Luxor Temple is a large Ancient Egyptian temple complex located on the east bank of the River Nile
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in North Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. It is long. It runs through the ten countries of Sudan, South Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda and Egypt.The Nile has two major...
in the city today known as Luxor
Luxor is a city in Upper Egypt and the capital of Luxor Governorate. The population numbers 487,896 , with an area of approximately . As the site of the Ancient Egyptian city of Thebes, Luxor has frequently been characterized as the "world's greatest open air museum", as the ruins of the temple...
(ancient Thebes) and was founded in 1400 BCE.
Known in the Egyptian language
Egyptian is the oldest known indigenous language of Egypt and a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known. Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the...
as ipet resyt, or "the southern sanctuary", the temple was dedicated to the Theban Triad
The Theban Triad are three Egyptian gods that were the most popular in the area of Thebes, in Egypt.-History:The group consisted of Amun, his consort Mut and their son Khonsu. The eighteenth and twenty fifth dynasties of the New Kingdom favored the triad...
Amun, reconstructed Egyptian Yamānu , was a god in Egyptian mythology who in the form of Amun-Ra became the focus of the most complex system of theology in Ancient Egypt...
Mut, which meant mother in the ancient Egyptian language, was an ancient Egyptian mother goddess with multiple aspects that changed over the thousands of years of the culture. Alternative spellings are Maut and Mout. She was considered a primal deity, associated with the waters from which...
, and Chons
Khonsu is an Ancient Egyptian god whose main role was associated with the moon. His name means "traveller" and this may relate to the nightly travel of the moon across the sky. Along with Thoth he marked the passage of time...
and was built during the New Kingdom
The New Kingdom of Egypt, also referred to as the Egyptian Empire is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BC and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt....
, the focus of the annual Opet Festival
The Beautiful Feast of Opet was an Ancient Egyptian festival, celebrated annually in Thebes, during the New Kingdom period and later....
, in which a cult statue of Amun was paraded down the Nile from nearby Karnak Temple
The Karnak Temple Complex—usually called Karnak—comprises a vast mix of decayed temples, chapels, pylons, and other buildings, notably the Great Temple of Amun and a massive structure begun by Pharaoh Ramses II . Sacred Lake is part of the site as well. It is located near Luxor, some...
(ipet-isut) to stay there for a while, with his consort Mut, in a celebration of fertility – whence its name.
The earliest parts of the temple still standing are the baroque chapels, just behind the first pylon. They were built by Hatshepsut, and appropriated by Tuthmosis III. The main part of the temple - the colonnade and the sun court were built by Amenhotep III, and a later addition by Rameses II, who built the entrance pylon, and the two obelisks (one of which was taken to France, and is now at the centre of the Place de la Concorde
Place de la Concorde
The Place de la Concorde in area, it is the largest square in the French capital. It is located in the city's eighth arrondissement, at the eastern end of the Champs-Élysées.- History :...
) linked the Hatshepsut buildings with the main temple.
To the rear of the temple are chapels built by Tuthmosis III, and Alexander.
During the Roman era, the temple and its surroundings were a legionary fortress and the home of the Roman government in the area.
- Luxor ObeliskLuxor ObeliskThe Luxor Obelisk is a 23 metres high Egyptian obelisk standing at the center of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, France...
in ParisParisParis is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...
Image:Egypt.LuxorTemple.06.jpg|Luxor Temple, from the east bank of the Nile
Image:Avenue towards Karnak.JPG|Hundreds of sphinxes once lined the road to nearby Karnak
Image:Sphinx 1.JPG|A well preserved sphinx
Image:Egypt.LuxorTemple.05.jpg|The massive First Pylon
Image:Luxor Temple Obelisk.JPG|The red granite obelisk
Image:Luxor temple 2.JPG|The central corridor of the temple
Image:Egypt.LuxorTemple.04.jpg|Islamic mosque over pharaonic temple
Image:Luxor_Temple_Sitting_Colossus.jpg|Sitting Ramesses II Colossus inside Luxor Temple
Image:Closeup_Ramesses_II_Colossus.jpg|Closeup of the same Colossus
Image:Egypt.LuxorTemple.01.jpg|Amenhotep's colonnade from the peristyle court
Image:Courtyard Amenhotep III.JPG|The east side of the peristyle court of Amenhotep III
Image:Roman Mural.JPG|Roman mural in an inner chamber
Image:LuxorTemple1.jpg|Central corridor and four colossi by night
Image:LuxorTemple2.jpg|Closeup of illuminated red granite obelisk
Image:LuxorTemple3.jpg|Sitting Ramesses II Colossus inside Luxor Temple by night
Image:Abu_el-Haggag_R03.jpg|The Abu el-Haggag mosque inside the temple
- Johnson, N. B.: Temple Architecture as Construction of Consciousness..., Arch. & Comport. / Arch. Behav., Vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 229–249 (1988), p. 233f.
- Luxor Temple of Thebes
- Temple of Luxor images
- The Nativity Scene in the Temple of Luxor
- The Temple of Luxor