Medical prescription
Overview
 
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. Prescriptions may include orders to be performed by a patient
Patient
A patient is any recipient of healthcare services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse, veterinarian, or other health care provider....

, caretaker
Caregiver
Caregiver may refer to:* Caregiver or carer - an unpaid person who cares for someone requiring support due to a disability, frailty, mental health problem, learning disability or old age...

, nurse, pharmacist
Pharmacist
Pharmacists are allied health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use...

 or other therapist. Commonly, the term prescription is used to mean an order to take certain medication
Medication
A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

s. Prescriptions have legal implications, as they may indicate that the prescriber takes responsibility for the clinical care of the patient and in particular for monitoring efficacy and safety
Safety
Safety is the state of being "safe" , the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be...

.
Encyclopedia
A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 or other medical practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. Prescriptions may include orders to be performed by a patient
Patient
A patient is any recipient of healthcare services. The patient is most often ill or injured and in need of treatment by a physician, advanced practice registered nurse, veterinarian, or other health care provider....

, caretaker
Caregiver
Caregiver may refer to:* Caregiver or carer - an unpaid person who cares for someone requiring support due to a disability, frailty, mental health problem, learning disability or old age...

, nurse, pharmacist
Pharmacist
Pharmacists are allied health professionals who practice in pharmacy, the field of health sciences focusing on safe and effective medication use...

 or other therapist. Commonly, the term prescription is used to mean an order to take certain medication
Medication
A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

s. Prescriptions have legal implications, as they may indicate that the prescriber takes responsibility for the clinical care of the patient and in particular for monitoring efficacy and safety
Safety
Safety is the state of being "safe" , the condition of being protected against physical, social, spiritual, financial, political, emotional, occupational, psychological, educational or other types or consequences of failure, damage, error, accidents, harm or any other event which could be...

. As medications have increasingly become pre–packaged manufactured products and medical practice has become more complex, the scope of meaning of the term "prescription" has broadened to also include clinical assessments, laboratory tests, and imaging studies relevant to optimizing the safety or efficacy of medical treatment.

Format and definition

Prescriptions are handwritten on preprinted prescription forms that are assembled into pads, or alternatively printed onto similar forms using a computer printer
Computer printer
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a...

 or are in an electronic format. Preprinted on the form is text that identifies the document as a prescription, the name and address of the prescribing provider and any other legal requirement such as a registration number (e.g. DEA
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and use within the United States...

 Number in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

). Unique for each prescription is the name of the patient. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and Ireland
Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, the patient's name and address must also be recorded. Each prescription is dated and some jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction is the practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility...

s may place a time limit on the prescription. There is the specific "recipe" of the medication and the directions for taking it.

is a symbol meaning "prescription". It is sometimes transliterated
Transliteration
Transliteration is a subset of the science of hermeneutics. It is a form of translation, and is the practice of converting a text from one script into another...

 as "Rx" or just "Rx". This symbol originated in medieval manuscripts as an abbreviation of the Late Latin verb recipe, the imperative form of recipere, "to take" or "take thus". Literally, the Latin word recipe means simply "Take...." and medieval prescriptions invariably began with the command to "take" certain materials and compound them in specified ways. Today, when a medical practitioner writes a prescription beginning with "", he or she is completing the command.

Folk theories about the origin of the symbol note its similarity to the Eye of Horus
Eye of Horus
The Eye of Horus is an ancient Egyptian symbol of protection, royal power and good health. The eye is personified in the goddess Wadjet...

, or to the ancient symbol for Zeus
Zeus
In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus was the "Father of Gods and men" who ruled the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father ruled the family. He was the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter and his Etruscan counterpart is Tinia.Zeus was the child of Cronus...

 or Jupiter
Jupiter (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth, Jupiter or Jove is the king of the gods, and the god of the sky and thunder. He is the equivalent of Zeus in the Greek pantheon....

, (
Astronomical symbols
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent various celestial objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy. The earliest forms of these symbols appear in Greek papyri of late antiquity. The Byzantine codices in which the Greek papyri were preserved continued and...

), gods whose protection may have been sought in medical contexts.

The word "prescription", from "pre-" ("before") and "script" ("writing, written"), refers to the fact that the prescription is an order that must be written down before a compound drug can be prepared. Those within the industry will often call prescriptions simply "scripts".

The fact that a prescription instructs someone to "take" rather than "give" is not a trivial distinction, but makes clear it is directed at the patient, and is not directly an instruction to anyone else. In certain states medical marijuana legislation has been drafted calling for a health care professional's written or oral "recommendation", in the belief that a written one would be legally distinguishable from a prescription, but since written advice to a patient is what a prescription is, that belief is mistaken. Jurisdictions may adopt a statutory definition of "prescription" which is applicable as a term of art only to the operation of that statute (see below about prescriptions that may legally be filled with prescription-only items), but the general legal definition of the word is this broad one.

Contents

Both pharmacists and prescribers are regulated professions in most jurisdictions. A prescription as a communications mechanism between them is also regulated and is a legal document.

Regulations may define what constitutes a prescription, the contents and format of the prescription (including the size of the piece of paper - see Exhibit C paragraph 10) and how prescriptions are handled and stored by the pharmacist. Many jurisdictions will now allow faxed or phone prescriptions containing the same information. Exhibit A below illustrates the legal definition of a prescription.

Many brand name drugs have less expensive generic drug
Generic drug
A generic drug is a drug defined as "a drug product that is comparable to brand/reference listed drug product in dosage form, strength, route of administration, quality and performance characteristics, and intended use." It has also been defined as a term referring to any drug marketed under its...

 substitutes that are therapeutically and biochemically equivalent. Prescriptions will also contain instructions on whether the prescriber will allow the pharmacist to substitute a generic version of the drug
Drug
A drug, broadly speaking, is any substance that, when absorbed into the body of a living organism, alters normal bodily function. There is no single, precise definition, as there are different meanings in drug control law, government regulations, medicine, and colloquial usage.In pharmacology, a...

. This instruction is communicated in a number of ways.

In some jurisdictions, the preprinted prescription contains two signature lines: one line has "dispense as written" printed underneath; the other line has "substitution permitted" underneath. Some have a preprinted box "dispense as written" for the prescriber to check off (but this is easily checked off by anyone with access to the prescription). Other jurisdictions the protocol is for the prescriber to handwrite one of the following phrases: "dispense as written", "DAW", "brand necessary", "do not substitute", "no substitution", "medically necessary", "do not interchange". In other jurisdictions may they use completely different languages, never mind a different formula of words. In some jurisdictions, it may be a legal requirement to include the age of child on the prescription. For pediatric prescriptions some advise the inclusion of the age of the child if the patient is less than twelve and the age and months if less than five. (In general, including the age on the prescription is helpful.) Adding the weight of the child is also helpful.

Prescriptions often have a "label" box. When checked, the pharmacist is instructed to label the medication. When not checked, the patient only receives instructions for taking the medication and no information about the prescription itself.

Some prescribers further inform the patient and pharmacist by providing the indicator for the medication; i.e. what is being treated. This assists the pharmacist in checking for errors as many common medications can be used for multiple medical conditions.

Some prescriptions will specify whether and how many "repeats" or "refills" are allowed; that is whether the patient may obtain more of the same medication without getting a new prescription from the medical practitioner. Regulations may restrict some types of drugs from being refilled.

In group practices, the preprinted portion of the prescription may contain multiple prescribers' names. Prescribers typically circle themselves to indicate who is prescribing or there may be a checkbox next to their name.

Handling

When filled by a pharmacist, as a matter of business practice, the pharmacist may write certain information right on the prescription. This may also be mandated by legislation (see Exhibit D). Information such as the actual manufacturer of the drug and the date the medication was dispensed may be written right onto the prescription. Legislation may require the pharmacist sign the prescription. In computerized pharmacies, all such information is printed and stapled to the prescription. Sometimes such information is printed onto labels and the labels affixed right onto the prescription.

When filled by the pharmacist, prescriptions are typically assigned a "prescription number" (often abbreviated "Rx#" in the US) that is unique to the pharmacy that filled the prescription. The prescription number is written right on the prescription by the pharmacist. The prescription number has the practical purpose of uniquely identifying the prescription later on while filed (both manual and electronic). The prescription number is also put on the label on the dispensed medication. The patient may be required to reference the prescription number for refills and drug insurance claims. There may also be a legal requirement for prescription numbers for subsequent identification purposes.

As a legal document, some jurisdictions will mandate the archiving of the original paper prescription in the pharmacy. Often the patient cannot take the original prescription with them. Some jurisdictions may entitle patients to a copy. The retention period varies but can be as long as ten years (requirement of all presciptions billed to a Medicare Part D plan.) See Exhibit B for sample legislation governing the archiving of prescriptions. Once the retention period has passed, privacy legislation may dictate what can be done with the original paper prescription. Legislation may also dictate what happens to the prescriptions if the pharmacy closes or is sold. For example, if the pharmacy goes out of business, the pharmacist may be required to return the prescription to the patient, to the next closest pharmacy or to the governing body for pharmacists.

Prescriptions for non-narcotic drugs may also be "transferred" from one pharmacy to another for subsequent repeats to be dispensed from another pharmacy. The physical piece of paper that is the prescription is not transferred, but all the information on it is transferred from one pharmacy to another. Legislation may dictate the protocol by which the transfer occurs and whether the transfer needs to be noted on the original paper prescription.

It is estimated that three billion
1000000000 (number)
1,000,000,000 is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.In scientific notation, it is written as 109....

 prescriptions were written in the United States in 2002. This number grew from 1.5 billion in 1989 and is expected to continue to grow.

Rx security – forgeries and prevention

Prescriptions are sometimes forged because many narcotic
Narcotic
The term narcotic originally referred medically to any psychoactive compound with any sleep-inducing properties. In the United States of America it has since become associated with opioids, commonly morphine and heroin and their derivatives, such as hydrocodone. The term is, today, imprecisely...

s are cheaper and safer as prescription drugs than as street drugs. Forgery takes many forms: Prescription pads are sometimes stolen, amounts may be altered on legitimate prescriptions, call back numbers may be falsified and phoned or faxed prescriptions faked.

To make photocopying prescriptions more difficult, some medical practitioners use prescription pads that contain security measures similar to those used on bank checks. These security measures may be mandated by law—see Exhibit C for sample legal specifications. Legislation may mandate that only certain printers may print prescriptions. New Jersey, for example, requires that only state approved printers may be used to print official "New Jersey Prescription Blanks." (See Exhibit E.) Prescribers can make it more difficult to forge dosages and quantities by writing out numbers in words. Again, this may be mandated by law.
Some jurisdictions help control stolen prescriptions by requiring special "triplicate prescriptions" for certain classes of drugs. Blank triplicates are only available from the regulating agency and are individually numbered. The medical practitioner retains a copy, the second and third copies are given to the patient to give to the pharmacist. The pharmacist retains the second copy and the third copy is submitted to the regulating agency. The regulating agency can issue lists of forged prescriptions that pharmacists can check. In this example, the prescription's validity is further limited to 72 hours from issuance. California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 has recently replaced triplicate forms with new forms that are impossible to photocopy or fax: the background is printed with repetitions of the word void in a color that shows up as black on a photocopy.

States have various laws making theft of prescription blanks or forgery of prescriptions criminal offenses and/or providing special treatment for these offenses (for Example N.J. Stat. 2C:21-1. making forgery of a prescription blank a third degree rather than fourth degree offense).

When forgery is suspected, pharmacists will call the medical practitioner to verify the prescription. Forged prescriptions are no longer considered medical documents and doctor-patient confidentiality rules no longer apply.

Who can write prescriptions (that may legally be filled with prescription-only items)

Any jurisdiction that allows freedom of written communication generally must therefore allow anybody to write a prescription to anybody, inasmuch as the prescription itself is just written advice. Therefore "who can write prescriptions" will be explained below as shorthand for "whose prescriptions may legally be filled with items restricted to dispensing via the order of certain persons".

National or local (i.e. state or provincial) legislation governs who can write a prescription. In North America, physicians (either M.D. or D.O.) have the broadest prescriptive authority. All 50 States and the District of Columbia allow licensed certified Physician Assistant
Physician assistant
A physician assistant/associate ' is a healthcare professional trained and licensed to practice medicine with limited supervision by a physician.-General description:...

s (PAs) prescription authority (with some limitations to controlled substances). All 50 States allow registered certified Nurse Practitioner
Nurse practitioner
A Nurse Practitioner is an Advanced practice registered nurse who has completed graduate-level education . Additional APRN roles include the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist s, CNMs, and CNSs...

s and other advanced-practice nurses (such as certified nurse-midwives) prescription power (with some limitations to controlled substances). Many other healthcare professions also have prescriptive authority related to their area of practice. Veterinarian
Veterinarian
A veterinary physician, colloquially called a vet, shortened from veterinarian or veterinary surgeon , is a professional who treats disease, disorder and injury in animals....

s, dentist
Dentist
A dentist, also known as a 'dental surgeon', is a doctor that specializes in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist's supporting team aides in providing oral health services...

s, and podiatrists have prescribing power in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Clinical pharmacists are allowed to prescribe in some states through the use of a drug formulary or collaboration agreements. Florida Pharmacists can write prescriptions for a limited set of drugs. In all states, optometrists prescribe medications to treat certain eye diseases, and also issue spectacle and contact lens prescriptions
Eyeglass prescription
An eyeglass prescription is an order written by an eyewear prescriber, such as an optometrist or ophthalmologist, that specifies the value of all parameters the prescriber has deemed necessary to construct and/or dispense corrective lenses appropriate for a patient.If an examination indicates that...

 for corrective eyewear. Several states have passed RxP legislation, allowing clinical psychologists (PhD's or PsyD's) who are registered as medical psychologists and have also undergone specialized training in script-writing to prescribe drugs to treat emotional and mental disorders.

Legibility

Prescriptions, when handwritten, are notorious for being often illegible. In the US, medical practitioners' sloppy handwriting kills more than 7,000 people annually, according to a July 2006 report from the National Academies of Science's Institute of Medicine (IOM). Historically, physicians used Latin words and abbreviations to convey the entire prescription to the pharmacist. Today, many of the abbreviations are still widely used and must be understood to interpret prescriptions. At other times, even though some of the individual letters are illegible, the position of the legible letters and length of the word is sufficient to distinguish the medication based on the knowledge of the pharmacist. When in doubt, pharmacists call the medical practitioner. Some jurisdictions have legislated legible prescriptions (e.g. Florida). Some have advocated the elimination of handwritten prescriptions altogether and computer printed
Computer printer
In computing, a printer is a peripheral which produces a text or graphics of documents stored in electronic form, usually on physical print media such as paper or transparencies. Many printers are primarily used as local peripherals, and are attached by a printer cable or, in most new printers, a...

 prescriptions are becoming increasingly common in some places.

Conventions for avoiding ambiguity

Over the years, prescribers have developed many conventions for prescription-writing, with the goal of avoiding ambiguities or misinterpretation.
These include:
  • Careful use of decimal points to avoid ambiguity:
    • Avoiding unnecessary decimal points: a prescription will be written as 5 mL instead of 5.0 mL to avoid possible misinterpretation of 5.0 as 50.
    • Always using zero prefix decimals: e.g. 0.5 instead of .5 to avoid misinterpretation of .5 as 5.
    • Avoiding trailing zeros on decimals: e.g. 0.5 instead of .50 to avoid misinterpretation of .50 as 50.
  • "mL
    Litre
    pic|200px|right|thumb|One litre is equivalent to this cubeEach side is 10 cm1 litre water = 1 kilogram water The litre is a metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre , to 1,000 cubic centimetres , and to 1/1,000 cubic metre...

    " is used instead of "cc
    Cubic centimetre
    A cubic centimetre is a commonly used unit of volume extending the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube measuring 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm...

    " or "cm³" even though they are technically equivalent to avoid misinterpretation of 'c' as '0' or the common medical abbreviation for "with" (the Latin "cum"), which is written as a 'c' with a bar above the letter. Further, cc could be misinterpreted as "c.c.", which is an uncommonly used abbreviation for "take with meals" (the Latin "cum cibo").
  • Directions written out in full in English (although some common Latin abbreviations are listed below).
  • Quantities given directly or implied by the frequency and duration of the directions.
  • Where the directions are "as needed", the quantity should always be specified.
  • Where possible, usage directions should specify times (7 am, 3 pm, 11 pm) rather than simply frequency (three times a day) and especially relationship to meals for orally consumed medication.
  • The use of permanent ink.
  • Avoiding unspecified prn
    Pro re nata
    Pro re nata is a Latin phrase meaning "in the circumstances" or "as the circumstance arises". It is commonly used in medicine to mean "as needed" or "as the situation arises." It is generally abbreviated to p.r.n. in reference to dosage of prescribed medication that is not scheduled; instead...

     or "as needed" instructions—instead, specific limits and indicators are provided e.g. "every 3 hours prn pain."
  • For refills, the minimum duration between repeats and number of repeats should be specified.
  • Providing the indication for all prescriptions even when obvious to the prescriber, so that the pharmacist may identify possible errors.
  • Avoiding units such as "teaspoons" or "tablespoons."
  • Writing out numbers as words and numerals ("dispense #30 (thirty)") as in a bank draft or cheque
    Cheque
    A cheque is a document/instrument See the negotiable cow—itself a fictional story—for discussions of cheques written on unusual surfaces. that orders a payment of money from a bank account...

    .
  • The use of apothecary
    Apothecary
    Apothecary is a historical name for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist and some caregivers....

    /avoirdupois
    Avoirdupois
    The avoirdupois system is a system of weights based on a pound of 16 ounces. It is the everyday system of weight used in the United States and is still widely used to varying degrees by many people in Canada, the United Kingdom, and some other former British colonies despite the official adoption...

     units and symbols of measure -- pint
    Pint
    The pint is a unit of volume or capacity that was once used across much of Europe with values varying from state to state from less than half a litre to over one litre. Within continental Europe, the pint was replaced with the metric system during the nineteenth century...

    s (O), ounce
    Ounce
    The ounce is a unit of mass with several definitions, the most commonly used of which are equal to approximately 28 grams. The ounce is used in a number of different systems, including various systems of mass that form part of the imperial and United States customary systems...

    s (), dram
    Dram (unit)
    The dram was historically both a coin and a weight. Currently it is both a small mass in the Apothecaries' system of weights and a small unit of volume...

    s (), scruples (), grain
    Grain (measure)
    A grain is a unit of measurement of mass that is nominally based upon the mass of a single seed of a cereal. From the Bronze Age into the Renaissance the average masses of wheat and barley grains were part of the legal definition of units of mass. However, there is no evidence of any country ever...

    s (gr), and minims () -- is discouraged given the potential for confusion. For example, the abbreviation for a grain ("gr") can be confused with the gram
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

    , abbreviated g
    Gram
    The gram is a metric system unit of mass....

    , and the symbol for minims (♏), which looks almost identical to an 'm', can be confused with microgram
    Microgram
    In the metric system, a microgram is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram , or 1/1000 of a milligram. It is one of the smallest units of mass commonly used...

    s or metre
    Metre
    The metre , symbol m, is the base unit of length in the International System of Units . Originally intended to be one ten-millionth of the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole , its definition has been periodically refined to reflect growing knowledge of metrology...

    s. Also, the symbols for ounce (℥) and dram (ℨ) can easily be confused with the numeral '3', and the symbol for pint (O) can be easily read as a '0'. Given the potential for errors, metric
    Metric system
    The metric system is an international decimalised system of measurement. France was first to adopt a metric system, in 1799, and a metric system is now the official system of measurement, used in almost every country in the world...

     equivalents should always be used.
  • The use of the degree symbol (°), which is commonly used as an abbreviation for hours (e.g., "q 2-4°" for every 2 – 4 hours), should not be used, since it can be confused with a '0'. Further, the use of the degree symbol for primary, secondary, and tertiary (1°, 2°, and 3°) is discouraged, since the former could be confused with quantities (i.e. 10, 20 and 30, respectively).

Abbreviations

See list of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions. Many abbreviations are derived from Latin phrases. Hospital pharmacies have more abbreviations, some specific to the hospital. Different jurisdictions follow different conventions on what is abbreviated or not. Prescriptions that don't follow area conventions may be flagged as possible forgeries.

Some abbreviations which are ambiguous, or which in their written form might be confused with something else, are not recommended and should be avoided. These are included in a separate list in Appendix 1. However, all abbreviations carry an increased risk for confusion and misinterpretation and should be used cautiously.

In Continental Europe

In continental Europe, prescriptions differ from their counterparts in the Anglosphere
Anglosphere
Anglosphere is a neologism which refers to those nations with English as the most common language. The term can be used more specifically to refer to those nations which share certain characteristics within their cultures based on a linguistic heritage, through being former British colonies...

. With the exception of patient directions, they are written out entirely in abbreviations deriving from the Latin language. Furthermore, a larger proportion of prescriptions are compounded, and appropriate abbreviations and phrases exist for this.

Parts of a European prescription

A continental European prescription consists of three parts:
  • the inscritio, also known as the superscriptio, is the header of the prescription and consists of the patient's name, address, and driving licence number, as well as the identifying number of the patient's private health insurance company
    Company
    A company is a form of business organization. It is an association or collection of individual real persons and/or other companies, who each provide some form of capital. This group has a common purpose or focus and an aim of gaining profits. This collection, group or association of persons can be...

    , if applicable; and
  • the praescriptio is the prescription itself; that is, directions to the dispensing pharmacist to supply medication
    Medication
    A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

    , made up of the following:
    • the invocatio, consisting of the abbreviation Rp; this is analogous to the Rx used in the Anglosphere
      Anglosphere
      Anglosphere is a neologism which refers to those nations with English as the most common language. The term can be used more specifically to refer to those nations which share certain characteristics within their cultures based on a linguistic heritage, through being former British colonies...

      , and stands for recipe, Latin for take [from the shelf]; and
    • the ordinatio, also known as the compositio, which consists either of the brand name, strength, and number and type of dosage units of a particular drug, or else of directions written entirely in the Latin accusative case
      Accusative case
      The accusative case of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of prepositions...

      , with the exception of ingredient names, written in the genitive case
      Genitive case
      In grammar, genitive is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun...

      . Masses are written in grammes, without the unit name. The compositio is followed by
  • the subscriptio, which consists of the directions according to which the medicament is to be prepared. An important part of this is the signatura, which is directed towards the patient and explains how to use the medication. Unlike the rest of the prescription, the signatura is written in the national vernacular
    Vernacular
    A vernacular is the native language or native dialect of a specific population, as opposed to a language of wider communication that is not native to the population, such as a national language or lingua franca.- Etymology :The term is not a recent one...

    .

Examples

Prescription Reading Translation
For off-the-shelf morphine
Morphine
Morphine is a potent opiate analgesic medication and is considered to be the prototypical opioid. It was first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Sertürner, first distributed by same in 1817, and first commercially sold by Merck in 1827, which at the time was a single small chemists' shop. It was more...

 tablets:
Rp.
Sevredol tbl. 60x20 mg
Exp. orig. No II (duas)
D.S. For pain 4x1 by mouth
Recipe
Sevredol tabulettae sexaginties milligrammae viginti
Expeditiones originales numero duas
Da Signa: For pain, one pill four times a day by mouth
Take
Sevredol, sixty twenty-milligramme tablets
Two packages
Directions for use: For pain, one pill four times a day by mouth
Individually-compounded medication
Rp.
Pentobarbitali natrici 3
Morphiae sulphas 2
Chlorali hydrati 15
Saccharum ad 50
M.f.plv.
Div. in doses aeq. No XXX (triginta)
D.S. For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime
Recipe
Pentobarbitali natrici grammata tres
Morphiae sulphas grammata duo
Chlorali hydrati grammata quindecim
Saccharum ad grammata quinquaginta
Misce fiat pulvis
Divide in doses aequalis numero triginta
Da Signa: For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime
Take
of pentobarbitone sodium, three grammes
of sulphate of morphia, two grammes
of hydrate of chloral
Chloral hydrate
Chloral hydrate is a sedative and hypnotic drug as well as a chemical reagent and precursor. The name chloral hydrate indicates that it is formed from chloral by the addition of one molecule of water. Its chemical formula is C2H3Cl3O2....

, fifteen grammes
of table sugar, enough to make fifty grammes
Mix to make powder
Divide into thirty equal doses
Directions for use: For sleep: one sachet to be taken at bedtime

Other conventions

Should a patient require a dosage in excess of the maximum as established by the appropriate governmental body, this is marked by an exclamation mark and the highest recommended dosage in Latin. If this is not done, it is the responsibility of the pharmacist to contact the doctor as to dose requirements, or amend the dose to the highest recommended one.

In emergency situations, a prescription pad may not be available. In this situation, any piece of paper will do, provided it is marked Periculum in mora!; that is, danger in delay (other designations, such as Cito! or Statim!, are also used and understood). Such ad-hoc prescriptions have a limited period of validity; typically, this is the day after the prescription is written.

A doctor may self-prescribe, or prescribe for his family; this is done by replacing the signatura by the Latin phrase pro manus medici (for medical hands). This is to be done with caution; certain drugs self-prescribed will arouse suspicion, and may result in investigation by the medical board or another governmental body.

Brand-name drugs may be swapped for generics; if this is not wanted by the doctor, he may write dispense as written in the local language on the prescription.

Non-prescription drug prescriptions

Prescriptions are also used for things that are not strictly regulated as a prescription drug. Prescribers will often give non-prescription drugs out as prescriptions because drug benefit plans may reimburse the patient only if the over-the-counter medication is taken under the direction of a medical practitioner. Conversely, if a medication is available over-the-counter, prescribers may ask patients if they want it as a prescription or purchase it themselves. Pharmacists may or may not be able to price the medication competitively with over-the-counter equivalents. If the patient wants the medication not under prescription, the prescriber is usually careful to give the medication name to the patient on a blank piece of paper to avoid any confusion with a prescription. This is applied to non-medications as well. For example, crutches, and registered massage therapy may be reimbursed under some health plans, but only if given out by a prescriber as a prescription.

Prescribers will often use blank prescriptions as general letterhead. Legislation may define certain equipment as "prescription devices". Such prescription devices can only be used under the supervision of authorized personnel and such authorization is typically documented using a prescription. Examples of prescription devices include dental cement (for affixing braces
Dental brace
Dental braces are devices used in the orthodontic industry that help align and straighten teeth and help to position them with regard to a person’s bite, while also working to improve dental health...

 to tooth surfaces), various prostheses, gut sutures, sickle cell tests, cervical cap and ultrasound monitor.

In some jurisdictions, hypodermic syringes are in a special class of their own, regulated as illicit drug use accessories separate from regular medical legislation. Such legislation will often specify a prescription as the means by which one may legally possess syringes.

Related usage of the term prescription

Prescription may also be used as a short form for prescription drug
Prescription drug
A prescription medication is a licensed medicine that is regulated by legislation to require a medical prescription before it can be obtained. The term is used to distinguish it from over-the-counter drugs which can be obtained without a prescription...

s
to distinguish from over-the-counter
Over-the-counter drug
Over-the-counter drugs are medicines that may be sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as compared to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription...

 drugs. In reference to the entire system of controlling drug distribution (as opposed to illicit drugs), "prescription" is often used as a metaphor for healthy directions from a prescribing medical practitioner. A green prescription
Green prescription
A green prescription is a referral given by a doctor or nurse to a patient, with exercise and lifestyle goals written on them.The term, used by health practitioners in New Zealand draws parallel to the usual prescriptions given to patients for medications, and emphasises the importance of exercise...

 is direction from a medical practitioner to a patient for exercise and healthy diet.

History

The concept of prescriptions dates back to the beginning of history. So long as there were medication
Medication
A pharmaceutical drug, also referred to as medicine, medication or medicament, can be loosely defined as any chemical substance intended for use in the medical diagnosis, cure, treatment, or prevention of disease.- Classification :...

s and a writing system
Writing system
A writing system is a symbolic system used to represent elements or statements expressible in language.-General properties:Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that the reader must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to...

 to capture directions for preparation and usage, there were prescriptions.

Modern prescriptions are actually "extemporaneous prescriptions" from the Latin (ex tempore) for "at/from time". "Extemporaneous" means the prescription is written on the spot for a specific patient with a specific ailment. This is distinguished from a non-extemporaneous prescription which is a generic recipe for a general ailment. Modern prescriptions evolved with the separation of the role of the pharmacists from that of the physician. Today the term "extemporaneous prescriptions" is reserved for "compound prescriptions" which requires the pharmacist to mix or "compound" the medication in the pharmacy for the specific needs of the patient.

Predating modern legal definitions of a prescription, a prescription traditionally is composed of four parts: a "superscription", "inscription", "subscription" and "signature".

The superscription section contains the date of the prescription and patient information (name, address, age, etc.). The symbol "" separates the superscription from the inscriptions sections. In this arrangement of the prescription, the "" is a symbol for recipe or literally the imperative "take." This is an exhortation to the pharmacist by the medical practitioner, "I want the patient to have the following medication" - in other words, "take the following components and compound this medication for the patient."

The inscription section defines what is the medication. The inscription section is further composed of one or more of:
  • a "basis" or chief ingredient indended to cure (curare)
  • an "adjuvant" to assist its action and make it cure quickly (cito)
  • a "corrective" to prevent or lessen any undesirable effect (tuto)
  • a "vehicle" or "excipient" to make it suitable for administration and pleasant to the patient (jucunde)


The "subscription" section contains dispensing directions to the pharmacist. This may be compounding instructions or quantities.

The "signature" section contains directions to the patient and is often abbreviated "Sig." or "Signa." It also obviously contains the signature of the prescribing medical practitioner though the word "signature" has two distinct meanings here and the abbreviations are sometimes used to avoid confusion.

Thus sample prescriptions in modern textbooks are often presented as:
: medication
Disp.: dispensing instructions
Sig.: patient instructions

Use of technology

As a prescription is nothing more than information among a prescriber, pharmacist and patient, information technology can be applied to it. Existing information technology is adequate to print out prescriptions. Medical information systems in some hospitals do away with prescriptions within the hospital. There are proposals to securely transmit the prescription from the prescriber to the pharmacist using smartcard or the internet. In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 a project called the Electronic Transfer of Prescriptions (ETP) within the National Programme for IT (NPfIT) is currently piloting such a scheme between prescribers and pharmacies.

Within computerized pharmacies, the information on paper prescriptions is recorded into a database. Afterwards, the paper prescription is archived for storage and legal reasons.

A pharmacy chain is often linked together through corporate headquarters with computer networking. Walgreens
Walgreens
Walgreen Co. , doing business as Walgreens , is the largest drugstore chain in the United States of America. As of August 31st, the company operates 8,210 locations across all 50 states, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. Founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1901, and has since expanded...

, for example, uses satellite technology to share patient information. A person who has a prescription filled at one Walgreens can get a refill of that prescription at any other store in the chain, as well as have their information available for new prescriptions at any Walgreens.

Some online pharmacies
Online pharmacy
Online pharmacies, Internet pharmacies, or Mail Order Pharmacies are pharmacies that operate over the Internet and send the orders to customers.Online or internet pharmacies might include:...

 also offer services to customers over the internet. Walgreens' web site, for example, allows customers to order refills for medicine over the internet, and allows them to specify the store that they will pick up the medicine from. Their web site also allows consumers to look up their prescription history, and to print it out.

Many pharmacies now offer services to ship prescription refills right to the patient's home. CVS, for example, will ship refills free of charge. They also offer mail service where you can mail in a new, original prescription and a signed document, and they will ship the filled prescription back to you.

Pharmacy information systems are a potential source of valuable information for pharmaceutical companies as it contains information about the prescriber's prescribing habits. Prescription data mining
Data mining
Data mining , a relatively young and interdisciplinary field of computer science is the process of discovering new patterns from large data sets involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics and database systems...

 of such data is a developing, specialized field.

Many prescribers lack the digitized information systems that reduce prescribing errors. To reduce these errors, some investigators have developed modified prescription forms that prompt the prescriber to provide all the desired elements of a good prescription. The modified forms also contain pre-defined choices such as common quantities, units and frequencies that the prescriber may circle rather than write out. Such forms are thought to reduce errors, especially omission and handwriting errors and are actively under evaluation. (See: Kennedy AG, Littenberg B. A Modified Outpatient Prescription Form to Reduce Prescription Errors. Joint Commission Journal of Quality and Safety 2004; 30:480-487.)

Exhibit A: sample legal definition of a prescription

Taken from California's Business and Professions Code Section 4040:

4040. (a) "Prescription" means an oral, written, or electronic transmission order that is both of the following:
(1) Given individually for the person or persons for whom ordered that includes all of the following:
(A) The name or names and address of the patient or patients.
(B) The name and quantity of the drug or device prescribed and the directions for use.
(C) The date of issue.
(D) Either rubber stamped, typed, or printed by hand or typeset, the name, address, and telephone number of the prescriber, his or her license classification, and his or her federal registry number, if a controlled substance is prescribed.
(E) A legible, clear notice of the condition for which the drug is being prescribed, if requested by the patient or patients.
(F) If in writing, signed by the prescriber issuing the order, or the certified nurse-midwife, nurse practitioner, or physician assistant who issues a drug order pursuant to Section 2746.51,2836.1, or 3502.1.
(2) Issued by a precribing medical practitioner
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

 if a drug order is issued pursuant to Section 2746.51, 2836.1, or 3502.1.
(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), a written order of the prescriber for a dangerous drug, except for any Schedule II controlled substance, that contains at least the name and signature of the prescriber, the name and address of the patient in a manner consistent with paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section 11164 of the Health and Safety Code, the name and quantity of the drug prescribed, directions for use, and the date of issue may be treated as a prescription by the dispensing pharmacist as long as any additional information required by subdivision (a) is readily retrievable in the pharmacy. In the event of a conflict between this subdivision and Section 11164 of the Health and Safety Code, Section 11164 of the Health and Safety Code shall prevail.
(c) "Electronic transmission prescription" includes both image and data prescriptions. "Electronic image transmission prescription" means any prescription order for which a facsimile of the order is received by a pharmacy from a licensed prescriber. "Electronic data transmission prescription" means any prescription order, other than an electronic image transmission prescription, that is electronically transmitted from a licensed prescriber to a pharmacy.
(d) The use of commonly used abbreviations shall not invalidate an otherwise valid prescription.
(e) Nothing in the amendments made to this section (formerly Section 4036) at the 1969 Regular Session of the Legislature shall be construed as expanding or limiting the right that a chiropractor, while acting within the scope of his or her license, may have to prescribe a device.


Exhibit B: sample legal requirement for storage of prescriptions

From the Mississippi Board of Pharmacy:
ARTICLE XIII PRESCRIPTIONS TO BE FILED
1. All prescriptions shall be filed in one of the following ways:
A. Three separate files may be maintained; a file for Schedule II prescriptions dispensed; a file for Schedule III, IV and V prescriptions dispensed; and a file for all other prescriptions dispensed.
B. Two files may be maintained; a file for all Schedule II prescriptions dispensed and another file for all other prescriptions dispensed, including those in Schedule III, IV and V. If this method is used, the prescriptions for Schedule III, IV and V substances must be stamped with the letter "C" in red ink, not less than one inch high, in the lower right-hand corner. This distinctive marking makes the records readily retrievable for inspection. Pharmacies with automatic data processing systems are exempted from marking Schedule III, IV and V controlled substance prescriptions with the red "C".
2. A hard copy of original prescriptions, whether records are maintained manually or in a data processing system, shall be assigned a serial number and maintained by the pharmacy in numerical and chronological order. All prescriptions shall be maintained for at least five years from the date of original dispensing.
3. If a pharmacy utilizes a data processing system for record keeping, all computer generated labels should be affixed to the prescription document in such a manner as not to obscure information on the face of the document.


Exhibit C: sample legal requirements for security and format

From Indiana Board of Pharmacy:
856 IAC 1-34-2 Security feature requirements
Authority: IC 35-48-7-8
Affected: IC 16-42-19-5
Sec. 2. (a) All controlled substance prescriptions written by licensed Indiana practitioners, as defined by IC 16-42-19-5, must contain the following security features:
(1) A latent, repetitive "void" pattern screened at five percent (5%) in reflex blue must appear across the entire face of the document when the prescription is photocopied.
(2) There shall be a custom artificial watermark printed on the back side of the base paper so that it may only be seen at a forty-five (45) degree angle. The watermark shall consist of the words "Indiana Security Prescription", appearing horizontally in a step-and-repeated format in five lines on the back of the document using 12-point Helvetica bold type style.
(3) An opaque RX symbol must appear in the upper right-hand corner, one-eighth (1/8) of an inch from the top of the pad and five-sixteenths (5/16) of an inch from the right side of the pad. The symbol must be three-fourths (3/4) inch in size and must disappear if the prescription copy is lightened.
(4) Six (6) quantity check-off boxes must be printed on the form and the following quantities must appear and the appropriate box be checked off for the prescription to be valid:
(A) 1-24
(B) 25-49
(C) 50-74
(D) 75-100
(E) 101-150
(F) 151 and over.
(5) No advertisements may appear on the front or back of the prescription blank.
(6) Logos, defined as a symbol utilized by an individual, professional practice, professional association, or hospital, may appear on the prescription blank. The upper left one (1) inch square of the prescription blank is reserved for the purpose of logos. Only logos, as defined by this subdivision, may appear on the prescription blank.
(7) Only one (1) prescription may be written per prescription blank. The following statement must be printed on the bottom of the pad: "Prescription is void if more than one (1) prescription is written per blank.".
(8) Refill options that can be circled by the prescriber must appear below any logos and above the signature lines on the left side of the prescription blank in the following order: Refill NR 1 2 3 4 5 Void after_____.
(9) Practitioner name and state issued professional license number must be preprinted, stamped, or manually printed on the prescription.
(10) All prescription blanks printed under this rule shall be four and one-fourth (4-1/4) inches high and five and one-half (5-1/2) inches wide. Nothing in this rule shall prevent licensed Indiana practitioners from utilizing security paper prescriptions for the prescribing of any legend drug. (Indiana Board of Pharmacy; 856 IAC 1-34-2; filed Jul 5, 1995, 9:45 a.m.: 18 IR 2782, eff Jan 1, 1996)


Exhibit D: sample requirements on information added by the pharmacist

Taken from the Ontario's Drug and Pharmacies Regulation Act,
paragraph 156.

Every person who dispenses a drug pursuant to a prescription shall ensure that the following information is recorded on the prescription,
(a) the name and address of the person for whom the drug is prescribed;
(b) the name, strength (where applicable) and quantity of the prescribed drug;
(c) the directions for use, as prescribed;
(d) the name and address of the prescriber;
(e) the identity of the manufacturer of the drug dispensed;
(f) an identification number or other designation;
(g) the signature of the person dispensing the drug and, where different, also the signature of the person receiving a verbal prescription;
(h) the date on which the drug is dispensed;
(i) the price charged. R.S.O. 1990, c. H.4, s. 156 (1).


Exhibit E: New Jersey requirements for prescription blanks

From New Jersey official statutes:

45:14-55 Use of New Jersey Prescription Blanks.

16. a. A practitioner practicing in this State shall use non-reproducible, non-erasable safety paper New Jersey Prescription Blanks bearing that practitioner's license number whenever the practitioner issues prescriptions for controlled dangerous substances, prescription legend drugs or other prescription items. The prescription blanks shall be secured from a vendor approved by the Division of Consumer Affairs in the Department of Law and Public Safety.

b. A licensed practitioner practicing in this State shall maintain a record of the receipt of New Jersey Prescription Blanks. The practitioner shall notify the Office of Drug Control in the Division of Consumer Affairs as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours of being made aware that any New Jersey Prescription Blank in the practitioner's possession has been stolen. Upon receipt of notification, the Office of Drug Control shall take appropriate action, including notification to the Department of Human Services and the Attorney General.

45:14-56 Health care facility prescriptions.

17. a. Prescriptions issued by a health care facility licensed pursuant to P.L.1971, c.136 (C.26:2H-1 et seq.) shall be written on non-reproducible, non-erasable safety paper New Jersey Prescription Blanks. The prescription blanks shall be secured from a vendor approved by the Division of Consumer Affairs in the Department of Law and Public Safety. The New Jersey Prescription Blanks shall bear the unique provider number assigned to that health care facility for the issuing of prescriptions for controlled dangerous substances, prescription legend drugs or other prescription items.

b. A health care facility shall maintain a record of the receipt of New Jersey Prescription Blanks. The health care facility shall notify the Office of Drug Control in the Division of Consumer Affairs as soon as possible but no later than 72 hours of being made aware that any New Jersey Prescription Blank in the facility's possession has been stolen. Upon receipt of notification, the Office of Drug Control shall take appropriate action including notification to the Department of Human Services and the Attorney General.

45:14-57 Requirements for prescription to be filled.

18.A prescription issued by a practitioner or health care facility licensed in New Jersey shall not be filled by a pharmacist unless the prescription is issued on a New Jersey Prescription Blank bearing the practitioner's license number or the unique provider number assigned to a health care facility.

45:14-59 Format for New Jersey Prescription Blanks.

20.The Division of Consumer Affairs in the Department of Law and Public Safety shall establish the format for uniform, non-reproducible, non-erasable safety paper prescription blanks, to be known as New Jersey Prescription Blanks, which format shall include an identifiable logo or symbol that will appear on all prescription blanks. The division shall approve a sufficient number of vendors to ensure production of an adequate supply of New Jersey Prescription Blanks for practitioners and health care facilities statewide.


See also

  • Eyeglass prescription
    Eyeglass prescription
    An eyeglass prescription is an order written by an eyewear prescriber, such as an optometrist or ophthalmologist, that specifies the value of all parameters the prescriber has deemed necessary to construct and/or dispense corrective lenses appropriate for a patient.If an examination indicates that...

  • Inverse benefit law
    Inverse benefit law
    The Inverse Benefit Law states that the ratio of benefits to harms among patients taking new drugs tends to vary inversely with how extensively a drug is marketed...

  • List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions
  • Off-label use
    Off-label use
    Off-label use is the practice of prescribing pharmaceuticals for an unapproved indication or in an unapproved age group, unapproved dose or unapproved form of administration...

  • Prescription drugs
  • Private prescription
    Private prescription
    A private prescription is a United Kingdom Medical term that refers to a prescription funded by the patient, rather than the National Health Service....

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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