Mellum is an uninhabited East Frisian island
East Frisian Islands
The East Frisian Islands are a chain of islands in the North Sea, off the coast of East Frisia in Lower Saxony, Germany. The islands extend for some from west to east between the mouths of the Ems and Jade / Weser rivers and lie about 3.5 to 10 km offshore...

 lying southeast of Wangerooge
Wangerooge is one of the 32 Frisian Islands in the North Sea located close to the coasts of the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. It is also a municipality in the district of Friesland in Lower Saxony in Germany.Wangerooge is one of the East Frisian Islands...

, off the coastal settlements of Horumersiel and Schillig
Schillig is a village in the Friesland district of Lower Saxony in Germany. It is situated on the west coast of Jade Bay and is north of the town of Wilhelmshaven.The approaches to the Bay and Willhelmshaven are known in English as the Schillig Roads....


Mellum formed as an island off the end of the Butjadingen
Butjadingen is a peninsula and municipality in the Wesermarsch districts, in Lower Saxony, Germany.-Geography:Butjadingen is situated on the German North Sea coast. It is bordered on the west and southwest by the Jade River and on the east by the Weser River. It forms the northern part of the...

 peninsula – which divides the outflows into the Wadden Sea
Wadden Sea
The Wadden Sea is an intertidal zone in the southeastern part of the North Sea. It lies between the coast of northwestern continental Europe and the range of Frisian Islands, forming a shallow body of water with tidal flats and wetlands. It is rich in biological diversity...

 of the Jade
Jade River
The Jade is a 22 km long river in Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany. Its source is near Oldenburg, and it flows into the Jade Bight, a bay of the North Sea, near Varel.- Literature :* Klaus Dede: An der Jade...

 and Weser
Weser River
The Weser is a river in north-western Germany. Formed at Hann. Münden by the Fulda and Werra, it flows through Lower Saxony, then reaching the historic port city of Bremen before emptying into the North Sea 50 km further north at Bremerhaven, which is also a seaport...

 rivers – only at the end of the nineteenth century. It is chiefly composed of dunes and tidal marsh
Tidal marsh
A tidal marsh is a type of marsh that is found along coasts and estuaries of which the flooding characteristics are determined by the tidal movement of the adjacent estuary, sea or ocean . According to the salinity of the flooding water, freshwater, brackish and saline tidal marshes are...

es. The influence of sea currents and winds is constantly altering the shape and position of the island, which in 2006 had a total surface area of approximately 750 hectares (1853 acres).

An important breeding and feeding ground
* Habitat , a place where a species lives and grows*Human habitat, a place where humans live, work or play** Space habitat, a space station intended as a permanent settlement...

 for wild birds, Mellum is part of the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Wadden Sea National Parks
The Wadden Sea National Parks, part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site, are located along the German coast of the North Sea. Named after the Wadden Sea, they consist of three national parks:...

and a nature protection zone. The island's only house is today used during the summer months for wildlife observation and scientific research purposes only.
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