Naumburg
Overview
 
Naumburg (ˈnaʊmbʊɐ̯k) is a town in Germany, on the Saale River. It is in the district Burgenlandkreis
Burgenlandkreis
The Burgenlandkreis was a district in the south of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Neighboring districts are Merseburg-Querfurt, Weißenfels, Leipziger Land, Aschersleben-Staßfurt, Altenburger Land, Greiz, district-free Gera, Saale-Holzland, Weimarer Land, Sömmerda and the Kyffhäuserkreis.- History :The...

 in the Bundesland
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt is a landlocked state of Germany. Its capital is Magdeburg and it is surrounded by the German states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Thuringia.Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of...

. It is approximately 60 km (37.3 mi) southwest of Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

, 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) south-southwest of Halle
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt
Halle is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish it from the town of Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia...

, and 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) north-northeast of Jena
Jena
Jena is a university city in central Germany on the river Saale. It has a population of approx. 103,000 and is the second largest city in the federal state of Thuringia, after Erfurt.-History:Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document...

.

Local industries include the manufacture of foodstuffs, textiles, machinery and toys.

Naumburg is in a wine-growing region, with numerous vineyards in the surrounding area.
Encyclopedia
Naumburg (ˈnaʊmbʊɐ̯k) is a town in Germany, on the Saale River. It is in the district Burgenlandkreis
Burgenlandkreis
The Burgenlandkreis was a district in the south of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Neighboring districts are Merseburg-Querfurt, Weißenfels, Leipziger Land, Aschersleben-Staßfurt, Altenburger Land, Greiz, district-free Gera, Saale-Holzland, Weimarer Land, Sömmerda and the Kyffhäuserkreis.- History :The...

 in the Bundesland
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt
Saxony-Anhalt is a landlocked state of Germany. Its capital is Magdeburg and it is surrounded by the German states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony, and Thuringia.Saxony-Anhalt covers an area of...

. It is approximately 60 km (37.3 mi) southwest of Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

, 50 kilometres (31.1 mi) south-southwest of Halle
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt
Halle is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish it from the town of Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia...

, and 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) north-northeast of Jena
Jena
Jena is a university city in central Germany on the river Saale. It has a population of approx. 103,000 and is the second largest city in the federal state of Thuringia, after Erfurt.-History:Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document...

.

Local industries include the manufacture of foodstuffs, textiles, machinery and toys.

Naumburg is in a wine-growing region, with numerous vineyards in the surrounding area. SC Naumburg
SC Naumburg
Naumburg SC was a German association football club that played in Naumburg, Saxony-Anhalt. The club was founded 29 September 1899 and was the first formed in the city...

 was a former football club in the town from September 1899 to 1908.

History

The first written record of Naumburg dates from 1012, when it was mentioned as the new castle of the Ekkehardinger, the Margrave of Meissen. It was founded at the crossing of two trade-routes. The successful foundation not long beforehand of a Propstei Church on the site of the later Naumburger Cathedral was mentioned in the Merseburg Bishops' Chronicles in 1021. In 1028 Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX
Pope John XIX , born Romanus, was Pope from 1024 to 1032.He succeeded his brother, Pope Benedict VIII , both being members of the powerful house of Tusculum...

 gave his approval for the transfer of the bishopric from Zeitz to Naumburg. Until 1568, during the Reformation, Naumburg was the seat of the bishops. The last Catholic bishop was Julius von Pflug
Julius von Pflug
Julius von Pflug was the last Catholic bishop of the Diocese of Naumburg from 1542 until his death. He was one of the most significant reformers involved with the Protestant Reformation....

. The foundation of the Cathedral school is dated to 1030. Naumburg has been known as a town since 1144.

Naumburg was a significant trading centre on the Via Regia
Via Regia
Via Regia, i.e. "Royal Highway", denotes a mediæval historic road. The term, in the usual sense, means not just a specific road, rather a type of road. It was legally associated with the king and remained under his special protection and guarantee of public peace.There were many such roads in the...

 in the Middle Ages, especially because of the Naumburg Trade Fairs, first known to have taken place in 1278. The emergence of Leipzig as a trade-fair centre from 1500 and the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

 adversely affected the Naumburg economy.

The ecclesiastical domain was secularised in middle of the 16th century and transferred to the Dukes of Saxony, who administered the district through a government endowment (Stiftsregierung) and later provided administrators.

After the fraternal competition between the four brothers of John George I, Elector of Saxony
John George I, Elector of Saxony
John George I was Elector of Saxony from 1611 to 1656.-Biography:Born in Dresden, he was the second son of the Elector Christian I and Sophie of Brandenburg....

, in 1657 the Naumburger administrative area came into the possession of the secondogeniture area of Saxony-Zeitz, which the youngest son, Moritz, inherited.

Before the Moritzburg castle was built in nearby Zeitz, the Naumburger city castle served as the residence of this line. This period came to an end with the death of the last Protestant representative of the line Saxony-Zeitz in the year 1718. The Naumburger administrative area reverted to the Dukes of Saxony in Dresden and became fully integrated into Albertine Saxony. However it remained until 1815 the seat of its own administrative authority (Consistory of the district of Naumburg-Zeitz). After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Naumburg was ceded to the Kingdom of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918. Until the defeat of Germany in World War I, it comprised almost two-thirds of the area of the German Empire...

, becoming part of the Province of Saxony
Province of Saxony
The Province of Saxony was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and later the Free State of Prussia from 1816 until 1945. Its capital was Magdeburg.-History:The province was created in 1816 out of the following territories:...

. It gained control over the cathedral and its close in 1832.

In 1846 the town was connected to the rail line from Halle
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt
Halle is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish it from the town of Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia...

 to Erfurt
Erfurt
Erfurt is the capital city of Thuringia and the main city nearest to the geographical centre of Germany, located 100 km SW of Leipzig, 150 km N of Nuremberg and 180 km SE of Hannover. Erfurt Airport can be reached by plane via Munich. It lies in the southern part of the Thuringian...

, in 1889 to Artern
Artern
Artern is a town in the Kyffhäuserkreis district, Thuringia, Germany. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Unstrut and Helme, 12 km south of Sangerhausen. It has railway connections to Erfurt and Sangerhausen. The railway connection to Naumburg was cancelled in December 2006. The...

 and eventually in 1900 to Teuchern
Teuchern
Teuchern is a town in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated approx. 10 km southeast of Weißenfels....

. On 15 September 1892 a steam tram system opened in Naumburg. From 2 January 1907 it was electrified.

Although industry was only weakly developed, a socialist club was founded in 1848. During the 1920 Kapp Putsch
Kapp Putsch
The Kapp Putsch — or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch — was a 1920 coup attempt during the German Revolution of 1918–1919 aimed at overthrowing the Weimar Republic...

 five workers were killed. The establishment of the local Communist Party followed in December 1920. Under the German Democratic Republic
German Democratic Republic
The German Democratic Republic , informally called East Germany by West Germany and other countries, was a socialist state established in 1949 in the Soviet zone of occupied Germany, including East Berlin of the Allied-occupied capital city...

 Naumburg was a centre of mechanical engineering, pharmaceuticals, metal-working and footwear manufacture. It was also a garrison town for the Soviet Air Force. Unofficial estimates are that the number of Soviet military personnel approximately equalled that of the local population. The fall of communism in 1989 was accompanied by demonstrations and gatherings in the churches of the city.

Population levels':
  • 1300 - ca. 3000
  • 1755 - 6.987
  • 1840 - 12.674
  • 1875 - 16.258
  • 1880 - 17.868
  • 1890 - 19.807
  • 1925 - 29.337
  • 1933 - 31.427
  • 1939 - 36.940
  • 1946 - 41.379 1
  • 1950 - 40.595 2
  • 1960 - 37.377
  • 1981 - 33.585
  • 1984 - 32.610
  • 1995 - 30.867
  • 1997 - 30.530
  • 2000 - 30.399
  • 2001 - 30.388
  • 2002 - 30.279
  • 2003 - 29.933
  • 2004 - 29.927
  • 2006 - 29.521 3

  • 1 29. October

    2 31. August

    3 30. June

    Main sights

    The most important architectural landmark of the town is St. Peter and Paul's Cathedral
    Naumburg Cathedral
    The Naumburger Cathedral of St. Peter and St. Paul, located in Germany, is an important architectural work of the Late-Romanic as well as the Early- and Late-Gothic. Especially interesting are statues of the twelve cathedral founders and the magnificent Lettner of the western choir, works of the...

     (known in German as the Naumburger Dom), an impressive late Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

     and Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     Cathedral
    Cathedral
    A cathedral is a Christian church that contains the seat of a bishop...

    , built between the 13th and 15th centuries.

    The early Gothic western rood screen was built in 1250. The eastern screen was added in the high Gothic style in the first half of the 14th century. The Romanesque crypt under the east gallery was established around 1170 and was part of an earlier building. Both of the towers at the east end of the church are octagonal and have Baroque canopies. The south-western spire was completed only in 1884; both western spires are closely modelled on the spires of the cathedrals of Laon and Bamberg. The pulpit
    Pulpit
    Pulpit is a speakers' stand in a church. In many Christian churches, there are two speakers' stands at the front of the church. Typically, the one on the left is called the pulpit...

     dates from 1466.

    Its interior includes windows from the Middle Ages
    Middle Ages
    The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

    , as well as the famous 13th-century statues of the founders of the cathedral, Margrave Ekkehard
    Ekkehard
    Ekkehard was a Germanic given name. Eckard, Eckhard, Eckhart, and Eckart are modern forms. It was the name of five monks of the Abbey of Saint Gall from the tenth to the thirteenth century:*Ekkehard I*Ekkehard II*Ekkehard III*Ekkehard IV*Ekkehard V...

     and his wife Uta, along with other local nobles.

    The western tower has been open to the public since Easter 2007, after having long been closed for renovations.

    Other attractions include:
    • The late Gothic town hall (Rathaus).
    • The late Renaissance
      Renaissance architecture
      Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

       residence of the Duke Moritz of Saxony-Zeitz.
    • The Gothic St. Wenceslas Church, which displays paintings by Lucas Cranach the Elder
      Lucas Cranach the Elder
      Lucas Cranach the Elder , was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving...

       and the Hildebrandt
      Zacharias Hildebrandt
      Zacharias Hildebrandt was an organ builder, born in Münsterberg, Silesia. In 1714 his father, a cartwright master, apprenticed him to Gottfried Silbermann in Freiberg. In 1721 Hildebrandt finished his masterpiece, the organ of the Nikolaikirche Langhennersdorf...

       organ that Johann Sebastian Bach
      Johann Sebastian Bach
      Johann Sebastian Bach was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist whose sacred and secular works for choir, orchestra, and solo instruments drew together the strands of the Baroque period and brought it to its ultimate maturity...

       played on.
    • The former bishop's castle Schönburg, which overlooks the town and the Saale River.


    Some parts of the medieval town fortifications survive, including one of the old town gates, the Marientor.

    The German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
    Friedrich Nietzsche
    Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a 19th-century German philosopher, poet, composer and classical philologist...

     spent his childhood and his later years in Naumburg in the home of his mother's family. The house, known as the Nietzsche-Haus
    Nietzsche-Haus, Naumburg
    The Nietzsche-Haus in Naumburg, Germany, is a building dedicated to the life and work of the German philosopher Friedrich NietzscheIn the summer of 1858 Nietzsche's mother, Franziska Nietzsche, moved with her two children, Elisabeth and Friedrich, to 18 Weingarten in Naumberg, the site of the...

    , is now a museum.

    Hussite Cherry Festival

    Every year on the last weekend in June, when the cherries are ripe, the city of Naumburg celebrates the Hussite Cherry Festival. This festival has a long tradition and dates back to at least the 16th century. Since the 17th century the celebrations have been connected with a supposed (but actually fictitious) siege of Naumburg by the Hussites in 1432. A teacher is said to have led his pupils outside the gates of the beleaguered town to beg the Hussite commander Andreas Prokop for mercy. The latter granted their request and gave the children cherries. The legend is commemorated in the song "Die Hussiten zogen vor Naumburg" (The Hussites marched on Naumburg) written by Karl Friedrich Seyferth in 1832.

    People

    • Johann Heinrich Acker
      Johann Heinrich Acker
      Johann Heinrich Acker was a German writer. He sometimes wrote under the name of Melissander.He was taught in his native city of Naumburg and at the regional school of Pforta . Beginning in 1669, he studied in Jena where he became magister and adjunct of the philosophical faculty...

    • Elias Ammerbach
      Elias Ammerbach
      Elias Nikolaus Ammerbach was a German organist and arranger of organ music of the Renaissance. He published the earliest printed book of organ music in Germany and is grouped among the composers known as the Colorists....

    • Johann Gottfried Gruber
      Johann Gottfried Gruber
      Johann Gottfried Gruber was a German critic and literary historian.-Biography:Gruber was born at Naumburg on the Saale....

    • Christian Lobeck
      Christian Lobeck
      Christian August Lobeck , was a German classical scholar.He was born at Naumburg. After studying at the universities of Jena and Leipzig, he became Privatdozent at the University of Wittenberg in 1802, and in 1810 was appointed to a professorship there...

    • Johann Georg Graevius
      Johann Georg Graevius
      Johann Georg Graevius was a German classical scholar and critic. He was born at Naumburg....

    • Botho Strauß
      Botho Strauß
      Botho Strauss is a German playwright, novelist and essayist.-Biography:Botho Strauss's father was a chemist. After finishing his secondary education, Strauss studied German, History of the Theatre and Sociology in Cologne and Munich, but never finished his dissertation on Thomas Mann und das Theater...

    • Bishops of Naumburg
      • Johannes Agricola
        Johannes Agricola
        Johannes Agricola was a German Protestant reformer and humanist. He was a follower and friend of Martin Luther, who became his antagonist in the matter of the binding obligation of the law on Christians.-Early life:Agricola was born at Eisleben, whence he is sometimes called Magister Islebius...

      • Johannes Ambundii
        Johannes Ambundii
        Johannes VI Ambundii, Archbishopric of Riga 1418-1424, secular name Johannes Ambundii de Swan, also Abundi, Ambundij, Habundi, Habendi, Habindi, Almanni and ~ von Schwan was a German ecclesiastic. Ambundii is thought to be born in the area of Stettin in Pomerania...

      • Nicolaus von Amsdorf
        Nicolaus von Amsdorf
        Nicolaus von Amsdorf was a German theologian and Protestant reformer.-Biography:He was born in Torgau, on the Elbe....

      • Engelhard of Naumburg (1206–1242), see List of religious leaders in 1220
    • Volquin
      Volquin
      Volkwin , also known as Folkwin, Volquin, and Wolquin, was the Master of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword from 1209 to 1236. Schenk is sometimes appended to his name....

       (von Naumburg) 1209–1236, see Livonian Brothers of the Sword
      Livonian Brothers of the Sword
      The Livonian Brothers of the Sword were a military order founded by Bishop Albert of Riga in 1202. Pope Innocent III sanctioned the establishment in 1204. The membership of the order comprised German "warrior monks"...

    pedigree of "Naumburg"
    • Friedrich Nietzsche
      Friedrich Nietzsche
      Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a 19th-century German philosopher, poet, composer and classical philologist...

      (see above).

    External links

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