List of proto-languages

Near East

  • Proto-Anatolian language
    Proto-Anatolian language
    Proto-Anatolian is the proto-language from which Anatolian languages emerged. As with all other proto-languages, no attested writings have been found; the language has been reconstructed by applying the comparative method to all the attested Anatolian languages as well as other Indo-European...

  • Proto-Circassian language
  • Proto-Kartvelian language
    Proto-Kartvelian language
    The Proto-Kartvelian language, or Common Kartvelian, is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Kartvelian languages in the Caucasus, which was spoken by the ancestors of the modern Kartvelian peoples...

  • Proto-Dravidian language
  • Proto-Semitic language
    Proto-Semitic language
    Proto-Semitic is the hypothetical proto-language ancestral to historical Semitic languages of the Middle East. Locations which have been proposed for its origination include northern Mesopotamia, the Arabian Peninsula, and the Levant with a 2009 study proposing that it may have originated around...


  • Proto-Basque language
    Proto-Basque language
    Proto-Basque is a reconstructed predecessor of the Basque language, prior to the Roman conquests in the Western Pyrenees.-Background:...

  • Proto-Indo-European language
    Proto-Indo-European language
    The Proto-Indo-European language is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans...

    • Proto-Greek language
      Proto-Greek language
      The Proto-Greek language is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean, the classical Greek dialects , and ultimately Koine, Byzantine and modern Greek...

    • Proto-Armenian language
      Proto-Armenian language
      The earliest testimony of the Armenian language dates to the 5th century AD . The earlier history of the language is unclear and the subject of much speculation....

    • Proto-Indo-Iranian language
      Proto-Indo-Iranian language
      Proto-Indo-Iranian is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Iranian branch of Indo-European. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Indo-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the late 3rd millennium BC, and are usually connected with the early Andronovo archaeological...

      • Proto-Iranian language
    • Proto-Balto-Slavic language
      Proto-Balto-Slavic language
      Proto-Balto-Slavic is reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European and out of which all later Balto-Slavic languages and dialects descended, such as modern Latvian, Lithuanian, Polish and Russian.The Proto-Balto-Slavic language is not directly attested by any surviving texts...

      • Proto-Baltic language
      • Proto-Slavic language
        Proto-Slavic language
        Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Slavic languages later emerged. It was spoken before the seventh century AD. As with most other proto-languages, no attested writings have been found; the language has been reconstructed by applying the comparative method to all the attested Slavic...

    • Proto-Celtic language
      Proto-Celtic language
      The Proto-Celtic language, also called Common Celtic, is the reconstructed ancestor language of all the known Celtic languages. Its lexis can be confidently reconstructed on the basis of the comparative method of historical linguistics...

    • Proto-Germanic language
      Proto-Germanic language
      Proto-Germanic , or Common Germanic, as it is sometimes known, is the unattested, reconstructed proto-language of all the Germanic languages, such as modern English, Frisian, Dutch, Afrikaans, German, Luxembourgish, Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, and Swedish.The Proto-Germanic language is...

      • Proto-Norse language
        Proto-Norse language
        Proto-Norse was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved as a northern dialect of Proto-Germanic over the first centuries AD...

    • Proto-Romanian language
      Proto-Romanian language
      Proto-Romanian is a Romance language evolved from Vulgar Latin and considered to have been spoken by the ancestors of today's Romanians and related Balkan Latin peoples before ca...

North Asia

  • Proto-Turkic language
    Proto-Turkic language
    The Proto-Turkic language is the proto-language of the family of Turkic languages that predates the separation of the Turkic peoples and separation into Oguz and Ogur branches. The Ogur languages are characterized by sound correspondences such as Oguric r versus Common Turkic z and Oguric l versus...

  • Proto-Uralic language
    Proto-Uralic language
    Proto-Uralic is the hypothetical language ancestral to the Uralic language family. The language was originally spoken in a small area in about 7000-2000 BC , and expanded to give differentiated protolanguages. The exact location of the area or Urheimat is not known, but the vicinity of the Ural...

    • Proto-Samoyed language
  • Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan language
    Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan language
    Proto-Chukotko-Kamchatkan is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Chukotko-Kamchatkan languages.A reconstructed version of the language is presented by Michael Fortescue in his Comparative Dictionary of Chukotko-Kamchatkan .- Phonology :...

Pacific Rim

  • Proto-Pama-Nyungan language
    Proto-Pama-Nyungan language
    The Proto-Pama–Nyungan language is the putative ancestor of all the languages of the Pama–Nyungan family, encompassing the majority of the Australian Aboriginal languages, except for the Non-Pama–Nyungan languages spoken in the north and, presumably, the poorly documented Tasmanian languages....

  • Proto-Austronesian language
    Proto-Austronesian language
    The Proto-Austronesian language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Austronesian languages, one of the world's major language families. However, Ross notes that what may be the most divergent languages, Tsou, Rukai, and Puyuma, are not addressed by the reconstructions, which therefore cannot...

    • Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language
      Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language
      The Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is by far the largest branch of the Austronesian language family...

      • Proto-Oceanic language
        Proto-Oceanic language
        Proto-Oceanic is a protolanguage that language comparatists – particularly after Otto Dempwolff's works – have proposed as the probable common ancestor to the group of Oceanic languages...

        • Proto-Polynesian language
          Proto-Polynesian language
          Proto-Polynesian, , is the hypothetical proto-language from which all the modern Polynesian languages descend. Historical linguists have reconstructed the language using the comparative method, in much the same manner as with Proto-Indo-European and Proto-Afro-Asiatic...

  • Proto-Kradai language
    • Proto-Northern Kradai language
      • Proto-Kra language
        Proto-Kra language
        The Proto-Kra language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Kra languages. It was reconstructed in 2000 by Weera Ostapirat in his Ph.D. dissertation.-Lower-level reconstructions:...

      • Proto-Kam-Sui language
    • Proto-Southern Kradai language
      • Proto-Tai language
        Proto-Tai language
        Proto-Tai is the reconstructed common ancestor of all the Tai languages, including modern Lao, Shan, Lu, Tai Dam, Northern Thai, Thai, Bouyei, and Zhuang...

      • Proto-Hlai language
        Proto-Hlai language
        The Proto-Hlai language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Hlai languages. Proto-Hlai reconstructions include those of Matisoff , Thurgood , Ostapirat , and Norquest .-Phonology:Peter K...

  • Proto-Tibeto-Burman language
    Proto-Tibeto-Burman language
    The Proto-Tibeto-Burman language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Tibeto-Burman languages. Among other researchers Paul K. Benedict and James Matisoff have made proposals for the reconstruction of this language....

  • Proto-Hmong-Mien language
    Proto-Hmong-Mien language
    The Proto-Hmong–Mien language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Hmong–Mien languages. Lower-level reconstructions include Proto-Hmongic and Proto-Mienic.-Phonology:Martha Ratliff's 2010 reconstruction contains the following phonemic inventory....

  • Proto-Mon-Khmer language
    Proto-Mon-Khmer language
    The Proto-Mon–Khmer language is the reconstructed ancestor of the Mon–Khmer languages, which is a primary branch of the Austro-Asiatic language family. Much work has been done on the reconstruction of Proto-Mon–Khmer in Harry L. Shorto's Mon–Khmer Comparative Dictionary...


  • Proto-Eskimo-Aleut language
    Proto-Eskimo-Aleut language
    Proto-Eskimo–Aleut was the common ancestor of the Eskimo languages and Aleut. Its existence is known through similarities in Eskimo and Aleut. The existence of Proto-Eskimo–Aleut is generally accepted among linguists. It was for a long time true that no linguistic reconstruction of...

    • Proto-Eskimo language
      Proto-Eskimo language
      Proto-Eskimo was the ancestor of all the Eskimo languages. A reconstruction of the Proto-Eskimo sound system can be found in Fortescue et al. 1994:xi.- References :...

  • Proto-Algonquian language
    Proto-Algonquian language
    Proto-Algonquian is the name given to the proto-language from which the various languages of the Algonquian family are descended. It is generally estimated to have been spoken around 2,500 to 3,000 years ago, but on the question of where it was spoken there is less agreement...

  • Proto-Uto-Aztecan language
    Proto-Uto-Aztecan language
    The Proto–Uto-Aztecan language is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Uto-Aztecan languages.-Vowels:Proto–Uto-Aztecan is reconstructed as having an unusual five-vowel system:...

    • Proto-Nahuan language
  • Proto-Mayan language
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