The Olympic Charter, last updated March 21, 1992, is a set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games
The Olympic Games is a major international event featuring summer and winter sports, in which thousands of athletes participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition where more than 200 nations participate...
, and for governing the Olympic Movement. Adopted by International Olympic Committee
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...
(IOC), it is the codification of the Fundamental Principles, Rules and By-laws. French and English are the official languages of the Olympic Charter. If, at any time, there is a discrepancy between versions of the text, the French text prevails.
Purpose of the Olympic CharterThroughout the history of the Olympics, the Olympic Charter has often decided the outcome of Olympic controversy. As expressed in its introduction, the Olympic Charter serves 3 main purposes:
- to establish principles and values of Olympism
- to serve as IOC law
- to define the rights and obligations of the 4 main constituents of the Olympic movement: the International Olympic CommitteeInternational Olympic CommitteeThe International Olympic Committee is an international corporation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president...
(IOC), the International Federations and the National Olympic CommitteeNational Olympic CommitteeNational Olympic Committees are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic movement. Subject to the controls of the International Olympic Committee, they are responsible for organizing their people's participation in the Olympic Games...
s, and the Organizing Committees for the Olympic Games.
Main Components of the Olympic CharterWith its 5 chapters and 61 articles, the Olympic Charter outlines in detail several guidelines and rules. This article highlights and summarizes those items considered most important to governing the Olympic Games, the Olympic movement, and its 3 main constituents: the International Olympic Committee, the International Federations, and the National Olympic Committees.
Chapter 1: The Olympic Movement and its ActionArticle 2: The mission of the IOC is to promote Olympism throughout the world
and to lead the Olympic Movement. This includes upholding ethics in sports, encouraging participation in sports, ensuring the Olympic Games take place on a regular schedule, protecting the Olympic Movement, and encouraging and supporting the development of sport.
Article 6: The Olympic Games are competitions between athletes in individual or team events and not between countries.
Article 8: The Olympic symbol consists of five interlocking rings which, from left to right are blue, yellow, black, green and red.
Chapter 3: The International Federations (IFs)Chapter 3 discusses the role of International Federations (IFs) in the Olympic movement. IFs are international non-governmental organizations that administer to sports at the world level and encompass organizations administering such sports at the national level. For each sport that is part of the Olympic Games, an International Federation exists. These IFs work to ensure their sports are developed in a way that agrees with the Olympic Charter and the Olympic spirit. With technical expertise in its particular sport, an IF has control over eligibility for competition as well as details of the venue in which the athletic competition takes place.
Chapter 4: The National Olympic Committees (NOCs)Article 28: The mission of the National Olympic Committee
National Olympic Committee
National Olympic Committees are the national constituents of the worldwide Olympic movement. Subject to the controls of the International Olympic Committee, they are responsible for organizing their people's participation in the Olympic Games...
s (NOCs) is to develop, promote and protect the Olympic Movement in their respective countries. The role of NOCs within each country is to promote the spirit of Olympicism, ensure the observance of the Olympic Charter, and to encourage ethics in and development of sports. They are in charge of their country's representation at the Games, deciding on a host city for the Games, and cooperation with governmental and non-governmental bodies during the Games.
Chapter 5: The Olympic GamesThis chapter addresses the celebration of the Olympic Games, the selection of the host city, the eligibility code for participation in the games, those sports included in the Games, media coverage, publications, and propaganda allowed for the Games.
In addition, Section 3 of this chapter discusses applicable protocol for Olympic functions and events. This includes an outline of use of the Olympic flag, flame, and opening and closing ceremonies.
The Olympic Charter in Recent NewsThe Olympic Charter is not simply a matter of unenforced policy for the Olympic Games. Throughout history, it has served as guidance for the proceedings of the Games. Below are a few of the most recent examples:
- August 2007: Edward McMillan-Scott, Vice President of the European Parliament, called for a debate on whether athletes should boycott the Beijing Olympics in response to human rights abuses. The continuing evidence of persecution and human rights abuses in China cannot be reconciled with the Olympic Spirit set out in Article 1 of the Olympic Charter which seeks "respect for universal fundamental ethical principles."
- November 2, 2005: Active lobbying against Lord Moynihan in the election of the British Olympic Association (BOA) chairman. The Olympic Charter calls for no government interference in Olympic Association elections. Therefore, the issue is being investigated and if the Sports Minister did mislead Parliament, a resignation will most likely ensue.
- May 2004: Bernard Lagat became a US citizen 3 months before he ran track in Athens and won the silver medal in 2004. The glitch is that he won the medal for Kenya. Because Kenya does not allow dual citizenship and the Olympic Charter requires each athlete to be a citizen of the country he or she competes for, his silver medal was taken away. Also according to the Charter, Lagat must now wait 3 years before he is eligible to compete for the United States.
- December 2004: It was discovered that Marion JonesMarion JonesMarion Lois Jones , also known as Marion Jones-Thompson, is a former world champion track and field athlete, and a former professional basketball player for Tulsa Shock in the WNBA...
, 5-time medalist of Track & Field at the 2000 Sydney Olympics, may have been on several banned steroids and hormones when she competed. Because the Olympic Charter states that no decision taken at the Olympic Games can be challenged after a period of 3 years after the closing ceremony, Jones could not lose these medals involuntarily except for doping violations. Jones was later stripped of every Olympic medal dating back to September 2000 after admitting that she took performance-enhancing drugs.
- Doping (sport)Doping (sport)The use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport is commonly referred to by the term "doping", particularly by those organizations that regulate competitions. The use of performance enhancing drugs is mostly done to improve athletic performance. This is why many sports ban the use of performance...
- FIFA Disciplinary CodeFIFA Disciplinary CodeThe FIFA Disciplinary Code is a set of codes and regulations promulgated by FIFA's judicial bodies which are composed by its "Disciplinary Committee" and its "Appeal Committee"....
- List of international sport federations