Oast house
Overview
An oast, oast house or hop kiln is a building designed for kiln
Kiln
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, in which a controlled temperature regime is produced. Uses include the hardening, burning or drying of materials...

ing (drying) hops
Hops
Hops are the female flower clusters , of a hop species, Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart a bitter, tangy flavor, though hops are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine...

 as part of the brewing
Brewing
Brewing is the production of beer through steeping a starch source in water and then fermenting with yeast. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BCE, and archeological evidence suggests that this technique was used in ancient Egypt...

 process. They can be found in most hop-growing (and former hop-growing) areas and are often good examples of vernacular architecture
Vernacular architecture
Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs and circumstances. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which it...

. Many redundant oasts have been converted into houses.

They consist of two or three storeys on which the hops were spread out to be dried by hot air from a wood or charcoal-fired kiln
Kiln
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, in which a controlled temperature regime is produced. Uses include the hardening, burning or drying of materials...

 at the bottom.
Encyclopedia
An oast, oast house or hop kiln is a building designed for kiln
Kiln
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, in which a controlled temperature regime is produced. Uses include the hardening, burning or drying of materials...

ing (drying) hops
Hops
Hops are the female flower clusters , of a hop species, Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart a bitter, tangy flavor, though hops are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine...

 as part of the brewing
Brewing
Brewing is the production of beer through steeping a starch source in water and then fermenting with yeast. Brewing has taken place since around the 6th millennium BCE, and archeological evidence suggests that this technique was used in ancient Egypt...

 process. They can be found in most hop-growing (and former hop-growing) areas and are often good examples of vernacular architecture
Vernacular architecture
Vernacular architecture is a term used to categorize methods of construction which use locally available resources and traditions to address local needs and circumstances. Vernacular architecture tends to evolve over time to reflect the environmental, cultural and historical context in which it...

. Many redundant oasts have been converted into houses.

They consist of two or three storeys on which the hops were spread out to be dried by hot air from a wood or charcoal-fired kiln
Kiln
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, in which a controlled temperature regime is produced. Uses include the hardening, burning or drying of materials...

 at the bottom. The drying floors were thin and perforated to permit the heat to pass through it and escape through a cowl
Cowl (oast)
thumb|Cowls on a maltings at [[Ware, Hertfordshire|Ware]], Herts. A Cowl is a device used on a kiln to keep the weather out of, and induce a flow of air through, the kiln...

 in the roof which turned with the wind. The freshly picked hops from the fields were raked in to dry and then raked out to cool before being bagged up and sent to the brewery. The Kentish dialect word kell was sometimes used for kilns ("The oast has three kells.") and sometimes to mean the oast itself ("Take this lunchbox to your father, he's working in the kell."). The word oast itself also means "kiln".

The earliest surviving oast house is that at Cranbrook
Cranbrook, Kent
Cranbrook is a small town in Kent in South East England which was granted a charter in 1290 by Archbishop Peckham, allowing it to hold a market in the High Street. Located on the Maidstone to Hastings road, it is five miles north of Hawkhurst. The smaller settlements of Swattenden, Colliers...

 near Tunbridge Wells
Royal Tunbridge Wells
Royal Tunbridge Wells is a town in west Kent, England, about south-east of central London by road, by rail. The town is close to the border of the county of East Sussex...

 which dates to 1750 but the process is documented from soon after the introduction of hops into England in the early 16th century. Early oast houses were simply adapted barns but, by the early 19th century, the distinctive circular buildings with conical roofs had been developed in response to the increased demand for beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

. Square oast houses appeared early in the 20th century as they were found to be easier to build. In the 1930s, the cowls were replaced by louvred openings as electric fans and diesel oil ovens were employed.

Hops are today dried industrially and the many oast houses on farms have now been converted into dwellings. One of the best preserved oast house complexes is at The Hop Farm Country Park
The Hop Farm Country Park
The Hop Farm Family Park is a Country Park in Beltring, near East Peckham in Kent, England, is over 450 years old, and has the largest collection of oast houses in the world.-History:...

 at Beltring
Beltring
Beltring is a village in the local government district of Tonbridge and Malling in Kent, England.Beltring is known for the annual War and peace show which takes place at The Hop Farm Country Park...

.

Hop drying

The purpose of an oast is to dry hops. This is achieved by the use of a flow of heated air through the kiln, rather than a firing process (compare drying your hands under a hand drier against baking them in an oven).

The process for the traditional oast:-

Hops were picked in the hop gardens by gangs of pickers, who worked on a piece work
Piece work
Piece work is any type of employment in which a worker is paid a fixed "piece rate" for each unit produced or action performed regardless of time...

 basis and earned a fixed rate per bushel
Bushel
A bushel is an imperial and U.S. customary unit of dry volume, equivalent in each of these systems to 4 pecks or 8 gallons. It is used for volumes of dry commodities , most often in agriculture...

. The green hops were put into large hessian
Burlap
Hessian , or burlap in the US, is a woven fabric usually made from skin of the jute plant or sisal fibres, or may be combined with other vegetable fibres to make rope, nets, and similar products...

 sacks called pokes. These would be taken to the oast and brought into the stowage at first floor level. Some oasts had a man-powered hoist
Animal engine
An animal engine is a machine powered by an animal. Horses, donkeys, oxen, dogs, and humans have all been used in this way.-See also:*Horse mill*Horse power*Persian well*TreadwheelFor Details log on to www.greenenergysolutions.co.in- Books :...

 for this purpose, consisting of a pulley of some 5 feet (1.52 m) diameter on an axle to which a rope or chain was attached.

The green hops when freshly picked had a moisture content of some 80%, this needed to be reduced to 6%, although the moisture content would subsequently rise to 10% during storage.

The green hops were spread out in the kilns. The floors were generally of 1+1/4 in square battens nailed at right angles across the joists, placed so that there was a similar gap between each batten, and covered with a horsehair
Horsehair
Horsehair is the long, coarse hair growing on the manes and tails of horses. It is used for various purposes, including upholstery, brushes, the bows of musical instruments, a hard-wearing fabric called haircloth, and for horsehair plaster, a wallcovering material formerly used in the construction...

 cloth. The hops would be spread some 12 inches (304.8 mm) deep, the kiln doors closed and the furnace lit. When the hops were judged to be dried, the furnace would be extinguished and the hops removed from the kiln using a scuppet, which was a large wooden framed shovel with a hessian base. The hops would be spread out on the stowage floor to cool, and would then be pressed into large jute sacks called pockets with a hop press. Each pocket contained the produce of about 150 bushels (5,455.3 l) of green hops. It weighed a hundredweight
Hundredweight
The hundredweight or centum weight is a unit of mass defined in terms of the pound . The definition used in Britain differs from that used in North America. The two are distinguished by the terms long hundredweight and short hundredweight:* The long hundredweight is defined as 112 lb, which...

 and a quarter (140 pounds (63.5 kg)) and was marked with the growers details, this being required under The Hop (Prevention of Fraud) Act, 1866.

The pockets were then sent to market, where the brewers would buy them and use the dried hops in the beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 making process to add flavour and act as a preservative.

Oasts sometimes caught fire, the damage sometimes being confined to the kilns (Castle Farm, Hadlow
Hadlow
Hadlow is a village in the Medway valley, near Tonbridge, Kent; it is in the Tonbridge and Malling district. The Saxon name for the settlement was Haeselholte...

), or sometimes leading to the complete destruction of the oast (Stilstead Farm, East Peckham
East Peckham
East Peckham is a village in Kent, England, made up of nine hamlets and situated about east of Tonbridge on the River Medway. It was the centre for the hop growing industry in Kent and is still home to the Hop Farm which has the world's largest collection of Oast Houses.-History:The Domesday entry...

 in September 1983 and Parsonage Farm, Bekesbourne
Bekesbourne
Bekesbourne is a village, within the civil parish of Bekesbourne-with-Patrixbourne, near Canterbury in Kent, South East England.Situated approximately three miles south-east of the city boundary, the village has a church, St Peter's Parish Church which has a Norman doorway, a 13th century chancel...

 in August 1996).

Early oasts

The earliest description of an oast dates from 1574. It was a small building of 18 feet (5.49 m) by 9 feet (2.74 m) in plan, with walls 9 feet (2.74 m) high. The central furnace was some 6 feet (1.83 m) long, 2 in 6 in (762 mm) high and 13 inches (330.2 mm) internal width. The upper floor was the drying floor, and only some 5 feet (1.52 m) above the ground floor, hops being laid directly on the slatted floor rather than being laid on hessian cloth as was the later practice.

Conversions to oasts

In many cases, early oasts were adapted from barns or cottages. A chapel
Chapel
A chapel is a building used by Christians as a place of fellowship and worship. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a church, college, hospital, palace, prison or funeral home, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an entirely free-standing building,...

 at Frindsbury
Frindsbury
Frindsbury is part of the Medway Towns conurbation in Kent, southern England. It lies on the opposite side of the River Medway to Rochester, and at various times in its history has been considered fully or partially part of the City of Rochester. Frindsbury refers to both a parish and a manor....

 is also known to have been converted to an oast., as was one at Horton, near Canterbury
Canterbury
Canterbury is a historic English cathedral city, which lies at the heart of the City of Canterbury, a district of Kent in South East England. It lies on the River Stour....



This was done by building a kiln within the building dividing it into three, the upper floor being used the receive the "green" hops, dry them and press the dried hops. Examples of this type of conversion can be seen at Catt's place, Paddock Wood
Paddock Wood
Paddock Wood is a small town and civil parish in the Borough of Tunbridge Wells and county of Kent in England, about southwest of Maidstone. At the time of the 2001 census it had a population of 8,263, and is the centre for hop growing in Kent.-History:...

 and Great Dixter
Great Dixter
Great Dixter is a house in Northiam, East Sussex close to the South Coast of England. It has a famous garden which is regarded as the epitome of English plantsmanship. - House :...

, Northiam
Northiam
Northiam is a village and civil parish in the Rother District of East Sussex, England. The village is located thirteen miles north of Hastings in the valley of the River Rother. The main road that passes through it is the A28 which goes to Canterbury and Hastings.-Governance:The lowest level of...

.

Later conversions of barns and cottages would be by either building an intergal kiln within one end of the building, as seen at Biddenden
Biddenden
Biddenden is a village and civil parish in the Ashford District of Kent, England. The village lies on the Weald of Kent, some five miles north of Tenterden. It was centre for Wealden iron industry and also of clothmaking. During the reign of Edward III some Flemish clothworkers settled in the area...

, Kent or adding kilns externally to the existing building, as seen at Barnhill Farm, Hunton
Hunton
Hunton, as a person, may refer to:*Eppa Hunton , an American politician and generalHunton, as a place, may refer to:*Hunton, Kent, England*Hunton, North Yorkshire, a village in Richmondshire, North Yorkshire, England...

 and also at Sutton Valence
Sutton Valence
Sutton Valence is a village some five miles SE of Maidstone, Kent, England on the Greensand Ridge overlooking the Vale of Kent and Weald. One of the main landmarks in the village is , of which only the ruins of the 12th century keep remain, under the ownership of English Heritage, open any...

.

Purpose built (custom) oasts

An agreement for the building of an oast in Flimwell
Flimwell
The village of Flimwell is in the Rother District of East Sussex, in the civil parish of Ticehurst. It is located about two miles from the village of Ticehurst, close to the border with Kent...

 in 1667 gave the size of the building as 30 by and another to be built there was to be built in 1671 being 32 by or 17 feet (5.2 m), having two kilns. The earliest surviving purpose built oast is at Golford, Cranbrook
Cranbrook, Kent
Cranbrook is a small town in Kent in South East England which was granted a charter in 1290 by Archbishop Peckham, allowing it to hold a market in the High Street. Located on the Maidstone to Hastings road, it is five miles north of Hawkhurst. The smaller settlements of Swattenden, Colliers...

, built in 1750. This small timber framed oast is 21 by in plan, and has a hipped tiled roof. It has one kiln, and a single cowl
Cowl (oast)
thumb|Cowls on a maltings at [[Ware, Hertfordshire|Ware]], Herts. A Cowl is a device used on a kiln to keep the weather out of, and induce a flow of air through, the kiln...

 in the ridge of the roof.

Traditional oasts

In the early nineteenth century, the traditional oast as we now know it started to be built. A two or three storey stowage, with between one and eight circular kilns. Kiln sizes generally ranged from 12 feet (3.66 m) to 18 feet (5.49 m) diameter, with a conical roof. Towards the end of the nineteenth century square kilns were constructed. These generally ranged in size from 16 feet (4.88 m) to 20 feet (6.1 m) square. An oast at Hawkhurst
Hawkhurst
Hawkhurst is a village and civil parish in the borough of Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England. The parish lies to the south-east of Tunbridge Wells. Hawkhurst itself is virtually two villages...

 was built with two octagonal kilns, 15 feet (4.57 m) across the flats.

Modern oasts

In the twentieth century, oasts reverted back to the original form with internal kilns and cowls in the ridge of the roof (Bell 5, Beltring). These oasts were much larger and constructed of modern materials. Oasts were built as late as 1948 (Upper Fowle Hall, Paddock Wood) or 1950 (Hook Green, Lamberhurst
Lamberhurst
Lamberhurst is a village and civil parish in Kent although the latter parish was at first in both Kent and East Sussex. The line of the county border was adjusted following the Local Government Act 1894, which required that parish boundaries be aligned with counties...

).

Very modern oasts bear little resemblance to traditional oasts. These vast buildings can process hops from several farms, as at Norton near Teynham, built in 1982.

The South East

Oasts were built of various materials, including bricks, timber, ragstone, sandstone. Cladding could be timber weatherboards, corrugated iron or asbestos sheet.

Stowage
Many oasts were timber framed buildings, although some were built entirely in brick, or ragstone if this was available locally. Some oasts were entirely brick except the front and floors, which were timber.

Kilns
Internal kilns were built of timber or bricks. External kilns were built from bricks, ragstone, ragstone and bricks, or sandstone. A rare material usage was at Tilden Farm, Headcorn
Headcorn
Headcorn is a village and civil parish in the Maidstone District of Kent, England. The parish is located on the floodplain of the River Beult south east of Maidstone....

 were the kiln was built from Bethersden Marble. During the Second World War, a few kilns were built with a basic timber framing and clad in corrugated iron (Crittenden Farm, Matfield
Matfield
Matfield is a small village, part of the civil parish of Brenchley, in the Tunbridge Wells Borough of Kent, England. The sculptor Theresa Sassoon planted a tree on the green to commemorate the end of World War I; the tree was blown down in the hurricane of 1987 and had to be replaced...

).

Kiln roofs
Kiln roofs, where the kiln was external, were generally built of a timber frame and covered in either peg tiles or slate. Some oasts had conical kiln roofs built of brick, these were covered it tar or pitch to keep them weatherproof. A few oasts had square kilns with brick roofs, again covered in tar or pitch. The top of the roof was open, and carried a cowl or louvred vent.

The West Midlands

Oasts were generally built of bricks, or local stone.

Stowage
Bricks were the usual material for building the stowage, wood only being used in floors. Stone was sometimes used too (Madley
Madley
Madley is a village and civil parish in the English county of Herefordshire. It is located six miles west of the city of Hereford.-Other settlements:...

). Some oasts had a cider mill
Horse mill
A horse mill is a mill that uses a horse as the power source. Any milling process can be powered in this way, but the most frequent use of animal power in horse mills was for grinding grain and pumping water. Other animals used for powering mills include dogs, donkeys and oxen. Engines powered by...

 on the ground floor of the stowage (Little Cowarne Court, Little Cowarne).

Kilns
Bricks were the usual material for building the kilns. Stone was also used.

Kiln roofs
Kiln roofs could be of timber, clad in tiles or slate, or of bricks. Brick kiln roofs could be tarred (Little Cowarne Court, Bromyard
Bromyard
Bromyard is a town in northeast Herefordshire, England with a population of approximately 4,000. It lies near to the county border with Worcestershire on the A44 between Leominster and Worcester. Bromyard has a number of traditional half-timbered pubs and some buildings dating back to Norman times...

) or left bare (The Farm, Brockhampton
Brockhampton
Brockampton is the name of several villages in England:*Brockhampton, Gloucestershire*Brockhampton, Hampshire*Brockhampton, Bringsty in Herefordshire*Brockhampton-by-Ross in Herefordshire...

).The roofs would be topped with a cowl (Upper Lyde Farm, Pipe cum Lyde), or a ridge ventilator (Kidley, Acton Beauchamp
Acton Beauchamp
Acton Beauchamp is a village in the English county of Herefordshire.- History and amenities :The village church is dedicated to St. Giles and is built in Norman style, partly rebuilt in 1819 but also having an extremely rare Anglo Saxon carved stone door lintel reused in the wall of the Norman...

).

South East England

Oasts are generally associated with Kent
Kent
Kent is a county in southeast England, and is one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of...

, but are also found in Sussex
Sussex
Sussex , from the Old English Sūþsēaxe , is an historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. It is bounded on the north by Surrey, east by Kent, south by the English Channel, and west by Hampshire, and is divided for local government into West...

, Surrey
Surrey
Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of...

 and Hampshire
Hampshire
Hampshire is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, a historic cathedral city that was once the capital of England. Hampshire is notable for housing the original birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force...

.

West Midlands

In the West Midlands, the main hop growing areas are Worcestershire
Worcestershire
Worcestershire is a non-metropolitan county, established in antiquity, located in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region...

, Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Herefordshire is a historic and ceremonial county in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire" NUTS 2 region. It also forms a unitary district known as the...

 and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dean....

.

Europe

In Belgium
Belgium
Belgium , officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a federal state in Western Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts the EU's headquarters, and those of several other major international organisations such as NATO.Belgium is also a member of, or affiliated to, many...

, the main hop growing area is around Poperinghe and Ypres
Ypres
Ypres is a Belgian municipality located in the Flemish province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Ypres and the villages of Boezinge, Brielen, Dikkebus, Elverdinge, Hollebeke, Sint-Jan, Vlamertinge, Voormezele, Zillebeke, and Zuidschote...

. The Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

 also has oasts.

Australia

Oast houses are often called hop
Hops
Hops are the female flower clusters , of a hop species, Humulus lupulus. They are used primarily as a flavoring and stability agent in beer, to which they impart a bitter, tangy flavor, though hops are also used for various purposes in other beverages and herbal medicine...

 kiln
Kiln
A kiln is a thermally insulated chamber, or oven, in which a controlled temperature regime is produced. Uses include the hardening, burning or drying of materials...

s in Australia. Tasmania
Tasmania
Tasmania is an Australian island and state. It is south of the continent, separated by Bass Strait. The state includes the island of Tasmania—the 26th largest island in the world—and the surrounding islands. The state has a population of 507,626 , of whom almost half reside in the greater Hobart...

 is a major hop-growing area, as were parts of Victoria
Victoria (Australia)
Victoria is the second most populous state in Australia. Geographically the smallest mainland state, Victoria is bordered by New South Wales, South Australia, and Tasmania on Boundary Islet to the north, west and south respectively....

. During the nineteenth century some of the Kentish hop growers emigrated, and took hops with them. Initially, Tasmanian oasts were converted from existing buildings (New Norfolk
New Norfolk, Tasmania
-References:5. Fellowship of First Fleeters.6. New Norfolk's History and Achievements by Joe Cowburn and Rita Cox 1986-External links:* has extensive local information, history, photographs, resources and attractions...

, Ranelagh) but later purpose built oasts were built (Valley Field, Bushy Park). These oasts had louvred ventilators instead of a cowl. The New Norfolk oast was converted from a watermill
Watermill
A watermill is a structure that uses a water wheel or turbine to drive a mechanical process such as flour, lumber or textile production, or metal shaping .- History :...

 and is now a museum. Another location that has oasts was Tyenna
Tyenna, Tasmania
Tyenna is a settlement in Tasmania, Australia, located west of the state capital, Hobart in its current form it is but a vestige of a once thriving rural community....

. A modern oast of 400 by was built at Bushey Park in 1982.
  • see also John Terry
    John Terry (miller)
    John Terry was an early settler and pioneer farmer in New Norfolk, Tasmania.Born in Askrigg in the Yorkshire Dales, he was the eldest son of John Terry of The Mill, Redmire and Grace Green...

    .

Conversion

With the increasing mechanisation of the hop-picking process, many oasts fell into disuse. Some were demolished, others became derelict. Increasing demand for housing has led to many oasts being converted into houses. Local councils nowadays are generally much stricter on the aesthetics of the conversions than was the case before planning law came into being. Often kiln roofs have to be rebuilt, and cowls provided on converted oasts.

The earliest example of an oast being converted to a house is Millar's Farm oast, Meopham
Meopham
Meopham is a large linear village and civil parish in the Borough of Gravesham and ceremonial county of Kent, in England, and lies to the south of Gravesend. The parish covers , and comprises two villages and two smaller settlements; it has a population of 6,427...

, which was house-converted in 1903 by Sir Philip Waterlow.

Other conversions of oasts for non-residential purposes include a theatre (Oast Theatre
Oast Theatre, Tonbridge
The Oast Theatre is situated on the outskirts of Tonbridge, Kent. It is a small theatre that is based in an old oast house. It is home to the Tonbridge Theatre and Arts Club. The theatre seats 112 people.-History:...

, Tonbridge
Tonbridge
Tonbridge is a market town in the English county of Kent, with a population of 30,340 in 2007. It is located on the River Medway, approximately 4 miles north of Tunbridge Wells, 12 miles south west of Maidstone and 29 miles south east of London...

, Oast house Theatre Rainham, a Youth Hostel (Capstone Farm, Rochester, another at Lady Margaret Manor, Doddington
Doddington, Kent
Doddington is an affluent rural English village, in the south eastern county of Kent, within the borough of Swale. A picturesque village nestling in the 'Syndale Valley' which is in the Kent Downs and is designated an Area of outstanding natural beauty...

 - now a residential centre for people with learning difficulties), a school (Sturry
Sturry
Sturry is a village on the Great Stour river three miles north-east of Canterbury in Kent. The large parish of Sturry Church incorporates the former mining village of Hersden and several hamlets.-Geography:...

), a visitor centre (Bough Beech reservoir) offices (Tatlingbury Farm, Five Oak Green
Five Oak Green
Five Oak Green is a village near Tonbridge, Kent in the parish of Capel. It was a centre for hop growing and in the 19th century" The Rose and crown" public house was converted to a hospital to treat the many hop pickers who resided in the village and its surroundings in the late summer...

 and a museum (Kent Museum of Rural Life, Sandling
Allington, Kent
Allington is an almost entirely modern village situated alongside the sides of the A20 road west of Maidstone in Kent. It is part of the built-up area of Maidstone. It has 2 primary schools; Allington Primary and Palace Wood...

, Preston Street, Faversham
Faversham
Faversham is a market town and civil parish in the Swale borough of Kent, England. The parish of Faversham grew up around an ancient sea port on Faversham Creek and was the birthplace of the explosives industry in England.-History:...

, Wye College, Wye and the former Whitbread Hop Farm
The Hop Farm Country Park
The Hop Farm Family Park is a Country Park in Beltring, near East Peckham in Kent, England, is over 450 years old, and has the largest collection of oast houses in the world.-History:...

 at Beltring
Beltring
Beltring is a village in the local government district of Tonbridge and Malling in Kent, England.Beltring is known for the annual War and peace show which takes place at The Hop Farm Country Park...

.

The National Trust
National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty
The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as the National Trust, is a conservation organisation in England, Wales and Northern Ireland...

 owns an oast at Chartwell
Chartwell
Chartwell was the principal adult home of Sir Winston Churchill. Churchill and his wife Clementine bought the property, located two miles south of Westerham, Kent, England, in 1922...

 which has very rare octagonal cowls, one at (Castle Farm, Sissinghurst
Sissinghurst
Sissinghurst is a small village in the county of Kent in England. Originally called Milkhouse Street , Sissinghurst changed its name in the 1850s, possibly to avoid association with the smuggling and cockfighting activities of the Hawkhurst Gang.The nearest railway station is at...

), converted to tea rooms and another at Batemans, Burwash which has been converted to a shop, with the cowl being replaced by a dovecot
Dovecot
Dovecot may refer to:* Dovecot, Merseyside, an area of the City of Liverpool* Dovecot , an IMAP and POP software package-See also:* Dovecote, a building for pigeons or doves* Dovecote...

.

Fake oasts

In recent years, a number of buildings have been erected to look as though they were oasts, although in fact that is not the case. Examples of this are:-
  • Early Bird public house
    Public house
    A public house, informally known as a pub, is a drinking establishment fundamental to the culture of Britain, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand. There are approximately 53,500 public houses in the United Kingdom. This number has been declining every year, so that nearly half of the smaller...

    , Grove Green
    Grove Green
    Grove Green is a suburban housing development, partially forming a part of Weavering village, near the town of Maidstone in Kent, England. The estate is also near the village of Bearsted and is convenient for the M20 motorway making its homes keenly sought after by London commuters...

    , Maidstone.
  • Harrietsham
    Harrietsham
    Harrietsham is a rural village and civil parish in the Maidstone District of Kent, England. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, it has a population of around 1,504. The parish is located on the slope of the North Downs, east of Maidstone...

    , a group of offices.
  • The Oast House public house, Normanton.
  • Langley Court, Beckenham
    Beckenham
    Beckenham is a town in the London Borough of Bromley, England. It is located 8.4 miles south east of Charing Cross and 1.75 miles west of Bromley town...

    , built by the Wellcome Foundation, now part of Glaxo Wellcome.
  • Caring
    Leeds, Kent
    Leeds is a village and civil parish in the Maidstone District of Kent, England. The parish is located to the east of Maidstone.The village of Leeds is five miles from the county town. It appeared in the Domesday Book of 1086 called Esledes - an old English word meaning slope or hillside...

    , Kent - Houses built in the form of oasts.
  • South Harrow
    South Harrow
    South Harrow has grown out of the village of Roxeth as a result of urbanization and easier access from Central London by rail. South of the old village centre , and beyond the newly developed shopping area, lies South Harrow tube station and the High Street .-History:Much of the local history,...

    , Middlesex - a pub built in the form of an oast.

External links

  • http://www.kentish-oast.co.uk/ Find traditional Kentish Oast Houses in Kent - and buy it!
  • Geograph Oasthouse Article Comprehensive online-article on Oasts and photo-record of Oasts
  • Earth Terminal Recording Studio An Oast House converted into a music recording studio in Hampshire.
  • Oast Theatre Tonbridge Oast Theatre website.
  • The Oasthouse Rainham Oast Theatre website
  • Icons Are oasts icons?
  • Town Wards About oasts
  • SMR Herefordshire oasts.
  • Donnington An oast in Herefordshire.
  • SMR hop picking & oasts in Herefordshire.
  • Hop Museum Hopfenmuseum Tettnang website German
  • American Hop Museum American Hop Museum website.
  • Invectis Hop Gardens, Oast Houses & Farming, hopper hut
    Hopper hut
    A hopper hut was a form of temporary accommodation provided for hop-pickers on English farms in the 19th and 20th centuries.-Background:thumb|Hopper huts at Grange Farm, TonbridgeBefore the days of mechanised farming, hop picking was a labour-intensive process, requiring a vastly greater number of...

    s are illustrated.
  • how an oast works An interactive game showing an oast at work.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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