Masovian Plain
Masovian Plain is a large geographical region in central Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, roughly covering the historical region of Masovia. It is located in the valleys of three large rivers: Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

, Bug
Bug River
The Bug River is a left tributary of the Narew river flows from central Ukraine to the west, passing along the Ukraine-Polish and Polish-Belarusian border and into Poland, where it empties into the Narew river near Serock. The part between the lake and the Vistula River is sometimes referred to as...

 and Narew
The Narew River , in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, is a left tributary of the Vistula river...

. Although relatively densely populated and urbanized, the Masovian Plain is covered by several large forest complexes that once were a part of a dense primaeval forest covering much of Poland: Kampinos Forest
Kampinos Forest
Kampinos Forest is a large forest complex located to the west of Warsaw in Poland. It covers a large part of the ancient valley of Vistula, between Vistula and Bzura rivers. Once a gigantic forest covering 670 km² of central Poland, it currently covers roughly 240 km².Most of the...

, Kurpie Forest, White Forest, Kozienice Forest and Green Forest.

Tectonically, the Masovian Plain is a stable, safe area of the so-called Masovian Hutch, that is area composed of interwinding layers of Tertiary aqueous rocks and sands. The surface of the area was shaped by the presence of Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...

n ice sheet
Ice sheet
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km² , thus also known as continental glacier...

 during the Ice Age
Ice age
An ice age or, more precisely, glacial age, is a generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers...

. As the area was the southernmost border of the ice sheet's presence, the northern and southern parts of the plain differ significantly: the former is a vast open space while the latter is more rough terrain. The southern part is also covered by many gorges created during the Baltic Glacier. The central part of the Masovian Plain, the so-called Warsaw Cauldron, as well as the valleys of Radomka
The Radomka is a river in central Poland and a left tributary of the Vistula river. It has a length of 98 km and a basin area of over 2000 km² . The river has its source in forests 4 km south from Przysucha...

 and Pilica
Pilica is a river in central Poland, the longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 319 kilometres and the basin area of 9,273 km2 .-Towns:*Szczekociny*Koniecpol*Przedbórz*Sulejów*Tomaszów Mazowiecki...

 rivers are covered by a number of parabolic dunes.

As the soils of the area are mostly poor and infertile, much of the agriculture is devoted to fruit production. The soils are mostly of bielica type, that is white sands on a layer of clay
Clay is a general term including many combinations of one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure.- Formation :Clay minerals...

 and sedimentary rocks.

The river net of the area is extensive and includes Vistula, Narew, Bug, Pilica
Pilica is a river in central Poland, the longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 319 kilometres and the basin area of 9,273 km2 .-Towns:*Szczekociny*Koniecpol*Przedbórz*Sulejów*Tomaszów Mazowiecki...

, Wieprz and Wkra
Wkra is a river in north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Narew river, with a length of 249 kilometres and the basin area of 5,322 km². .Towns and townships:* Bieżuń* Radzanów* Strzegowo* Glinojeck* Sochocin...

rivers, all of which have their source outside of the region.

The climate of the Masovian Plain is temperate continental, with average temperatures in summer period ranging from 18°C to 18,5°C. The average rainfall is among the lowest in Poland and does not exceed 500 mm yearly in the central parts of the area and 600 mm in the border areas.
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