Madiun is a city in the western part of the province of East Java
East Java
East Java is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes neighboring Madura and islands to its east and to its north East Java is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the eastern part of the island of Java and includes neighboring Madura and...

Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

, an agricultural centre. It is the capital of the regency of the same name.

Madiun, located 169 km south west of Surabaya
Surabaya is Indonesia's second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million , and the capital of the province of East Java...

, had a population of 190,823 in 1992. The town is an average of 63 meters above sea level and lies on the Madiun River, a tributary of the Bengawan Solo River
Bengawan Solo River
Bengawan Solo River is the longest river on the Indonesian island of Java, approximately 600 km in length. Apart from its importance as watercourse to the inhabitants and farmlands of the eastern and northern parts of the island, it is a renowned region in paleoanthropology circles...

. It is surrounded by a number of mountains, including Mount Wilis
Mount Wilis
Mount Wilis is a solitary volcanic massif surrounded by low-elevation plains. It is located in Java island, Indonesia. No confirmed historical eruptions are known from this volcano....

 (2,169 m) to the east, to the south the Kapur Selatan range (500–1000 m) and to the west Mount Lawu
Mount Lawu
Mount Lawu, or Gunung Lawu, is a massive compound stratovolcano straddling the border between East Java and Central Java, Indonesia. The north side is deeply eroded and the eastern side contains parasitic crater lakes and parasitic cones. A fumarolic area is located on the south flank at 2,550 m...

 (3,285 m). Madiun has an average temperature of 20-35 degrees Celsius.


Madiun was the site of an uprising, the "Madiun Affair
Madiun Affair
The Madiun Affair was a communist uprising in 1948 during the Indonesian National Revolution in the town of Madiun. Leftist parties led an uprising against the leaders of the newly-declared Indonesian Republic, but it was quashed by Republican forces....

", in 1948 by elements of the Communist Party of Indonesia
Communist Party of Indonesia
The Communist Party of Indonesia was the largest non-ruling communist party in the world prior to being crushed in 1965 and banned the following year.-Forerunners:...

 (PKI). After the signing of the Renville Agreement
Renville Agreement
The Renville Agreement was a United Nations Security Council brokered political accord between the Netherlands who were seeking to re-establish their colony in South East Asia, and Indonesian Republicans seeking to secure Indonesian independence during the Indonesian National Revolution...

 that year, guerrilla units and militias under the influence of PKI were ordered to disband. In Madiun a group of PKI militia refused to disarm and were killed in September. The killings sparked a violent uprising. Army sources claimed that the PKI had announced the proclamation of the "Soviet Republic of Indonesia" on September 18 with Musso
Musso was an Indonesian communist politician who was leader of the Indonesian Communist Party in the 1920s and again during the Madiun rebellion of 1948....

 as its president and Amir Sjarifuddin
Amir Sjarifuddin
Amir Sjarifuddin Harahap, also spelled Amir Sjarifoeddin Harahap was a socialist politician and one of the Indonesian Republic's first leaders, becoming Prime Minister during the country's National Revolution. A Christian convert from a Muslim Batak family, Amir was a major leader of the Left...

 as its prime minister.

The uprising was suppressed by republican troops. On September 30 Madiun was taken over by republican troops of the Silwangi Division. Thousands of party cadres were killed and 36 000 were imprisoned. Amongst the executed were several leaders including Musso who was killed on October 31, allegedly while trying to escape from prison. Other PKI leaders such as D.N. Aidit
Dipa Nusantara Aidit
Dipa Nusantara Aidit was a senior leader of the Communist Party of Indonesia . Born Ahmad Aidit on Bangka Island, he was nicknamed "Amat". Aidit was educated in the Dutch colonial system...

went into exile in China.

External links

Official site of Madiun and surrounding area]
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