Mount Apo
Overview
 
Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially-active stratovolcano
Stratovolcano
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, explosive eruptions...

 in the island of Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

, Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. With an altitude of 2954 metres (9,691.6 ft), it is the highest mountain
Mountain
Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

 in the country and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 in Region XI
Davao Region
Davao Region / Southern Mindanao, designated as Region XI, is one of the regions of the Philippines, located on the southeastern portion of Mindanao. Davao Region consists of four provinces, namely: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, and Davao del Sur. The region encloses the Davao...

 and Cotabato province in Region XII
SOCCSKSARGEN
SOCCSKSARGEN is a region of the Philippines, located in central Mindanao, and is officially designated as Region XII. The name is an acronym that stands for the region's four provinces and one of its cities: South Cotabato, Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani and General Santos City...

. The peak overlooks Davao City
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) to the northeast, Digos City
Digos City
Digos City is an affluent suburban city in the province of Davao del Sur, Philippines. The city strategically lies on the eastern shores of Davao Gulf and southern foothills of Mt. Apo in the island of Mindanao and it is the center city between the two major cities in Mindanao, Davao City and...

 25 kilometres (15.5 mi) to the southeast, and Kidapawan City
Kidapawan City
Kidapawan City is a 1st class city in the province of Cotabato, Philippines per Department of Finance Order No. 20-2005. It is the capital city of Cotabato Province. It is a favorite tourist destination in the late October to December and in the summer, where thousands of tourist climb the majestic...

 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) to the west.

Apo, which means "ancestor", is flat-topped mountain with three peaks and is capped by a 500 metres (1,640.4 ft) volcanic crater
Volcanic crater
A volcanic crater is a circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity. It is typically a basin, circular in form within which occurs a vent from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. A crater can be of large dimensions, and sometimes of great depth...

 containing a small crater lake
Crater lake
A crater lake is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera, such as a maar; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite. Sometimes lakes which form inside calderas are called caldera lakes, but often this distinction is not...

.
Encyclopedia
Mount Apo is a large solfataric, potentially-active stratovolcano
Stratovolcano
A stratovolcano, also known as a composite volcano, is a tall, conical volcano built up by many layers of hardened lava, tephra, pumice, and volcanic ash. Unlike shield volcanoes, stratovolcanoes are characterized by a steep profile and periodic, explosive eruptions...

 in the island of Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

, Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

. With an altitude of 2954 metres (9,691.6 ft), it is the highest mountain
Mountain
Image:Himalaya_annotated.jpg|thumb|right|The Himalayan mountain range with Mount Everestrect 58 14 160 49 Chomo Lonzorect 200 28 335 52 Makalurect 378 24 566 45 Mount Everestrect 188 581 920 656 Tibetan Plateaurect 250 406 340 427 Rong River...

 in the country and is located between Davao City and Davao del Sur province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 in Region XI
Davao Region
Davao Region / Southern Mindanao, designated as Region XI, is one of the regions of the Philippines, located on the southeastern portion of Mindanao. Davao Region consists of four provinces, namely: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao Oriental, and Davao del Sur. The region encloses the Davao...

 and Cotabato province in Region XII
SOCCSKSARGEN
SOCCSKSARGEN is a region of the Philippines, located in central Mindanao, and is officially designated as Region XII. The name is an acronym that stands for the region's four provinces and one of its cities: South Cotabato, Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, Sarangani and General Santos City...

. The peak overlooks Davao City
Davao City
The City of Davao is the largest city in the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. Its international airport and seaports are among the busiest cargo hubs in the Philippines....

 40 kilometres (24.9 mi) to the northeast, Digos City
Digos City
Digos City is an affluent suburban city in the province of Davao del Sur, Philippines. The city strategically lies on the eastern shores of Davao Gulf and southern foothills of Mt. Apo in the island of Mindanao and it is the center city between the two major cities in Mindanao, Davao City and...

 25 kilometres (15.5 mi) to the southeast, and Kidapawan City
Kidapawan City
Kidapawan City is a 1st class city in the province of Cotabato, Philippines per Department of Finance Order No. 20-2005. It is the capital city of Cotabato Province. It is a favorite tourist destination in the late October to December and in the summer, where thousands of tourist climb the majestic...

 20 kilometres (12.4 mi) to the west.

Apo, which means "ancestor", is flat-topped mountain with three peaks and is capped by a 500 metres (1,640.4 ft) volcanic crater
Volcanic crater
A volcanic crater is a circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity. It is typically a basin, circular in form within which occurs a vent from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. A crater can be of large dimensions, and sometimes of great depth...

 containing a small crater lake
Crater lake
A crater lake is a lake that forms in a volcanic crater or caldera, such as a maar; less commonly and with lower association to the term a lake may form in an impact crater caused by a meteorite. Sometimes lakes which form inside calderas are called caldera lakes, but often this distinction is not...

. The date of its most recent eruption is unknown, and none are verified in historical times.

The volcano is one of the most popular climbing
Mountaineering
Mountaineering or mountain climbing is the sport, hobby or profession of hiking, skiing, and climbing mountains. While mountaineering began as attempts to reach the highest point of unclimbed mountains it has branched into specialisations that address different aspects of the mountain and consists...

 destinations in the Philippines with the summit, on the average, takes two days to reach. The first recorded climb was on October 10, 1880, by a party led by Joaquin Rajal, then Spanish governor of Davao.

Mount Apo Natural Park

On May 9, 1936, Mount Apo was declared a national park
National park
A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently A national park is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or...

 with Proclamation no. 59 by President Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel L. Quezon
Manuel Luis Quezón y Molina served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a government of the Philippines...

, followed by Proclamation no. 35 of May 8, 1966 then Proclamation no. 882 of September 24, 1996. On February 3, 2004, the approval of Republic Act no. 9237 established Mount Apo as a protected area under the category of natural park with an area of 54974.87 hectares (135,845.7 acre); with two peripheral areas of 2571.73 hectares (6,354.9 acre) and 6506.4 hectares (16,077.7 acre) as buffer zones, provided for its management and for other purposes.

Although a declared a Natural Park, the current climbing trails are littered with rubbish by irresponsible climbers, opening paths for soil erosion across the already denuded mountain sides. Some mountain and social climbing groups conduct climbs after the Holy Week
Holy Week
Holy Week in Christianity is the last week of Lent and the week before Easter...

/Easter
Easter
Easter is the central feast in the Christian liturgical year. According to the Canonical gospels, Jesus rose from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion. His resurrection is celebrated on Easter Day or Easter Sunday...

, the peak climbing season, to clean the affected areas.

UNESCO World Heritage list

The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) submitted Mount Apo on December 12, 2009 for inclusion in the UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

 world heritage
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 list. The mountain is considered by DENR as the center of endemism in Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

. It has one of the highest land-based biological diversity in terms of flora and fauna per unit area. It has three distinct forest formations, from lowland tropical rainforest
Tropical rainforest
A tropical rainforest is an ecosystem type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator . This ecosystem experiences high average temperatures and a significant amount of rainfall...

, to mid-mountain forests, and finally to high mountain forests.

A portion of the eastern slopes are also within the scope of the UNESCO Hydrology Environment Life and Policy (HELP) Network. The Davao HELP Network is focused on building collaboration among watershed stakeholders.

Flora and Fauna

The mountain is home to over 272 bird species, 111 of which are endemic
Endemic (ecology)
Endemism is the ecological state of being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere. For example, all species of lemur are endemic to the...

 to the area. It is also home to one of the world's largest eagles, the Philippine Eagle
Philippine Eagle
The Philippine Eagle , also known as the Monkey-eating Eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae that is endemic to forests in the Philippines. It has brown and white-coloured plumage, and a shaggy crest, and generally measures in length and weighs...

, which is the country’s national bird.

Fruits like durian
Durian
The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio and the Malvaceae family . Widely known and revered in southeast Asia as the "king of fruits", the durian is distinctive for its large size, unique odour, and formidable thorn-covered husk...

, the king of fruits, grow abundantly in Mt. Apo.

Geothermal energy

Mount Apo is an excellent source of geothermal energy. Located in Barangay
Barangay
A barangay is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a village, district or ward...

 Ilomavis, Kidapawan City, North Cotabato is the Mindanao Geothermal Production Field with a power output of 106 MW, currently the only power plant of its kind in Mindanao.

The Philippine National Oil Company
Philippine National Oil Company
Philippines National Oil Company, owners of 40% stake in Petron, is a Philippines state owned company.On April 25 2008, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo appointed former Negros Oriental 1st district congressman Jacinto "Jing" Paras as chairman of its subsidiary, the Philippine National Oil Company -...

 geothermal plant supplies electricity to Kidapawan and its neighboring provinces, its completion boosted the city's economy.

Indigenous peoples

Six indigenous peoples - Manobos, Bagobo, Ubos, Atas, K’Iagans and the Tagacaolo consider Mt. Apo as their ancestral domain and their home. These tribes have lived since time immemorial, around the mountain that they also consider as sacred ground
Sacred Ground
Sacred Ground may refer to:* Sacred Ground , a 1983 film starring Tim McIntire and Jack Elam* "Sacred Ground" , a 1989 song by Kix Brooks* Sacred Ground , featuring their version of the above song...

, their place of worship and burial ground of Apo Sandawa, their great forefather. A number of genealogies of known Lumad leaders in South Central Mindanao trace their roots to Mt. Apo. For the Lumads, the term Apo was coined from the name of their great grandparent Apo Sandawa. Mt. Apo is the source of their continual supply of food and medicine, their spiritual and cultural way of life.

Hiking activity

At 2954 metres (9,691.6 ft), Mount Apo is the highest mountain in the Philippines. This majestic peak is one of the country's most popular climbing destinations.

Several trails lead to the summit, coming from North Cotabato and Davao
Davao
Davao refers to several closely related places in Mindanao in the Philippines. The term is used most often to refer to the city.*Davao Region, an administrative region*Davao del Norte province*Davao del Sur province*Davao Oriental province...

 provinces. Arguably the easiest route to the National Park is through Kidapawan City
Kidapawan City
Kidapawan City is a 1st class city in the province of Cotabato, Philippines per Department of Finance Order No. 20-2005. It is the capital city of Cotabato Province. It is a favorite tourist destination in the late October to December and in the summer, where thousands of tourist climb the majestic...

 with an average hike taking 3–4 days roundtrip. In the classification system used by local popular mountaineering website PinoyMountaineer.com, the difficulty of the hike is 7 out of 9. Various sights along the trail include Lake Venado, one of the highest lakes in the Philippines, the solfataras and the old crater near its summit. The mountain may be climbed year-round or one can register and join the city's Summer Climb or the Annual October Trek / Climb.

See also

  • Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
    Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
    The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology is a Philippine national institution dedicated to provide information on the activities of volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis, as well as other specialized information and services primarily for the protection of life and property and in...

    • Active volcanos in the Philippines
    • Inactive volcanos in the Philippines
    • Potentially active volcanos in the Philippines
  • List of geothermal power plants in the Philippines
  • List of Southeast Asian mountains

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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