Mazda Cosmo
Overview
 
There have been four generations of Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 automobiles which went by the name of Cosmo, although they are not all particularly related. All were Grand tourer
Grand tourer
A grand tourer is a high-performance luxury automobile designed for long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement....

s, with the first proving a successful launch for the Mazda Wankel engine
Mazda Wankel engine
The Mazda Wankel engines are family of car engines derived from experiments in the early 1960s by Felix Wankel, a German engineer...

 and acting as a "halo" vehicle for the new Mazda brand. Later Cosmos competed in the ultra-high luxury performance market in Japan with the final JC Cosmo (1990–1995) sold as the Eunos Cosmo - Eunos
Eunos cars
In the late 1980s, Mazda diversified in the Japan market with the launch of three new marques. The company created Autozam, Eunos, and Ẽfini, in addition to the Mazda and Ford brands already marketed there...

 was a luxury sales channel similar to Toyota's Lexus
Lexus
is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. First introduced in 1989 in the United States, Lexus is now sold globally and has become Japan's largest-selling make of premium cars. The Lexus marque is marketed in over 70 countries and territories worldwide, and has...

 brand.
The first Mazda to bear the Cosmo name (called the 110S) was the first 2-rotor rotary engine
Wankel engine
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle takes place in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a rotor that...

 powered series car.
Encyclopedia
There have been four generations of Mazda
Mazda
is a Japanese automotive manufacturer based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.In 2007, Mazda produced almost 1.3 million vehicles for global sales...

 automobiles which went by the name of Cosmo, although they are not all particularly related. All were Grand tourer
Grand tourer
A grand tourer is a high-performance luxury automobile designed for long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement....

s, with the first proving a successful launch for the Mazda Wankel engine
Mazda Wankel engine
The Mazda Wankel engines are family of car engines derived from experiments in the early 1960s by Felix Wankel, a German engineer...

 and acting as a "halo" vehicle for the new Mazda brand. Later Cosmos competed in the ultra-high luxury performance market in Japan with the final JC Cosmo (1990–1995) sold as the Eunos Cosmo - Eunos
Eunos cars
In the late 1980s, Mazda diversified in the Japan market with the launch of three new marques. The company created Autozam, Eunos, and Ẽfini, in addition to the Mazda and Ford brands already marketed there...

 was a luxury sales channel similar to Toyota's Lexus
Lexus
is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. First introduced in 1989 in the United States, Lexus is now sold globally and has become Japan's largest-selling make of premium cars. The Lexus marque is marketed in over 70 countries and territories worldwide, and has...

 brand.

1967

The first Mazda to bear the Cosmo name (called the 110S) was the first 2-rotor rotary engine
Wankel engine
The Wankel engine is a type of internal combustion engine using an eccentric rotary design to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Its four-stroke cycle takes place in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a rotor that...

 powered series car. A prototype was introduced at the 1964 Tokyo Motor Show
Tokyo Motor Show
The is a biennial auto show held in October-November at the Makuhari Messe, Chiba City, Japan for cars, motorcycles and commercial vehicles. Hosted by the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association , it is a recognized international show by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs...

, and 80 pre-production Cosmos were produced for the Mazda test department (20) and for dealership testing (60) between 1965 and 1966. Full production began in May 1967 and lasted through 1972, though Cosmos were built by hand at a rate of only about one per day, for a total of 1,176. The car was also featured in the show Return of Ultraman
Return of Ultraman
is a tokusatsu SF/kaiju/superhero TV series, and is the 4th Ultra Series.Eiji Tsuburaya had originally intended for the Ultra Series to end with the 1967 series Ultra Seven , but Ultraman proved to be too popular a character to keep down...

.

Cosmos were built in five batches:
Date Number Engine Description
1963 2 8A prototype Cosmo
1964 1 10A Tokyo Motor Show prototype
January 1965 80 0810 preproduction test cars
May 1967-July 1968 343 0810 Series I
July 1968-September 1972 1,176 0813 Series II

Racing

In 1968, Mazda went racing with the Cosmo. They selected one of the most grueling tests in Europe to prove the reliability of the rotary engine, the 84-hour Marathon de la Route at the legendary Nürburgring
Nürburgring
The Nürburgring is a motorsport complex around the village of Nürburg, Germany. It features a modern Grand Prix race track built in 1984, and a much longer old North loop track which was built in the 1920s around the village and medieval castle of Nürburg in the Eifel mountains. It is located about...

 circuit in Germany. Two mostly stock Cosmos were entered, along with 58 other cars. One major change to the cars' 10A engines was the addition of a novel side- and peripheral-port intake system: A butterfly valve switched from the side to the peripheral port as RPMs increased. The engines were limited to 130 PS to improve durability.

The cars ran together in fourth and fifth place for most of the race, but the all-Japanese car was retired with axle damage in the 82nd hour. The other car, driven by Belgians, completed the race in fourth overall. This was to be the only racing outing for the Cosmo - the next Mazda race car would be a Familia Rotary (R100).

Series I

The Series I/L10A Cosmo was powered by a 0810 two-rotor engine with 982 cc of displacement and produced about 110 hp (thus the 110 name). It used a Hitachi
Hitachi, Ltd.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate headquartered in Marunouchi 1-chome, Chiyoda, Tokyo, Japan. The company is the parent of the Hitachi Group as part of the larger DKB Group companies...

 4-barrel carburetor
Carburetor
A carburetor , carburettor, or carburetter is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. It is sometimes shortened to carb in North America and the United Kingdom....

 and an odd ignition design - two spark plugs per chamber with dual distributors. A 4-speed manual transmission
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

 and 14 inch (335 mm) wheels were standard.

The front independent suspension
Independent suspension
Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically independently of each other. This is contrasted with a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement on one side affects...

 was A-arm/coil spring design with an anti-roll bar. The rear used a live axle
Live axle
A live axle, sometimes called a solid axle, is a type of beam axle suspension system that uses the driveshafts that transmit power to the wheels to connect the wheels laterally so that they move together as a unit....

 with a de Dion tube
De Dion tube
A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. It is a sophisticated form of non-independent suspension and is a considerable improvement over the alternative swing axle and Hotchkiss drive types. A de Dion suspension uses universal joints at both the wheel hubs and differential, and uses a...

, trailing arms, and semi-elliptic leaf spring
Leaf spring
Originally called laminated or carriage spring, a leaf spring is a simple form of spring, commonly used for the suspension in wheeled vehicles...

s. Power-unassisted 10 inch (254 mm) disk brakes were found in front with 7.9 inches (201 mm) drum brake
Drum brake
A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that press against a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum....

s in the rear. Performance in the quarter-mile (400 m) was 16.4 s, with a 115 mph (185 km/h) top speed. The price was lower than the Toyota 2000GT
Toyota 2000GT
The Toyota 2000GT is a limited-production, front-engine, rear-wheel drive, two-seat, hardtop coupé grand tourer designed by Toyota in collaboration with Yamaha. First displayed to the public at the Tokyo Motor Show in 1965, the 2000GT was manufactured under contract by Yamaha between 1967 and...

 at 1.48 million yen (US$4,100).

Series II

The Series II/L10B was introduced in July, 1968. It had a more-powerful 128 hp (95 kW)/103 ft·lbf (140 N·m) 0813 engine, power brakes, 15 inch wheels and a 5-speed manual transmission
Manual transmission
A manual transmission, also known as a manual gearbox or standard transmission is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications...

. The wheelbase had been expanded by 15 inches (38.1 cm) for more room and a better ride. This Cosmo was good for over 120 mph (193 km/h) and could accelerate to cover a quarter mile (400 m) in 15.8 s.

Visual changes included a larger grille under the front bumper with two additional vents to each side of this "mouth". Only 1,519 were ever made, and just six were imported into the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The price was up a bit to 1.48 million yen (US$4,390).

Talk show host Jay Leno
Jay Leno
James Douglas Muir "Jay" Leno is an American stand-up comedian and television host.From 1992 to 2009, Leno was the host of NBC's The Tonight Show with Jay Leno. Beginning in September 2009, Leno started a primetime talk show, titled The Jay Leno Show, which aired weeknights at 10:00 p.m. ,...

 owns a 1970 Series II Cosmo which was featured on the Speed Channel
SPEED Channel
Speed , is a cable and satellite television network broadcast to various parts of North America, but primarily the United States...

 series My Classic Car
My Classic Car
My Classic Car is a television show originally broadcast on TNN and now airing on Speed Channel about classic automobiles, hosted by Dennis Gage...

 in March, 2006. It was believed to be the only remaining Series II Cosmo in the United States.

However, Mazda's U.S. division "found another in the garage of Phoenix-area car collector Glenn Roberts and made an offer that he couldn't refuse," according to Car and Driver magazine's September 2007 issue ("A Tale of Two Rotaries").

1975 - 1981

The second generation CD Cosmo appeared in 1975 and lasted until 1981. It was known as the Cosmo AP in Japan, and sold internationally as the Mazda RX-5, though in some export markets its piston-powered counterpart was called the Mazda 121
Mazda 121
The Mazda 121 name has been used on a variety of Mazda automobiles for various export markets from 1975 until 2002:* 1975–1981 — Piston engined variants of the second generation Mazda Cosmo sports car...

(a name later applied to Mazda's subcompact model).

Mazda America used the Mazda Cosmo name and offered it from 1976 through 1978. The CD Cosmo/RX-5 series was a flop internationally as Mazda tried too hard to "americanize" the car. It was however an enormous success in Japan where over 55,000 where sold in the first year alone. Due to its poor sales as an export, the series-II version from 79-81 was not exported and remained a Japanese domestic sale only.

The Cosmo was Mazda's 'large' compact rotary coupe and based on the Mazda RX-4
Mazda RX-4
The Mazda RX-4 is an automobile sold in the 1970s. It was a larger car than its rotary-powered contemporaries, the Capella-based RX-2 and Familia-based RX-3. It shared the Luce/929 chassis, replacing the R130 in October 1972, and was produced through October 1977...

 floorpan and mechanics, but slightly heavier due to body design and more luxurious appointments, including a 5-link rear suspension and rear disc brakes. It was available with the 12A and 13B engines.

A piston engine version, the Cosmo 1800, used a 1769 cc (80x88 mm) straight-4
Straight-4
The inline-four engine or straight-four engine is an internal combustion engine with all four cylinders mounted in a straight line, or plane along the crankcase. The single bank of cylinders may be oriented in either a vertical or an inclined plane with all the pistons driving a common crankshaft....

 SOHC engine that produced 100 hp (75 kW) and 110 lbft.

See http://www.MazdaCosmo.com www.MazdaCosmo.com - For more information on this model.



1981 - 1989

The third generation HB Cosmo from 1981 shared the Mazda HB chassis with its twin, the Mazda Luce
Mazda Luce
Mazda used the Luce name on its largest sedans in Japan from 1969 until 1990. These vehicles were exported under a variety of names, including RX-4, 929, and Cosmo. The Luce nameplate was replaced by the Mazda Sentia name in 1991...

 (marketed overseas as the Mazda 929
Mazda 929
The Mazda 929 was originally a mid-size car from 1973–1987 and as a full-size car thereafter. Marketed over three decades, the 929 was originally the export name for the Mazda Luce. When equipped with a rotary engine, it was called the Mazda RX-4 in export markets...

). The HB Cosmo was available as a coupe, hardtop and sedan. Its Mazda Luce counterpart was not available in coupe form. The HB Cosmo/Luce was the only car in automotive history to offer a choice of both Gasoline and Diesel piston engines and Rotary engines.

Mazda offered three different rotary engines for the HB series. A 12A-SPI, 12A-turbo and 13B-RESI. The latter available with automatic transmission only. The 1982 12A-turbo Cosmo coupe was officially the fastest production car in Japan until being overtaken by the FJ20ET powered R30 Skyline RS.

The HB Cosmo & Luce were sold in Japan only, with the 929 being the export version (which was not available with the rotary engine options). While the sister models (the Luce & 929) were replaced in 1986, the Cosmo variant remained in production at a trickle until 1989.



1990 - 1995

The Eunos Cosmo (loosely based on the 1985 MX-03 concept car
Concept car
A concept vehicle or show vehicle is a car made to showcase new styling and or new technology. They are often shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not have a chance of being produced....

) started production in 1990 on the new JC platform. The Eunos Cosmo was the top-line touring flagship of the Eunos luxury channel. It is the only Mazda to use a triple-rotor engine. The car was a 2+2 coupe and was loaded with power amenities. Only an electronically controlled 4-speed automatic transmission
Automatic transmission
An automatic transmission is one type of motor vehicle transmission that can automatically change gear ratios as the vehicle moves, freeing the driver from having to shift gears manually...

 was available.

Two engines were available, the twin turbo 13B-RE and the 20B-REW. The triple rotor 20B had 2 Litres (1962 cc) of displacement, making it the largest capacity rotary offered for sale by Mazda. It produced 300 hp (224 kW) and 300 ft·lbf (402 N·m) with twin turbochargers. The JC series Cosmo set several firsts in Automotive history. Its 13B-RE and 20B-REW engines were the first series production twin sequential turbo systems to be offered for sale on a rotary engined car (The twin sequential turbo piston engined Porsche 959 predates the Eunos Cosmo by several years). The better known FD RX-7 didn't receive the twin turbo 13B-REW engine until early 1992. Plus was the first production car in the world to get a GPS option & the first in Japan to use the "Palmnet" serial data comms system for ECU-to-ECAT operation.

This 4th generation Cosmo was way ahead of its time electronically as well by being offered with Car Control System, a CRT
Cathode ray tube
The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

 colour touch-screen controlling climate control, mobile phone
Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

, GPS car navigation, NTSC
NTSC
NTSC, named for the National Television System Committee, is the analog television system that is used in most of North America, most of South America , Burma, South Korea, Taiwan, Japan, the Philippines, and some Pacific island nations and territories .Most countries using the NTSC standard, as...

 TV, radio and CD-Player.

The Cosmo was speed limited to 180 kilometre per hour to suit Japanese regulations, but the 20B-REW version was capable of 255 kilometre per hour if given a free run. With over 380 newton metre of torque available at just 1800 rpm, the Cosmo could launch from standstill to freeway speeds quickly; however, this came at the expense of heavy fuel consumption. The JC Cosmo was expensive even by today's standards, as Mazda still has not matched the sales price of this car some 18 years later for anything else in its range.

The Cosmo was manufactured from February 1990 until September 1995, and gathered a total of 8,875 sales. A split of 60/40 sales between 13B-RE and 20B-REW variants made the triple rotor 20B-REW version a rare car. Although the Cosmo remained a Japanese market-only vehicle (export had been proposed originally under the Eunos sales channel or the defunct USA-only Amati sales channel. ), the Cosmo has found its way to RHD countries such as Australia, New Zealand, & the UK (LHD Norway)thanks to limited import regulations for private importers from these countries. The Eunos Cosmo appeared in Sega GT
Sega GT
Sega GT, released as "Sega GT Homologation Special" in Japan, February 17 2000, is a semi-simulation oriented racing game for the Dreamcast. This game was secretly designed by Sega to become the Dreamcast system's very own Gran Turismo and compete with the announced but not yet released "Gran...

 and the first two Gran Turismo
Gran Turismo (series)
is a popular and critically acclaimed series of racing simulation video games developed by Polyphony Digital.Developed exclusively for PlayStation systems, Gran Turismo games are intended to simulate the appearance and performance of a large selection of vehicles, nearly all of which are licensed...

 games, as well as the Arcade game series Wangan Midnight: Maximum Tune 1, 2 & 3.

Dimensions:
  • Wheelbase: 2750 mm (108.3 in)
  • Front Track: 1520 mm (59.8 in)
  • Rear Track: 1510 mm (59.4 in)
  • Length: 4815 mm (189.6 in)
  • Width: 1795 mm (70.7 in)
  • Weight: 1570 kg (3,461 lb)


JCESE = Series-I (90-93) - 20B

JCES = Series-II (94-95) - 20B

JC3SE = Series-I (90-93) - 13B

JC3S = Series-II (94-95) - 13B

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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