Mace (spray)
Overview
 
Chemical Mace is a tear gas in the form of an aerosol spray
Aerosol spray
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a liquid under pressure. When the container's valve is opened, the liquid is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist...

 which propels a lachrymatory agent
Lachrymatory agent
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymatory agent or lachrymator , is a non-lethal chemical weapon that stimulates the corneal nerves in the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even blindness...

 mixed with a volatile solvent. It is sometimes used as a self-defense
Self-defense
Self-defense, self-defence or private defense is a countermeasure that involves defending oneself, one's property or the well-being of another from physical harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many...

 device. This form of Mace is legal in very few countries, thus its use is becoming uncommon.

The original formulation consisted of 1% CN gas
CN gas
Phenacyl chloride is a substituted acetophenone. It is a useful building block in organic chemistry. Apart from that, it has been historically used as a riot control agent, where it is designated CN.-Preparation:...

 in a solvent of 2-butanol
2-Butanol
2-Butanol, or sec-butanol, is an organic compound with formula CH3CHCH2CH3. This secondary alcohol is a flammable, colorless liquid that is soluble in 12 parts water and completely miscible with polar organic solvents such as ethers and other alcohols. It is produced on a large scale, primarily as...

, propylene glycol
Propylene glycol
Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound with formula C3H8O2 or HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3...

, cyclohexene
Cyclohexene
Cyclohexene is a hydrocarbon with the formula C6H10. This cycloalkene is a colorless liquid with a sharp smell. It is an intermediate in various industrial processes...

, and dipropylene glycol methyl ether
Propylene glycol
Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound with formula C3H8O2 or HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3...

. Some formulations now also include oleoresin capsicum
Capsaicin
Capsaicin 2CHCH=CH4CONHCH2C6H3-4--3- ) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact...

 (the active ingredient in pepper spray
Pepper spray
Pepper spray, also known as OC spray , OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears...

).

Chemical Mace was originally invented in 1965 by Allan Lee Litman, founder and co-owner of Pittsburgh-based General Ordnance Equipment Corporation (GOEC), after his wife, Doris, was threatened on the street.
Encyclopedia
Chemical Mace is a tear gas in the form of an aerosol spray
Aerosol spray
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a liquid under pressure. When the container's valve is opened, the liquid is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist...

 which propels a lachrymatory agent
Lachrymatory agent
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymatory agent or lachrymator , is a non-lethal chemical weapon that stimulates the corneal nerves in the eyes to cause tears, pain, and even blindness...

 mixed with a volatile solvent. It is sometimes used as a self-defense
Self-defense
Self-defense, self-defence or private defense is a countermeasure that involves defending oneself, one's property or the well-being of another from physical harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many...

 device. This form of Mace is legal in very few countries, thus its use is becoming uncommon.

The original formulation consisted of 1% CN gas
CN gas
Phenacyl chloride is a substituted acetophenone. It is a useful building block in organic chemistry. Apart from that, it has been historically used as a riot control agent, where it is designated CN.-Preparation:...

 in a solvent of 2-butanol
2-Butanol
2-Butanol, or sec-butanol, is an organic compound with formula CH3CHCH2CH3. This secondary alcohol is a flammable, colorless liquid that is soluble in 12 parts water and completely miscible with polar organic solvents such as ethers and other alcohols. It is produced on a large scale, primarily as...

, propylene glycol
Propylene glycol
Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound with formula C3H8O2 or HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3...

, cyclohexene
Cyclohexene
Cyclohexene is a hydrocarbon with the formula C6H10. This cycloalkene is a colorless liquid with a sharp smell. It is an intermediate in various industrial processes...

, and dipropylene glycol methyl ether
Propylene glycol
Propylene glycol, also called 1,2-propanediol or propane-1,2-diol, is an organic compound with formula C3H8O2 or HO-CH2-CHOH-CH3...

. Some formulations now also include oleoresin capsicum
Capsaicin
Capsaicin 2CHCH=CH4CONHCH2C6H3-4--3- ) is the active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. It is an irritant for mammals, including humans, and produces a sensation of burning in any tissue with which it comes into contact...

 (the active ingredient in pepper spray
Pepper spray
Pepper spray, also known as OC spray , OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears...

).

Chemical Mace was originally invented in 1965 by Allan Lee Litman, founder and co-owner of Pittsburgh-based General Ordnance Equipment Corporation (GOEC), after his wife, Doris, was threatened on the street. In 1987, Chemical Mace was sold to Smith & Wesson
Smith & Wesson
Smith & Wesson is the largest manufacturer of handguns in the United States. The corporate headquarters is in Springfield, Massachusetts. Founded in 1852, Smith & Wesson's pistols and revolvers have become standard issue to police and armed forces throughout the world...

 and manufactured by their Lake Erie Chemical division. Smith & Wesson subsequently transferred ownership to Jon E. Goodrich along with the rest of the chemical division in what is now Mace Security International
Mace Security International
Mace Security International, Inc. owns the highly recognized name Mace. Mace first attracted attention during the early 1990s for its manufacture of the less-than-lethal defense spray Mace. Although most of the general public probably still identifies the company with its brand domination in the...

. Most Mace branded products sold today by Mace Security International are pepper spray
Pepper spray
Pepper spray, also known as OC spray , OC gas, and capsicum spray, is a lachrymatory agent that is used in riot control, crowd control and personal self-defense, including defense against dogs and bears...

 rather than tear gas, though it is still possible to buy Chemical Mace. Many other companies now manufacture similar products.

Training

Most law enforcement agencies
Law enforcement agency
In North American English, a law enforcement agency is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police while others have other names In North American...

 require that their personnel become certified on similar aerosol spray
Aerosol spray
Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a liquid under pressure. When the container's valve is opened, the liquid is forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist...

devices such as pepper spray.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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