusion (dentistry)
Occlusion, in a dental context, means simply the contact between teeth. More technically, it is the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest....

.
Orthodontics is the study of dentistry that is concerned with the treatment of improper bites, and crooked teeth. Orthodontic treatment can help fix your teeth and set them in the right place. Orthodontists usually use braces and retainers to set your teeth. There are, however, orthodontists who work on reconstructing the entire face rather than focusing exclusively on teeth. After a course of active orthodontic treatment, patients will typically wear retainers
Retainer (orthodontic device)
Orthodontic retainers are custom-made devices, made usually of wires or clear plastic, that hold teeth in position after surgery or any method of realigning teeth. They are most often used before or after dental braces to hold teeth in position while assisting the adjustment of the surrounding gums...

, which maintain the teeth in their improved positions while surrounding bone reforms around them. The retainers are generally worn full-time for a short period, perhaps six months to a year, then part-time (typically, nightly during sleep) for as long as the orthodontist recommends. It is possible for the teeth to stay aligned without regular retainer wear. However, there are many reasons teeth will crowd as a person ages, whether or not the individual ever experienced orthodontic treatment; thus there is no guarantee that teeth will stay aligned without retention. For this reason, many orthodontists prescribe part-time retainer wear for many years after orthodontic treatment.

Diagnosis and treatment planning

In diagnosis and treatment planning, the orthodontist must (1) recognize the various characteristics of a malocclusion or dentofacial deformity; (2) define the nature of the problem, including the etiology if possible;(3) design a treatment strategy based on the specific needs and desires of the individual; and (4) present the treatment strategy to the patient in such a way that the patient fully understands the ramifications of his/her decision.

The New York Times has recently written that orthodontists are using Cone Beam CT too much in the diagnosis and treatment of orthodontic patients, leading to an unnecessary increased risk of cancer.

Training

Orthodontics was the first recognized specialty field within dentistry. Many countries have their own systems for training and registering orthodontic specialists. A two to three year period of full-time post-graduate study is required for a dentist to qualify as an orthodontist.

United States of America

The applicant must have completed or be a full-time student/resident in an
advanced education program in orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics which
is approved by the Commission on Dental Accreditation of the ADA. The
"Advanced Standing Student - Standard #5," as recognized by the Commission of Dental Education,
is eligible to make application upon the completion of their program. The applicant will submit
with the application either a copy of the graduate orthodontic degree/certificate or a letter from
the Program Director verifying the applicant's status.

Certification Process

1. Application

2. Written Examination

3. Clinical Examination

4. Annual Fee

Europe

In the United Kingdom, this training period lasts three years, after completion of a membership from a Royal College. A further two years is then completed to train to consultant level, after which a fellowship examination from the Royal College is sat. In other parts of Europe, a similar pattern is followed. It is always worth contacting the professional body responsible for registering orthodontists to ensure that the orthodontist you wish to consult is a recognised specialist.

Canada

A number of dental schools and hospitals offer advanced education in the specialty of Orthodontics to dentists seeking postgraduate education. The courses range from two to three years (with the majority being 3 years) of full-time classes in the theoretical and practical aspects of orthodontics together with clinical experience. Generally, admission is based on an application process followed by an extensive interviewing process by the institution, in order to select the best candidates. Candidates usually have to contact the individual school directly for the application process.

India

In India, many dental colleges affiliated to universities offer orthodontics as specialization in Master of Dental Surgery ( M.D.S ) programme.The minimum qualification for M.D.S is Bachelor of Dental Surgery ( B.D.S ).
The present course for MDS in Orthodontics stands at 3 years in all dental colleges in India which are recognised by the Dental Council of India.

The Indian Orthodontic Society was established in 1965. The Academy of Fixed Orthodontics, (AFO), established in 2008, represents GP's and members from other dental specialties(Non Orthodontists) who practices orthodontics. AFO offers certification courses in Fixed Orthodontics for General Practitioners in Dentistry. AFO is not recognized by Indian Orthodontic Society, the official body of orthodontists in India which does not recognize non orthodontists who have taken certificate courses from non recognized bodies as Orthodontists. Only orthodontists who have done masters in orthodontics from recognised schools are allowed as members of Indian Orthodontic Society.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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