and largest city of Portugal
with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of 84.8 km² (33 sq mi). The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of 958 km² (370 sq mi), making it the 9th most populous urban area
in the European Union
. About 2,831,000 people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
(which represents approximately 27% of the population of the country).
1147 After a siege of 4 months crusader knights led by Afonso Henriques, reconquered Lisbon.
1147 The Portuguese, under Afonso I, and Crusaders from England and Flanders conquer Lisbon after a four-month siege.
1493 Explorer Christopher Columbus arrives back in Lisbon, Portugal, aboard his ship Niña from his voyage to what is now The Bahamas and other islands in the Caribbean.
1499 Portuguese explorer Nicolau Coelho returns to Lisbon, after discovering the sea route to India as a companion of Vasco da Gama.
1500 The fleet of Pedro Alvares Cabral leaves Lisbon for the Indies. The fleet will discover Brazil which lies within boundaries granted to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas.
1502 Vasco da Gama sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal, on his second voyage to India.
1531 Lisbon, Portugal is hit by an earthquake--thousands die.
1541 Francis Xavier leaves Lisbon on a mission to the Portuguese East Indies.
1588 The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel. (It will take until May 30 for all ships to leave port).
1588 The last ship of the Spanish Armada sets sail from Lisbon heading for the English Channel.
and largest city of Portugal
with a population of 545,245 within its administrative limits on a land area of 84.8 km² (33 sq mi). The urban area of Lisbon extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of 3 million on an area of 958 km² (370 sq mi), making it the 9th most populous urban area
in the European Union
. About 2,831,000 people live in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
(which represents approximately 27% of the population of the country). Lisbon is the westernmost large city located in Europe
, as well as its westernmost capital city and the only one along the Atlantic coast. It lies in the western Iberian Peninsula
on the Atlantic Ocean
and the Tagus
Lisbon is recognised as an alpha- city
because of its importance in finance
, international trade
, and tourism
. It is one of the major economic centres on the continent, with a growing financial centre and the largest/second largest container port in the "Europe's Atlantic coast", Lisbon Portela Airport serves about 13 million passengers per year, motorway network and hub of high-speed rail
) linking main cities in Portugal, and in 2013 will have a rail's high-speed connection to Spain. Lisbon is the 25th most livable city in the World according to lifestyle magazine Monocle
. The city is the seventh-most-visited city in Southern Europe
, after Istanbul
, and Milan
, with 1,740,000 tourists in 2009. The Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal, GDP
per capita is 26,100 euro
s (4.7% higher than the average European Union's GDP PPP per capita). It is the tenth richest metropolitan area by GDP on the continent amounting to 98 billion euros and thus €34,850 per capita. This is 40% higher than the average European Union's GDP per capita. The city occupies 32nd place of highest gross earnings in the world. Most of the headquarters of multinationals in the country are located in the Lisbon area and it is the ninth city in the world in terms of quantity of international conferences. It is also the political centre of the country, as seat of Government
and residence of the Head of State
. The seat of the district of Lisbon and the centre of the Lisbon region.
Lisbon is one of the oldest cities in the world, predating other modern European capitals such as London
by hundreds of years. Julius Caesar
made it a municipium called Felicitas Julia, adding to the name Olissipo. Ruled by a series of Germanic
tribes from the fifth century, it was captured by the Moors
in the eighth century. In 1147, the Crusaders
under Afonso Henriques reconquered the city
for the Christians and since then it has been a major political, economic, and cultural centre of Portugal. Unlike most capital cities, Lisbon's status as the capital of Portugal has never been granted or confirmed officially – by statute
or in written form. Its position as the capital has formed through constitutional convention
, making its position as de facto
capital a part of the Constitution of Portugal
Lisbon hosts two agencies of the European Union
: the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction
(EMCDDA) and the European Maritime Safety Agency
(EMSA). The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP) is also headquartered in Lisbon.
Lisbon has two sites listed by UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
: Belém Tower
and Jerónimos Monastery
. Furthermore, in 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture
and in 1998 organised an Expo '98
(1998 Lisbon World Exposition).
Lisbon enjoys a Mediterranean climate. Among all the metropolises in Europe, it has the warmest winters, with average temperatures 15 °C (59 °F) during the day and 8 °C (46.4 °F) at night in the period from December to February. The typical summer's season lasts about six months, from May to October, although also in November, March and April temperatures sometimes reach around 20 °C (68 °F).
HistoryDuring the Neolithic
, the region was inhabited by Iberian
tribes, who built religious and funerary monuments, megalith
s and menhir
s, which still survive in areas on the periphery of Lisbon. The Indo-European
s invaded after the first millennium BC, mixing with the Pre-Indo-European
population, giving a rise to Celtic-speaking local tribes such as the Cempsi.
findings suggest that there was Phoenicia
n influences dating back to the 1200 BC, leading some historians to believe that a Phoenician trading post might have occupied the centre of the present city (on the southern slope of the Castle hill). The sheltered harbour in the Tagus River estuary
, was an ideal spot for a settlement and provided a secure port for provisioning of Phoenician ships travelling to the Islands of Tin (modern Isles of Scilly
) and Cornwall
. The new city might have been named Allis Ubbo, Phoenician for "safe harbour", according to one of several theories on the origin of Lisbon's toponymy
. Another theory suggests that the settlement took the name of the pre-Roman word for the Tagus (Lisso or Lucio). The Tagus settlement was also an important output on commercial trade with inland tribes who collected valuable metals, salt, salted-fish, and the Lusitanian horses
(that were renowned in antiquity).
Although Phoenician remains from the 8th century BC were found beneath the Mediaeval Sé Cathedral
, modern historians however, believe that Lisbon was an ancient autochthon
ous settlement (Roman oppidum
) and that, at most, it maintained commercial relations with the Phoenicians (accounting Phoenician pottery and artefacts).
Lisbon's name was written Ulyssippo in Latin by the geographer Pomponius Mela
, a native of Hispania
. It was later referenced as "Olisippo" by Pliny the Elder
, and to the Greeks as Olissipo (Ολισσιπο) and Olissipona (Ολισσιπόνα). According to legend, the location was named for Ulysses
, who founded the settlement after he left Troy
to escape the Greek coalition. Later, the Greek name was corrupted in vulgar Latin
Some of the native gods
worshipped in Lisbon were Aracus, Carneus, Bandiarbariaicus, and Coniumbricenses.
Roman eraFollowing the defeat of Hannibal
, during the Punic wars
, the Romans determined to deprive Carthage of its most valuable possession: Hispania
(the Iberian Peninsula). The defeat of Carthaginians forces by Scipio Africanus
in Eastern Hispania, allowed the pacification of the west was led by Consul
Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus
. Decimus obtained the alliance of Olissipo (which sent men to fight alongside the Roman Legions against the northwestern Celtic tribes) by integrating it into the Empire, as the Municipium Cives Romanorum Felicitas Julia. Local authorities were granted self-rule over a territory that extended 50 kilometres (31.1 mi), exempt from taxes, its citizens were given the privileges of Roman citizenship, and it was integrated within the Roman province of Lusitania
(whose capital was Emerita Augusta
raids and rebellions during Roman occupation necessitated the construction of a wall around the settlement. During Augustus
' reign, the Romans also built a great theatre
; the Cassian Baths (underneath Rua da Prata); temples to Jupiter
, and Idea Phrygiae (an uncommon cult from Asia Minor
), in addition to temples to the Emperor; a large necropolis
under Praça da Figueira
; a large forum and other buildings such as insulae (multi-storied apartment buildings) in the area between the Castle Hill and the historic downtown.
The city prospered as piracy
was eliminated, technological advances were introduced and as Felicitas Julia became the a centre of trade with the Roman provinces of Britannia
) and the Rhine. Economically strong, Olissipo was known for its garum
(fish sauce highly prized by the elites of the Empire and exported in Amphora
e to Rome
), wine, salt and horse-breeding, while Roman culture permeated into the hinterland. The city was connected by a broad road to Western Hispania's two other large cities, Bracara Augusta in the province of Tarraconensis (Portuguese Braga
), and Emerita Augusta
, the capital of Lusitania
). The city was ruled by an oligarchical
council dominated by two families, the Julii and the Cassiae, although regional authority was administered by the Roman Governor
of Emerita or directly to Emperor Tiberius
. Among the majority of Latin
speakers lived a large minority of Greek
traders and slaves.
Around 80 BCE, the Roman Quintus Sertorius
led a rebellion against the dictator Sulla. During this period, he organized the tribes of Lusitania (and Hispania) and was on the verge of forming an independent province in the Sertorian War
when he died.
Olissipo, like most great cities in the Western Empire, was a centre for the dissemination of Christianity
. Its first attested Bishop
was Potamius (c. 356), and there were several martyr
s during the period of Christina persecutions: Maxima
, Verissimus and Eulalia of Mérida are the most significant examples. By the Fall of Rome, Olissipo was one of the first Christian centres.
Following Roman disintegration and barbarian invasions, between 409 and 429 the centre was occupied by Sarmatian Alans
and Germanic Vandals
. The Germanic Suebi
, who established a kingdom in Gallaecia
(modern Galicia and northern Portugal), with capital in Bracara Augusta, also controlled the region of Lisbon from until 585. In 585, the Suebi Kingdom was integrated into the Germanic Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo, that comprised all of the Iberian Peninsula: Lisbon was then called Ulishbona.
Muslim invasion period
forces. These conquerors, who were mostly Berber
s and Arab
s from North Africa and the Middle East, built many mosque
s and houses, rebuilt the city wall (known as the Cerca Moura) and established administrative control, while permitting the diverse population (Christian
s, Jews, and Saqaliba
s) to maintain their socio-cultural lifestyles. Mozarabic was the mother language spoken by most of the Christian population. Islam
was the official religion practised by the Arabs and Muladi
(muwallad); the Christians were allowed to keep their religion, but under a second-class (Dhimmi
) status and were required to pay the jizyah (in return for paying this surtax, Christians and Jews were not required to join the Islamic army, as their security was guaranteed by the Islamic state, as long as they accepted their submittal to the country rules).
The Muslim influence is still present in the Alfama
, an old quarter of Lisbon that survived the 1755 Lisbon earthquake
: many place-names are derived from Arabic and the Alfama
(the oldest existing district of Lisbon) was derived from the Arabic "al-hamma".
For a brief time, Lisbon was the central town in the Regulo Eslavo of the Taifa
, and then as an independent Taifa
Reconquista - Return to Christian ruleIn 1108 the city was conquered by Norwegian crusaders led by Sigurd I
on their way to the Holy Land as part of the Norwegian Crusade
In 1147, as part of the Reconquista
knights led by Afonso I of Portugal
, besieged and reconquered Lisbon
. The city, with around 154,000 residents at the time, returned to Christian rule. The reconquest of Portugal and re-establishment of Christianity is one of the most significant events in Lisbon's history, described through the chronicle Expugnatione Lyxbonensi, telling that the local bishop was killed by the crusaders
and that its residents were praying to the Virgin Mary. As Arabic lost its place in the everyday life of the city, many of the remaining Muslim
residents were converted to Roman Catholicism
by force, or were expelled, and the mosque
s were either destroyed or converted into churches.
(charter) in 1179, periodically, raiders from Al-Andalus
were sent, or challenged, the control of the Iberian Christian kingdoms (capturing slaves and taking local treasures). In a raid against Lisbon in 1189, the Almohad
caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives. Due to its central location, Lisbon became the capital city of the new Portuguese territory in 1255. The first Portuguese university
was founded in Lisbon in 1290 by King Denis I; for many years the Studium Generale
(General Study) was transferred several times to Coimbra
, where it was installed definitively in the 16th century (University of Coimbra).
During the last centuries of the Middle Ages, the city expanded substantially and became an important trading post with both northern Europe and Mediterranean cities.
Most of the Portuguese expeditions of the Age of Discovery
left from Lisbon during the 15th to 17th centuries, including Vasco da Gama
's expedition to India
in 1497. In 1506, thousands of "New Christians
" (converted Jews
) were massacred in Lisbon. The 16th century was Lisbon's golden era: the city was the European hub of commerce between Africa, India, the Far East and, later, Brazil
, exploiting the riches from trade in spices, slaves, sugar, textiles, and other goods. This was the time of the exuberant Manueline
-style, which left its mark in many 16th century monuments (including Lisbon's Belém Tower
and Jerónimos Monastery
, which were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO
). A description of Lisbon in the 16th century was written by Damião de Góis
and published in 1554.
Portugal lost its independence to Spain
in 1580 after a succession crisis
, and the 1640 revolt
that restored the Portuguese independence took place in Lisbon.
KingdomIn the early 18th century, gold from Brazil allowed King John V to sponsor the building of several Baroque
churches and theatres in the city.
1755 EarthquakePrior to the 18th century, Lisbon had experienced several significant earthquakes – eight in the 14th century, five in the 16th century (including the 1531 earthquake that destroyed 1,500 houses, and the 1597 earthquake when three streets vanished), and three in the 17th century. On 1 November 1755, the city was destroyed by another earthquake
, which killed an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Lisbon residents and destroyed 85 percent of the city. With a population estimated at between 200,000 and 275,000 residents, Among several important structures of the city, the Ribeira Palace and the Hospital Real de Todos os Santos
were lost. In coastal areas, such as Peniche, situated about 80 km (50 mi) north of Lisbon, many people were killed by the tsunami. In Setúbal
, 30 km (19 mi) south of Lisbon, the water reached the first floor (second floor, in U.S. terms) of buildings. The destruction was also great in the Algarve, southern Portugal, where the tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed houses. In some places the waves crested at more than 30 m (98.43 ft). Almost all the coastal towns and villages of Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro
, which was protected by sandy banks. In Lagos
, the waves reached the top of the city walls. For many Portuguese coastal regions, the destructive effects of the tsunami were more disastrous than those of the earthquake proper.
By 1755, Lisbon was one of the largest cities in Europe: the event shocked the whole of Europe. In southwestern Spain
, the tsunami caused damage to Cadiz
, and the waves penetrated the Guadalquivir River, reaching Seville
. In Gibraltar
, the sea rose suddenly by about two metres. In Ceuta
the tsunami was strong, but in the Mediterranean Sea
, it decreased rapidly. On the other hand, it caused great damage and casualties to the western coast of Morocco
, from Tangier
, where the waves reached the walled fortifications of the town, to Agadir
, where the waters passed over the walls, killing many. The tsunami also reached Cornwall
, in the United Kingdom
, at a height of three metres. Along the coast of Cornwall, the sea rose rapidly in vast waves, and then ebbed equally rapidly. A two metre tsunami also hit Galway
, and did some considerable damage to the Spanish Arch
section of the city wall. Voltaire
wrote a long poem, "Poême sur le désastre de Lisbonne", shortly after the quake, and mentioned it in his 1759 novel
(indeed, many argue that this critique of optimism
was inspired by that earthquake). Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.
also mentions it in his 1857 poem, The Deacon's Masterpiece, or The Wonderful One-Hoss Shay. In the town of Cascais
, some 30 km (19 mi) west of Lisbon, the waves wrecked several boats and when the water withdrew, large stretches of sea bottom were left uncovered.
After the 1755 earthquake, the city was rebuilt largely according to the plans of Prime Minister Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, the 1st Marquess of Pombal; the lower town began to be known as the Baixa Pombalina (Pombaline Downtown
). Instead of rebuilding the medieval town, Pombal decided to demolish the remains of the earthquake and rebuild the downtown in accordance with modern urban rules. It was reconstructed in a open rectangular plan with two great squares: the Praça do Rossio and the Praça do Comércio. The first, the central commercial district, is the traditional gathering place, and location of the older cafés, theatres and restaurants; the second, became the city's main access to the Tagus, point of departure and arrival, with its triumphal arch (1873) and monument to King Joseph I.
19th centuryIn the first years of the 19th century, Portugal was invaded by the troops of Napoléon Bonaparte, forcing Queen Maria I
and Prince-Regent John
(future John VI) to flee temporarily to Brazil
. By the time the new King returned to Lisbon, many of the buildings and properties were pillaged, sacked or destroyed by the invaders.
During the 19th century, the Liberal movement introduced new changes into the urban landscape. The principal areas were in the Baixa and along the Chiado district, where shops, tobacconists shops, cafés, bookstores, clubs and theatres proliferated. The development of industry and commerce determined the growth of the city, extending north along the Avenida da Liberdade
(1879), distanciing itself from the Tagus River.
of Carlos I of Portugal
(1908), which culminated two years later in the First Republic.
The city refounded its university in 1911 after centuries of inactivity in Lisbon, incorporating reformed former colleges and other non-university higher education schools of the city (such as the Escola Politécnica – now Faculdade de Ciências). Today there are 3 public universities in the city (University of Lisbon, Technical University of Lisbon
and New University of Lisbon
), a public university institute (ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute) and a polytechnic
institute (IPL – Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa). See list of universities in Portugal.
During World War II
Lisbon was one of the very few neutral, open European Atlantic ports, a major gateway for refugees to the U.S. and a spy nest. More than 100,000 refugees were able to flee Nazi Germany via Lisbon.
During the Estado Novo regime (1926–1974), Lisbon was expanded at the cost of other districts within the country, resulting in nationalist and monumental projects. New residential and public developments were constructed; the zone of Belém was modified for the 1940 Portuguese Exhibition, while in along the periphery new neighborhoods appeared to house the growing populations. The inauguration of the bridge over the Tagus, allowed the rapid connect between the two margins of the river.
Lisbon was the centre of the republican coup of 5 October 1910 which established the democratic Portuguese Republic. The period following the Carnation Revolution
resulted in a euphoria and modernization of Lisbon. In the 1990s, many of the neighborhoods were renovated and projects in the historic quarters were established to modernize the areas; architectural and patrimonial buildings were recuperated; the northern margin of the Tagus was re-purposed for leisure and residential use; the Vasco da Gama bridge was constructed; and the eastern part of the municipality was re-purposed for Expo '98
(intended to commemorate the 500th anniversary of Vasco da Gama
's sea voyage to India
In 1988, a fire near the historical centre of Chiado
greatly disrupted normal life in the area for about 10 years.
In 1994, Lisbon was the European Capital of Culture
21st centuryThe Lisbon Agenda was a European Union
agreement on measures to revitalize the EU economy, signed in Lisbon in March 2000. In October 2007 Lisbon hosted the 2007 EU Summit, where agreement was reached regarding a new EU governance model. The resulting Treaty of Lisbon
was signed on the 13 December 2007 and came into force on 1 December 2009.
On the 3 November 2005, Lisbon hosted the MTV European Music Awards. The show was opened by a leotard-clad Madonna
, who exploded from a shiny disco ball to the tune "Hung Up".
On the 7 July 2007, Lisbon held the ceremony of the "New 7 Wonders Of The World" election, in Luz stadium, with live transmission for millions of people all over the world.
It is the host city for the Portuguese editions of Rock in Rio
, the largest rock festival in the world.
It hosted the NATO summit (19–20 November 2010), a summit meeting
that is regarded as a periodic opportunity for Heads of State
and Heads of Government
of NATO member countries to evaluate and provide strategic direction for Alliance activities.
The westernmost part of Lisbon, is occupied by the Parque Florestal de Monsanto , an 10 km² (4 sq mi) urban park, that occupies 10% of the municipality of Lisbon, considered one the largest in Europe.
The city occupies an area of 84.94 km² (33 sq mi), and its city boundaries, unlike those of most major cities, are narrowly defined by historical center. The rest of the urbanized area of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area
, known generically as Greater Lisbon , are actually several administratively defined cities and municipalities, such as Amadora
, Barreiro, Seixal and Oeiras
ClimateLisbon has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate
(Köppen climate classification
: Csa) with mild winters and warm to hot summers. The average annual temperature is 17 °C (62.6 °F): 21 °C (69.8 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55.4 °F) at night. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C (63.5 °F). In the coldest month – January – the temperature typically ranges from 8 to 17 °C (46.4 to 62.6 F) during the day, 4 to 12 °C (39.2 to 53.6 F) at night and the average sea temperature is 15 °C (59 °F). In the warmest month – August – the temperature typically ranges from26 to 32 °C (78.8 to 89.6 F) during the day (sometimes there are higher temperatures), around 18 °C (64.4 °F) at night and the average sea temperature is 20 °C (68 °F). Generally – typical summer's season lasts about 6 months, from May to October. Three months – November, March and April – are transitional, at times the temperature exceeds20 °C (68 °F), with an average temperature of these three months amounting 18.5 °C (65 °F) during the day and 11.2 °C (52.2 °F) at night. December, January and February are the coldest months, with an average temperature of these three months amounting 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) during the day and 8.9 °C (48 °F) at night. Among all metropolises in Europe continent, Lisbon has the warmest winters. Also, are here one of the mildest nights in Europe: one of the warmest in the winter - from average 8 °C (46.4 °F) in the coldest month and comfortable in the summer - to average 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the warmest month. Rain occurs mainly in winters, the summers being generally dry. Sunshine hours are about 2,800 per year, from an average of 4.6 hours of sunshine / day in December to an average of 11.4 hours of sunshine / day in July.
The population of the city proper is, as of 2011, 545,245 and the metropolitan area (Lisbon Metropolitan Area
) more than 2,800,000 according to the Instituto Nacional de Estatística . The Lisbon Metropolitan Area incorporates two NUTS II (European statistical subdivisions): Grande Lisboa
, along the northern bank of the Tagus River, and Península de Setúbal
, along the southern bank (which represents the Portuguese sub-regions of Região Lisboa . The population density of the city itself is 6429 PD/sqkm.
Like most metropolitan cities, Lisbon is surrounded by many satellite cities or suburbs, and it is estimated that more than one million people enter Lisbon every day for business or employment from these communities. Cascais
are among the most neighbouring towns for night life. Beautiful palaces, landscapes and historical sites can be found in Sintra
and Mafra. Other major municipalities around Lisbon include Amadora
, Oeiras, Odivelas
, Vila Franca de Xira
and, in the south bank of the Tagus river estuary
, Barreiro and Seixal.
In terms of Portuguese cities, Lisbon was considered the most livable in a survey of living conditions
published yearly by Expresso
Civil parishesThe municipality of Lisbon includes 53 freguesias , including:
- AjudaAjudaAjuda is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon with an area and 17,961 inhabitants ; its density was 5707.3 inhabitants/km².-History:...
- AlcântaraAlcântara (Lisbon)Alcântara is a civil parish of the city and municipality of Lisbon. Its name is derived from the Arabic , meaning the bridge, and refers to an ancient Roman bridge that once existed there, until the reign of John V...
- Alto do PinaAlto do PinaAlto do Pina is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 10,253 inhabitants and a total area of 0.82 km²....
- AlvaladeAlvalade (Lisbon)Alvalade is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 9,620 inhabitants and a total area of 0.58 km².-External links:*...
- AmeixoeiraAmeixoeira (Lisbon)Ameixoeira is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 9,644 inhabitants and a total area of 1.62 km².-External links:*...
- AnjosAnjos (Lisbon)Anjos is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created in 1564. It has a total area of 0.48 km² and total population of 9,738 inhabitants ; density: 20,372.4 hab/km².-External links:...
- BeatoBeato (Lisbon)Beato is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created in 1756 with the designation of São Bartolomeu do Beato....
- BenficaBenfica (Lisbon)Benfica is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 38,523 inhabitants and a total area of 7.94 km².The biggest park of Lisbon, Monsanto Forest Park, is located in Benfica.-20th century:...
- Campo GrandeCampo Grande (Lisbon)Campo Grande is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main institutions:*University of Lisbon*Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal*Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo*Câmara Municipal de Lisboa's Services*Museu da Cidade...
- CampolideCampolideCampolide is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959.Campolide was the site of a major battle on 5 September 1833, when the forces of Dom Miguel attacked those of Dom Pedro, as Pedro attempted to wrest back control of Portugal from his...
- CarnideCarnide (Lisbon)Carnide is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Colégio Militar*Nossa Senhora da Luz Church*São Lourenço de Carnide Church*Colombo Shopping Center...
- CasteloCastelo (Lisbon)Castelo is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It is one of the oldest parishes of Lisbon dated from 1147-Main sites:*Castle of São Jorge...
- CharnecaCharnecaCharneca or Charneca do Lumiar, is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created in 1585. Between 1852 and 1886 this parish was part of the former municipality of Olivais....
- Coração de JesusCoração de Jesus (Lisbon)Coração de Jesus is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 11, 1770....
- EncarnaçãoEncarnação (Lisbon)Encarnação is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Bairro Alto...
- GraçaGraça (Lisbon)Graça is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Nossa Senhora do Monte Chapel*Convento das Mónicas*Convento da Graça...
- LapaLapa (Lisbon)Lapa is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.72 km² and total population of 8,671 inhabitants ; density: 12,026.4 hab/km²....
- LumiarLumiarLumiar is a parish in the northern area of the Portuguese capital of Lisbon. Located in the municipality of Lisbon it was officially created in the 13th century.It has a estimated population of 45000, inhabiting a land area of about ....
- MadalenaMadalena (Lisbon)Madalena is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.11 km² and total population of 380 inhabitants ; density: 3,423.4 hab/km².-Main sites:*Praça do Comércio...
- MártiresMártiresMártires is a Portuguese civil parish in the city and municipality of Lisbon. It's the smallest civil parish of Lisbon , and one one the oldest dated from 1147...
- MarvilaMarvila (Lisbon)Marvila is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959...
- MercêsMercês (Lisbon)Mercês is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.30 km² and total population of 5,093 inhabitants ; density: 16,808.6 hab/km².-External links:*...
- Nossa Senhora de FátimaNossa Senhora de Fátima (Lisbon)Nossa Senhora de Fátima is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 1.87 km² and total population of 27.111 inhabitants ; density: 14,528.9 hab/km². It was created on February 7, 1959.-Main sites:...
- PenaPena (Lisbon)Pena is a Portuguese civil parish in the heart of the historical quarter of the municipality of Lisbon. In 2001, the population of the district included 6038 residents, in an are of 0.5 km², representing a highly compact population.-History:...
- Penha de FrançaPenha de FrançaPenha de França is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on April 13, 1918. In 1959 its area was reduced in order to create the parishes of Alto do Pina and São João.-Main sites:...
- PrazeresPrazeres (Lisbon)Prazeres is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Prazeres Cemetery*São Francisco de Paula Church*Palace of Necessidades...
- SacramentoSacramento (Lisbon)Sacramento is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.08 km² and total population of 880 inhabitants ; density: 18,864.2 hab/km².-Main sites:*São Roque Church*Carmo Convent...
- Santa CatarinaSanta Catarina (Lisbon)Santa Catarina is a Portuguese civil parish in the municipality of Lisbon, within an area of 0.21 km², but whose population exceeds 4081 inhabitants .-History:...
- Santa EngráciaSanta EngráciaSanta Engrácia is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.57 km² and total population of 5,860 inhabitants ; density: 10,335.1 hab/km².-Main sites:...
- Santa IsabelSanta Isabel (Lisbon)Santa Isabel is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on May 14, 1741, by Cardinal Tomás de Almeida.-Main sites:*Pedro Álvares Cabral Statue*Condes de Anadia Palace...
- Santa JustaSanta Justa (Lisbon)Santa Justa is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 700 inhabitants and a total area of 0.24 km²....
- Santa Maria de BelémSanta Maria de BelémSanta Maria de Belém, or just Belém , whose name is derived from the Portuguese word for Bethlehem, is a civil parish of the municipality of Lisbon, in central Portugal...
- Santa Maria dos Olivais
- SantiagoSantiago (Lisbon)Santiago is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.06 km² and total population of 857 inhabitants ; density: 13,822.6 hab/km².-External links: ]'s Câmara Municipal]...
- Santo CondestávelSanto CondestávelSanto Condestável is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Santo Condestável Church...
- Santo EstevãoSanto Estêvão (Lisbon)Santo Estêvão is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Santo Estêvão Church*Nossa Senhora dos Remédios Chapel*Azevedo Coutinho Palace*Condes de Balsemão Palace*Military Museum*Santa Apolónia Station...
- Santos-o-VelhoSantos-o-VelhoSantos-o-Velho is one of the 53 freguesias of Lisbon, Portugal, with an area of 0.51 km² and 4,013 inhabitants...
- São Cristóvão e São LourençoSão Cristóvão e São LourençoSão Cristóvão e São Lourenço is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.08 km² and total population of 1,612 inhabitants ; density: 20,935.1 hab/km².-Main sites:*São Cristovão Church...
- São Domingos de BenficaSão Domingos de BenficaSão Domingos de Benfica is a Portuguese parish, located in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a population of 33,678 inhabitants and a total area of 4.30 km².-External links:*...
- São Francisco XavierSão Francisco Xavier (Lisbon)São Francisco Xavier is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959.-Main sites:*Santana Windmills*São Jerónimo Chapel...
- São JoãoSão João (Lisbon)São João is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959.-Main sites:*Santos-o-Novo Convent*Santa Apolónia Fort...
- São João de BritoSão João de BritoSão João de Brito is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on February 7, 1959, and named after the saint John de Brito.-Main sites:*São João de Brito Church*Júlio de Matos Hospital...
- São João de DeusSão João de DeusSão João de Deus is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Campo Pequeno bullring*São João de Deus Church...
- São Jorge de ArroiosSão Jorge de ArroiosSão Jorge de Arroios is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Sotto Mayor Palace...
- São JoséSão José (Lisbon)São José is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It was created on November 20, 1567, by Cardinal D. Henrique.-Main sites:*Capuchos Convent*São José Church*Tivoli Cinema*Odeon Cinema*Capitólio Theater...
- São MamedeSão Mamede (Lisbon)São Mamede is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Botanic Garden*Real Colégio dos Nobres*Palmela Palace*Daupiás Casa e Jardim*Silk Factory...
- São MiguelSão Miguel (Lisbon)São Miguel is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.06 km² and total population of 1,777 inhabitants ; density: 30,637.9 hab/km². It was created in 1180 near the Castle of São Jorge site....
- São NicolauSão Nicolau (Lisbon)São Nicolau is a Portuguese parish of the municipality of Lisbon. It is 0.25 km² in area with 1,175 inhabitants as of 2001....
- São PauloSão Paulo (Lisbon)São Paulo is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Valada-Azambuja Palace*Almada – Carvalhais Palace*Alvito Palace*Sandomil Palace*Chagas Palace*Corpo Santo Church*Igreja de São Paulo*Cais do Sodré Station...
- São Sebastião da PedreiraSão Sebastião da PedreiraSão Sebastião da Pedreira is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon.-Main sites:*Alfredo da Costa Hospital*Malhoa Museum*São Sebastião da Pedreira Church...
- São Vicente de ForaSão Vicente de ForaSão Vicente de Fora is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.31 km² and total population of 4,267 inhabitants ; density: 13,853.9 hab/km².-Main sites:*Monastery of São Vicente de Fora...
- SéSé (Lisbon)Sé is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. It has a total area of 0.12 km² and total population of 1,160 inhabitants ; density: 9,586.8 hab/km². It was created as a parish in 1150.-Main sites:*Lisbon Cathedral...
- SocorroSocorro (Lisbon)Socorro is a Portuguese parish in the municipality of Lisbon. The local area is also designated as Martim Moniz.-Main sites:*Menino de Deus Church...
But, locally, their inhabitants may more commonly refer the spaces of Lisbon in terms of historic bairro
s . These communities have no clearly defined boundaries and represent special quarters with a common historical culture, identifiable architectural landmarks, livings standards and/or local personality, such as Amoreiras, Bairro Alto,Bica, Alfama, Mouraria, Avenidas Novas, Intendente, Chelas and Lapa.
Twin towns – Sister cities
Lisbon is twinned
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CultureThe city of Lisbon is rich in architecture; Romanesque
and Post-Modern constructions can be found all over Lisbon. The city is also crossed by historical boulevards and monuments along the main thoroughfares, particularly in the upper districts; notable among these are the Avenida da Liberdade (Avenue of Liberty), Avenida Fontes Pereira de Melo, Avenida Almirante Reis and Avenida da República (Avenue of the Republic).
There are several Museums one can enjoy. The most famous ones are the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (National Museum of Ancient Art), the Museu do Azulejo (Museum of Portuguese-style Tile Mosaics
), the Museu Calouste Gulbenkian
(Calouste Gulbenkian Museum), containing varied collections of ancient and modern art, the Museu Nacional do Traje e da Moda (National Museum of Costume and Fashion), the Berardo Collection Museum
(Modern Art) at the Belém Cultural Center, the Museu da Electricidade (Electricity Museum
), the Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum, containing the largest collection of royal coaches in the world), the Museu da Farmácia (Pharmacy Museum), Museum of the Orient
, the Museu do Teatro Romano (The Roman Theatre Museum), and the Museu da Cidade (the City Museum).
Lisbon's Opera House, the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos
, hosts a relatively active cultural agenda, mainly in autumn and winter. Other important theatres and musical houses are the Centro Cultural de Belém, the Teatro Nacional D. Maria II
, the Gulbenkian Foundation, and the Teatro Camões.
The monument to Christ the King stands on the southern bank of the Tagus River, in Almada
. With open arms, overlooking the whole city, it resembles the Corcovado monument in Rio de Janeiro
, and was built after World War II
, as work of thanksgiving for Portugal's being spared the horrors and destruction of the war.
On June 13 is Lisbon´s holiday in honour of the city´s saint Anthony of Lisbon . Saint Anthony, also known as Saint Anthony of Padua, was a wealthy Portuguese bohemian who was canonised and made Doctor of the Church
after a life preaching to the poor. Ironically, although Lisbon’s patron saint is Saint Vincent of Saragossa
, whose remains are housed in the Sé Cathedral
, there are no festivities associated with this saint.
Parque Eduardo VII, the second largest park in the city following the Parque Florestal de Monsanto (Monsanto Forest Park
), extends down the main avenue (Avenida da Liberdade), with many flowering plants and greenspaces, that includes the permanent collection of subtropical and tropical plants in the winter garden . Originally named Parque da Liberdade, it was renamed in honour of Edward VII of England who visited Lisbon in 1903.
Lisbon is home every year to the Lisbon Gay & Lesbian Film Festival
, the Lisboarte, the DocLisboa – Lisbon International Documentary Film Festival, the Arte Lisboa – Contemporary Art Fair, the Festival of the Oceans, the International Organ Festival of Lisbon, the MOTELx – Lisbon International Horror Film Festival, the Lisbon Village Festival, the Festival Internacional de Máscaras e Comediantes, the Lisboa Mágica – Street Magic World Festival, the Monstra – Animated Film Festival, the Lisbon Book Fair, the Peixe em Lisboa – Lisbon Fish and Flavours, the Lisbon International Handicraft Exhibition, the Lisbon Photo Marathon, the IndieLisboa – International Independent Film Festival, the Alkantara Festival, the Temps d´Images Festival and the Jazz in August festival.
Lisbon has been home four times (in 2004, 2006, 2008, and 2010) to Rock in Rio
, one of the world's largest pop-rock festivals. Annual popular music events within the metropolitan area include the Optimus Alive!
and Super Bock Super Rock
Lisbon is also home to the Lisbon Architecture Triennial, the Moda Lisboa (Fashion Lisbon), ExperimentaDesign – Biennial of Design and LuzBoa – Biennial of Light.
In the early 1990s, Alcântara began to attract youth because of the number of pubs and discothèques. This was mainly due its outer area of mostly commercial buildings, which acted as barriers to the noise-generating nightlife (which acted as a buffer to the residential communities surrounding it). In the meantime, some of these areas began to become gentrified, attracting loft developments and new apartments, which have profited from its river views and central location.
river. Its name, derived from the Arabic
Al-hamma, means fountains or baths. During the Islamic invasion of Iberia, the Alfama constituted the largest part of the city, extending west to the Baixa neighbourhood. Increasingly, the Alfama became inhabited by fishermen and the poor: its fame as a poor neighbourhood continues to this day. While the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake
caused considerable damage throughout the capital, the Alfama survived with little damage, due to its compact labyrinth of narrow streets and small squares. It is a historical quarter of mixed-used buildings of homes with small shops, Fado
bars and restaurants. Modernizing trends have invigorated the district: old houses have been re-purposed or remodelled, while new buildings have been constructed. Fado
, the typically Portuguese-style of melancholy music, is common (but not obligatory) in the restaurants of the district. Among the many architectural vestiges of the area:
- Castle of São Jorge - the Moorish castle conquered by Afonso Henriques and Crusader forces, was once a home of the Portuguese royal family, with a complex of buildings within its walls. Since the Portuguese revolution, the abandoned castle decayed into ruin, and many of the buildings were destroyed. In the late 20th century many of the archaeologically significant foundations of the Moorish structure were recuperated;
- Sé Cathedral of Santa Maria MaiorLisbon CathedralThe Patriarchal Cathedral of St. Mary Major is a Roman Catholic parish church located in Lisbon, Portugal. The oldest church in the city is the see of the Archdiocese of Lisbon. Since the beginning of the construction of the cathedral, in the year 1147, the building has been modified several...
- Monastery of São Vicente de ForaMonastery of São Vicente de ForaThe Church or Monastery of São Vicente de Fora; meaning "Monastery of St. Vincent Outside the Walls" is a 17th century church and monastery in the city of Lisbon, in Portugal...
- Santo António Church;
- Santa Luzia Belvedere;
- Largo das Portas ao Sol
Bairro AltoBairro Alto (literally the upper quarter in Portuguese
) is an area of central Lisbon. It functions as a residential, shopping and entertainment district: it is the heart of the Portuguese capital's nightlife, attracting its youth. Lisbon's Punk
, Gay, Metal
, Hip Hop
scenes, all count the Bairro as their home, due to the specialization of its clubs and bars. Although fado
, Portugal's national music still survives in the new nightlife, the crowds in the Bairro Alto area is a multicultural mix of cultures and entertainment.
, taking its name from its benefactor, 1st Marquess of Pombal, Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo (Joseph I's Prime Minister
(1750–1777) and key figure during the Portuguese Enlightenment. Following the 1755 disaster, Pombal took the lead in rebuilding Lisbon, imposing strict conditions and guidelines on the construction of the city, and transforming the organic street plan, that characterised the district before the earthquake, into its current grid pattern. As a result, the Pombaline Baixa is one of the first examples of earthquake-resistant construction. Architectural models were tested by having troops march around them to simulate an earthquake. Notable features of Pombaline structures include the Pombaline cage, a symmetrical wood-lattice framework aimed at distributing earthquake force, and inter-terrace walls that were built higher than roof timbers to reduce fire contagion.
It was placed on Portugal's tentative list of potential World Heritage Site
s on 7 December 2004. Other important monuments in this area include:
- Praça do ComércioPraça do ComércioThe Praça do Comércio is located in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Situated near the Tagus river, the square is still commonly known as Terreiro do Paço , because it was the location of the Paços da Ribeira until it was destroyed by the great 1755 Lisbon Earthquake...
- RossioRossioThe Rossio is the popular name of the Pedro IV Square in the city of Lisbon, in Portugal. It is located in the Pombaline Downtown of Lisbon and has been one of its main squares since the Middle Ages...
- the oldest and historically most important squares in Lisbon
- Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição VelhaChurch of Nossa Senhora da Conceição VelhaThe Igreja of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha is a church in the centre of Lisbon, in Portugal. It is notable as one of the last remnants of the Manueline style in the city....
which has a beautiful manueline façade
- Church of São Domingos
- Restauradores SquareRestauradores SquareRestauradores Square is a public square in the city of Lisbon, Portugal. It is located at the southeast end of Avenida da Liberdade, near Rossio square....
- Elevador de Santa Justa, an elevatorElevatorAn elevator is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel or other structures...
(lift) in Gothic revival style, built around 1900 to connect the Baixa and Chiado.
BelémSanta Maria de Belém, or just Belém (ˈsɐ̃tɐ mɐˈɾiɐ dɨ bɨˈlɐ̃ȷ̃) is a parish
of Lisbon, Portugal
, located 6 km (4 mi) west of the present city centre and 2 km (1 mi) west of Ponte 25 de Abril (25 April Bridge). Its name is derived from the Portuguese
Belém is famous as the place from which many of the great Portuguese
explorers set off on their voyages of discovery. In particular, it is the place from which Vasco da Gama
departed for India
in 1497. It is also a former royal residence and features the 17th–18th century Belém Palace
, former royal residence and now occupied by the President of Portugal
, and the Ajuda Palace, begun in 1802 but never completed.
Perhaps Belém's most famous feature is its tower, Torre de Belém
, whose image is much used by Lisbon's tourist board. The tower was built as a fortified lighthouse late in the reign of Dom Manuel
(1515–1520) to guard the entrance to the port at Belém. It stood on a little island in right side of the Tagus
, surrounded by water.
Belém's other major historical building is the Mosteiro dos Jerónimos (Jerónimos Monastery), which the Torre de Belém
was built partly to defend. The building of the monastery, an example of Manueline
architecture, was begun in 1502 on the instructions of Manuel I
and took 50 years to complete. It was built as a monument to Vasco da Gama
's successful voyage to India
and was funded by a tax on eastern spices. The monastery contains the tomb of Vasco da Gama
. Located in the wings of the monastery are the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia (National Archaeological Museum) and the Museu da Marinha
Belém's most notable modern feature is the Padrão dos Descobrimentos
(Monument to the Discoveries). This is a 52 m (170.6 ft) high slab of concrete, erected in 1960 to commemorate the 500th anniversary of the death of Henry the Navigator. The monument is carved into the shape of the prow of a ship in which stand statues of various explorers, as well as a statue of Henry himself. Adjacent to the monument is a square into whose surface is set a map showing the routes of various Portuguese explorers.
. To the west of the gardens lies the Centro Cultural de Belém. This was built for Portugal
's 1992 presidency of the EU. It is now an arts complex, containing Belém's Museu do Design (Design Museum). To the southeast of the gardens is the Belém Palace
(1770), the official residence of the Portuguese President. Five hundred metres to the east of Praça do Império lies Belém's other major squarePraça Afonso de Albuquerque.
Belém is home to a number of other museums, many of which were established by Salazar
for the 1940 Belém Expo: Museu da Electricidade
(Electricity Museum), Museu do Centro Científico e Cultural de Macau (Macau
Cultural Museum), Museu de Arte Popular (Folk Art Museum) and Museu Nacional dos Coches (National Coach Museum
Belenenses, a renowned sports club
from Lisbon is based in Belém.
Belém's main street is Rua de Belém, in which there is a 160-year-old pastry shop, at which can be purchased one of the famous pastel de Belém (plural: pastéis de Belém) – custard
tarts made with flaky pastry.
Other attractions within the area are:
- Padrão dos DescobrimentosPadrão dos DescobrimentosPadrão dos Descobrimentos is a monument on the northern margin of the Tagus River estuary, in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém, Lisbon...
(Monument of the Discoveries), built in mid-20th century, during Estado Novo dictatorial regime
- Belem Cultural Centre, example of Portuguese contemporary architecture, finished in 1994
- Belem TowerBelém TowerBelém Tower or the Tower of St Vincent is a fortified tower located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém in the municipality of Lisbon, Portugal...
, an ex-libris of the city, built in the 16th century
- Belem PalaceBelém PalaceThe Belém National Palace, or alternately National Palace of Belém, has, overtime, been the official residence of Portuguese monarchs and, after the installation of the First Republic, the Presidents of the Portuguese Republic...
, 18th century palace, which is now the official residence of the President of the Republic
- Coach Museum, displaying most relevant and spectacular carriages from 17th to 19th century.
, famous for having had poet Fernando Pessoa
among its customers. The Chiado is also an important cultural area, with several museums and theatres. Several buildings of the Chiado were destroyed in a fire in 1988, an event that deeply shocked the country. Thanks to a renovation project that lasted more than 10 years, coordinated by celebrated architect Siza Vieira, the affected area is now recovered.
- Basilica dos Mártires
- Brasileira Cafe
- Carmo ConventCarmo Convent (Lisbon)The Carmo Convent is a historical building in Lisbon, Portugal. The mediaeval convent was ruined in the 1755 Lisbon Earthquake, and the ruins of its Gothic church are the main trace of the great earthquake still visible in the city.The Carmo Convent is located in the Chiado neighbourhood, on a...
- Church of Corpo Santo
- Church of Nossa Senhora do Loreto
- Museu do Chiado, which houses most important works of Portuguese contemporary art
- The richly decorated Church of São RoqueIgreja de São Roque (Lisbon)The Igreja de São Roque in Lisbon was the earliest Jesuit church in the Portuguese world, and one of the first Jesuit churches anywhere. It served as the Society’s home church in Portugal for over 200 years, before the Jesuits were expelled from that country...
is located nearby.
EstrelaThe Baroque-Neoclassical Estrela Basilica
is the main attraction of this district. The huge church has a giant dome, and is located in a hill in what was at the time the western part of Lisbon and can be viewed from far away. The style is similar to the Mafra National Palace
, in late baroque and neoclassical. The front has two twin bell towers and includes statues of saints and some allegoric figures. The Parliament
, housed in Sao Bento Palace
, is in this district. Nearby is the official residence of Portugal’s Prime Minister. and the Prazeres Cemetery is nearby as well.
Parque das NaçõesParque das Nações is the newest district in Lisbon, having emerged from an urban regeneration programmed that led to the World Exhibition of Lisbon 1998. A long lasting legacy of the same, the area has become another commercial and higher end residential area for the city.
Central to this is the Gare do Oriente (Orient Station), one of the main transportation hubs of Lisbon, for trains, metro, buses and taxis. Its glass and steel columns are inspired in Gothic Architecture, making the whole structure fascinating to look at (especially in sunlight or when illuminated at night). It was designed by the architect Santiago Calatrava
from Valencia (Spain). Across the street, through Vasco da Gama Mall, is Parque das Nações (Park of the Nations), site of the 1998 World Expo.
Walking around to see the new buildings, restaurants, gardens, the Lisbon Casino, the FIL building (International Exhibition and Fair), the Camões Theatre, as well as a must see the Oceanário de Lisboa (Lisbon Oceanarium
), the second largest in the world.
EconomyThe Lisbon region is the wealthiest region in Portugal
and it is well above the European Union
's GDP per capita average – it produces 45% of the Portuguese GDP
. Lisbon's economy is based primarily on the tertiary sector. Most of the headquarters of multinationals operating in Portugal are concentrated in the Grande Lisboa Subregion, specially in the Oeiras municipality. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area
is heavily industrialized, especially the south bank of the Tagus
river (Rio Tejo).
The Lisbon region is rapidly growing, each year are higher Gross Domestic Product (GDP) PPP per capita: € 22,745 (2004) – € 23,816 (2005) – € 25,200 (2006) – € 26,100 (2007).
The country's chief seaport, featuring one of the largest and most sophisticated regional markets on the Iberian Peninsula, Lisbon and its heavily populated surroundings are also developing as an important financial centre and a dynamic technological hub.
Lisbon has the largest and most developed mass media
sector of Portugal, and is home to several related companies ranging from leading television
networks and radio station
s to major newspapers
The Euronext Lisbon
, part of the pan-European Euronext
system together with the stock exchanges of Amsterdam
, is tied with the New York Stock Exchange
since 2007, forming the multinational NYSE Euronext group of stock exchanges.
The main industries consist of oil refineries, textile mills, shipyards, steel and fishing.
For the decade of 2010, Lisbon is preparing to receive many investments, including building a new airport, a new bridge, an expansion of 30 km (18.64 mi) underground, the construction of a mega-hospital (or central hospital), the creation two lines of the TGV will join Madrid
and the rest of Europe, the restoration of the main part of town (between the Marquês de Pombal roundabout and Terreiro do Paço), the creation of a large number of bike lanes, as well as modernization and renovation of various facilities.
TransportLisbon's public transport network is extremely far-reaching and reliable and has its metro
as its main artery, connecting the city centre with the upper and eastern districts, and now reaching the suburbs. Ambitious expansion projects will increase the network by almost one third, connecting the airport, and the northern and western districts. Bus, funicular and tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (Carris
), for over a century.
A traditional form of public transport in Lisbon is the tram
. Introduced in the 19th century, the trams were originally imported from the USA
and called americanos. The earliest trams can still be seen in the Museu da Carris (the Public Transport Museum) (Carris). Other than on the modern Line 15, the Lisbon tramway system
still employs small (four wheel) vehicles of a design dating from the early part of the twentieth century. These distinctive yellow trams are one of the tourist icons of modern Lisbon, and their size is well suited to the steep hills and narrow streets of the central city.
There are other commuter bus services from the city: Vimeca, Rodoviaria de Lisboa, Transportes Sul do Tejo, Boa Viagem, Barraqueiro are the main ones, operating from different terminals in the city.
There are four commuter train
lines departing from Lisbon: the Cascais, Sintra and Azambuja lines (operated by CP - Comboios de Portugal
), as well as a fourth line to Setúbal
(operated by Fertagus
) crossing the Tagus
river, over the 25 de Abril Bridge
. The major railway stations are Santa Apolónia, Rossio
, Gare do Oriente, Entrecampos
, and Cais do Sodré
. The city does not offer a light rail
service (tram line 15, although running with new and faster trams does not fall onto this category), but there are plans to build light rail lines to provide service along the city's periphery.
Lisbon is connected to its suburbs as well as throughout Portugal by an extensive motorway network. There are three circular motorways around the city; the 2ª Circular, the CRIL, and the CREL. The city is connected to the far side of the Tagus by two important bridges:
- The 25 de Abril Bridge25 de Abril BridgeThe 25 de Abril Bridge is a suspension bridge connecting the city of Lisbon, capital of Portugal, to the municipality of Almada on the left bank of the Tejo river. It was inaugurated on August 6, 1966 and a train platform was added in 1999...
, inaugurated (as Ponte SalazarAntónio de Oliveira SalazarAntónio de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He also served as acting President of the Republic briefly in 1951. He founded and led the Estado Novo , the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal...
) on August 6, 1966, and later renamed after the date of the Carnation RevolutionCarnation RevolutionThe Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...
, was the longest suspension bridgeSuspension bridgeA suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. Outside Tibet and Bhutan, where the first examples of this type of bridge were built in the 15th century, this type of bridge dates from the early 19th century...
in Europe. Because of its similar coloring, it is often compared to the Golden Gate BridgeGolden Gate BridgeThe Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to...
in San Francisco, USA. In fact, it was built by the same company (American Bridge CompanyAmerican Bridge CompanyThe American Bridge Company is a privately held civil engineering firm specializing in the construction and renovation of bridges and other large civil engineering projects, founded in 1900, and headquartered in Coraopolis, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Pittsburgh.-Products and industry positioning:The...
) that constructed the San Francisco-Oakland Bay BridgeSan Francisco-Oakland Bay BridgeThe San Francisco – Oakland Bay Bridge is a pair of bridges spanning San Francisco Bay of California, in the United States. Forming part of Interstate 80 and of the direct road route between San Francisco and Oakland, it carries approximately 270,000 vehicles per day on its two decks...
and not the Golden Gate, also explaining its similarity in design to the former.
- The Vasco da Gama Bridge, inaugurated on May 1998 is, at 17.2 km (10.7 mi), the longest bridge in Europe.
Another way of crossing the river is by taking the ferry. The company is Transtejo-Soflusa, which operates from different points in the city to Cacilhas
, Seixal, Montijo, Porto Brandão
under the brand Transtejo and to Barreiro under the brand Soflusa.
The Portela Airport
is located within the city limits, with the national (TAP
), regional or low-cost services that connects Lisbon to major cities in Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
, the Carlucci American International School of Lisbon
, Saint Dominic's International School
, Deutsche Schule Lissabon
, Instituto Español de Lisboa (Lisbon Spanish Institute), and Lycée Français Charles Lepierre.
There are three major public universities in Lisbon: the University of Lisbon (Lisbon's oldest university in operation, founded in 1911, also called the Classic University of Lisbon), the Technical University of Lisbon
(founded in 1930) and the New University of Lisbon
(founded in 1973), providing degrees in all academic disciplines. There is also one state-run university institute – the ISCTE - Lisbon University Institute, and a polytechnic
institute – the Polytechnical Institute of Lisbon
Major private institutions of higher education include the Portuguese Catholic University, as well as the Lusíada University
, the Universidade Lusófona
, and the Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa
, among others.
The total number of enrolled students in higher education in Lisbon was, for the 2007–2008 school year, of 125,867 students, of whom 81,507 in the Lisbon's public institutions.
and 1983, 1992 European Fencing Championships
, 2003 World Men's Handball Championship
, 2008 European Judo Championships
. In 2006 and 2007, the city provided the starting point for the Dakar Rally.
Sport Lisboa e Benfica (commonly known as "Benfica") is a sports club best known worldwide for its football team, one of the major clubs in Portugal
, one of the Big Three, two-times winner and five-times runners-up of the European Cup, one-time runners-up of the UEFA Cup
and one-time runners-up of the Intercontinental Cup
. Sporting Clube de Portugal (commonly known as "Sporting") is one of the major clubs in Portugal
, one of the Big Three, having won the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
(1964) and was runners-up of the UEFA Cup
The third most important club is C.F. Os Belenenses (commonly "Belenenses" also "Belenenses Lisbon"). Other sports, such as indoor football, handball
and roller hockey
are also popular. There are many other sport facilities in Lisbon, ranging from athletics to sailing
to mountain-biking. Every March the city hosts the Lisbon Half Marathon
, while in September - Portugal Half Marathon
Lisbon has two UEFA elite stadiums (): Estádio da Luz (Stadium of Light), with a capacity of over 65,000 and the Estádio José Alvalade
, with a capacity of over 50,000. There is also – Estádio do Restelo
, with a capacity of over 30,000. In the neighborhood exist Estádio Nacional
, with a capacity of over 37,000 (in Oeiras) and Estádio do Bonfim
, with a capacity of nearly 20,000 (in Setúbal
- Verissimo, Maxima and Julia according to tradition were the first three martyrs of Olisipo, considered native and later also as Romans in the city (3th and 4th centuries A.D.);
- São Gens was a legendary bishop-martyr who, according to tradition, has been one of the first bishops of Lisbon, even during the Roman domination of LusitaniaLusitaniaLusitania or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain . It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people...
- Fernando Martins de Bulhões, later Saint Anthony of Lisbon (c.1195 – 13 June 1231) is a CatholicRoman Catholic ChurchThe Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...
- Pedro Julião, ordained Pope John XXIPope John XXIPope John XXI, , born Pedro Julião Pope John XXI, , born Pedro Julião Pope John XXI, , born Pedro Julião (Latin, Petrus Iulianus (c. 1215 – May 20, 1277), a Portuguese also called Pedro Hispano (Latin, Petrus Hispanus; English, Peter of Spain), was Pope from 1276 until his death about eight...
, (c. 1215 – May 20, 1277), was the only PortuguesePortugalPortugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...
- Fernão LopesFernão LopesFernão Lopes was a Portuguese chronicler appointed by King Edward of Portugal. Fernão Lopes wrote the history of Portugal, but only a part of his work remained....
(c. 1385 – after 1459) was a chronicler appointed by King Edward of Portugal. Fernão Lopes wrote the history of PortugalHistory of PortugalThe history of Portugal, a European and an Atlantic nation, dates back to the Early Middle Ages. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it ascended to the status of a world power during Europe's "Age of Discovery" as it built up a vast empire including possessions in South America, Africa, Asia and...
, but only a part of his work remained. His way of writing was based on oral discourse, and, on every page, it revealed his roots among the common people. He is one of the fathers of the European historiographyHistoriographyHistoriography refers either to the study of the history and methodology of history as a discipline, or to a body of historical work on a specialized topic...
, or a precursor of the scientific historiography, basing his works always on the documental proof, and, has he said, on his pages "one cannot find the beauty of words but the nudity of the truth." He was an autodidact;
- Duarte Pacheco PereiraDuarte Pacheco PereiraDuarte Pacheco Pereira, called the Great, was a 15th century Portuguese sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographer. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic Ocean west of the Cape Verde islands, along the coast of West Africa and to India...
, called "the Great", was a 15th century sea captain, soldier, explorer and cartographerCartographyCartography is the study and practice of making maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively.The fundamental problems of traditional cartography are to:*Set the map's...
. He travelled particularly in the central Atlantic OceanAtlantic OceanThe Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...
west of the Cape VerdeCape VerdeThe Republic of Cape Verde is an island country, spanning an archipelago of 10 islands located in the central Atlantic Ocean, 570 kilometres off the coast of Western Africa...
islands, near BrazilBrazilBrazil , officially the Federative Republic of Brazil , is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people...
, in 1498 and before; also along the coast of West AfricaAfricaAfrica is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...
and to IndiaIndiaIndia , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...
. His accomplishments in strategic warfare, exploration, mathematics and astronomy were of an exceptional level. With the anticipation of more than two centuries, he was responsible for calculating the value of the degree of the meridian arcMeridian arcIn geodesy, a meridian arc measurement is a highly accurate determination of the distance between two points with the same longitude. Two or more such determinations at different locations then specify the shape of the reference ellipsoid which best approximates the shape of the geoid. This...
with a margin of error of only 4%;
- Francisco de AlmeidaFrancisco de AlmeidaDom Francisco de Almeida , also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" , was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer. He distinguished himself as a counsellor to King John II of Portugal and later in the wars against the Moors and in the conquest of Granada in 1492...
, (c. 1450 – 1 March 1510), was a nobleman, soldier and explorer, counsellor to King John II of PortugalJohn II of PortugalJohn II , the Perfect Prince , was the thirteenth king of Portugal and the Algarves...
and the first Viceroy of Portuguese India. Almeida is credited with establishing Portuguese hegemony in the Indian Ocean, with his decisive victory at the naval Battle of DiuBattle of DiuThe Battle of Diu sometimes referred as the Second Battle of Chaul was a naval battle fought on 3 February 1509 in the Arabian Sea, near the port of Diu, India, between the Portuguese Empire and a joint fleet of the Sultan of Gujarat, the Mamlûk Burji Sultanate of Egypt, the Zamorin of Kozhikode...
- João de CastroJoão de CastroDom João de Castro was a Portuguese naval officer and fourth viceroy of Portuguese India. He was called Castro Forte by poet Luís de Camões. Castro was the son of Álvaro de Castro, civil governor of Lisbon...
(February 7, 1500 – June 6, 1548), was a naval officer, notable scientist, writer and cartographer. He was also the fourth viceroy of Portuguese India. He was called Castro Forte ("Strong Castro") by poet Luís de CamõesLuís de CamõesLuís Vaz de Camões is considered Portugal's and the Portuguese language's greatest poet. His mastery of verse has been compared to that of Shakespeare, Vondel, Homer, Virgil and Dante. He wrote a considerable amount of lyrical poetry and drama but is best remembered for his epic work Os Lusíadas...
. He undertook many observations and can in a way be considered as one of the discoverers of crustal magnetism. He also discovered spatial variations of Declination in some points of the globe (as in Baçaim, India), which he attributed to the disturbing effects of underwater rock masses. Castro was one of the most important representative of scientific maritime investigations of the time;
- Francisco de HolandaFrancisco de HolandaFrancisco de Holanda , was a Portuguese humanist and painter. Considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese Renaissance, he was also an essayist, architect, and historian...
(originally Francisco d'Olanda), (c. 1517 – 1585) was a humanist and painterPaintingPainting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...
. Considered to be one of the most important figures of the Portuguese RenaissanceRenaissanceThe Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...
, he was also an essayist, architectArchitectAn architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...
, and historianHistorianA historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrative and research of past events as relating to the human race; as well as the study of all history in time. If the individual is...
. He was a maternal nephew of Pope Adrian VIPope Adrian VIPope Adrian VI , born Adriaan Florenszoon Boeyens, served as Pope from 9 January 1522 until his death some 18 months later...
and a remote uncle of Deodoro da FonsecaDeodoro da FonsecaMarshal Manuel Deodoro da Fonseca became the first president of the Republic of Brazil after heading a military coup that deposed Emperor Pedro II and proclaimed the Republic in 1889, disestablishing the Empire of Brazil.- Biography :...
, Sérgio Buarque de Holanda and his namesake Chico BuarqueChico BuarqueFrancisco Buarque de Hollanda , popularly known as Chico Buarque , is a singer, guitarist, composer, dramatist, writer and poet...
- António FerreiraAntónio FerreiraAntónio Ferreira was a Portuguese poet and the foremost representative of the classical school, founded by Francisco de Sá de Miranda. His most considerable work, Castro, is the first tragedy in Portuguese, and the second in modern European literature.-His life:Ferreira was a native of Lisbon...
(1528 – November 29, 1569), was a poetPoetA poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...
and the foremost representative of the classical school, founded by Francisco de Sá de MirandaFrancisco de Sá de MirandaFrancisco de Sá de Miranda was a Portuguese poet of the Renaissance.-Life:Sá de Miranda was the son of a canon of Coimbra belonging to the ancient and noble family of Sa...
. His most considerable work, Castro, is the first tragedyTragedyTragedy is a form of art based on human suffering that offers its audience pleasure. While most cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role historically in the self-definition of...
in PortuguesePortugalPortugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...
, and the second in modern EuropeEuropeEurope is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...
an literature. known as the Portuguese HoraceHoraceQuintus Horatius Flaccus , known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus.-Life:...
, he was an ardent defender of the Portuguese language.
- António VieiraAntónio VieiraFather António Vieira was a Portuguese Jesuit and writer, the "prince" of Catholic pulpit-orators of his time.-Life:Vieira was born in Lisbon to Cristóvão Vieira Ravasco, the son of a mulatto woman, and Maria de Azevedo. Accompanying his parents to Brazil in 1614, he received his education at the...
(6 February 1608 – 18 July 1697), JesuitSociety of JesusThe Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...
and writer, considered the "prince" of pulpit-orators in his time. The honorable and great poet Fernando Pessoa crowned Vieira with the magnificent title of "Emperor of the Portuguese Language";
- João Pinto Ribeiro was a celebrated conjurado and one of the conspirators and planners of the revolution of December 1, 1640.
- Catherine of BraganzaCatherine of BraganzaCatherine of Braganza was a Portuguese infanta and queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles II.She married the king in 1662...
(25 November 1638 – 31 December 1705), Queen ConsortQueen consortA queen consort is the wife of a reigning king. A queen consort usually shares her husband's rank and holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles. Historically, queens consort do not share the king regnant's political and military powers. Most queens in history were queens consort...
of King Charles II of EnglandCharles II of EnglandCharles II was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland.Charles II's father, King Charles I, was executed at Whitehall on 30 January 1649, at the climax of the English Civil War...
- José da Silva PaisJosé da Silva PaisJosé da Silva Pais was a Portuguese soldier and colony administrator.He was involved in diverse situations in the disputed territories between the Portuguese and Spanish in the territory that today is the South region in Brazil...
(October 25, 1679 — November 14, 1760) was a soldier and colony administrator. He organized the support for the Sacramento Colony during the Spanish–Portuguese War, 1735–1737. For the purpose of maintaining the SouthSouthern Region, BrazilThe South Region of Brazil is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 km ², being the smallest portion of the country...
of Brazil in the hands of Portugal, Pais was charged with the colonization and construction of many villages and Fortresses like the Jesus Maria e José and others in Rio Grande do SulRio Grande do SulRio Grande do Sul is the southernmost state in Brazil, and the state with the fifth highest Human Development Index in the country. In this state is located the southernmost city in the country, Chuí, on the border with Uruguay. In the region of Bento Gonçalves and Caxias do Sul, the largest wine...
and Santa CatarinaSanta CatarinaSanta Catarina is the name of several places :-Places:Brazil*Santa Catarina , one of that country's federal states...
- Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquess of Pombal (Marquês de Pombal,; 13 May 1699–8 May 1782) was an 18th century statesman in the Age of EnlightenmentAge of EnlightenmentThe Age of Enlightenment was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in church and state...
. He was Minister of the Kingdom in the government of Joseph I of Portugal from 1750 to 1777. Undoubtedly the most prominent minister in the government, he is considered today to have been the de facto head of government. Pombal is notable for his swift and competent leadership in the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake;
- Leonor de Almeida Portugal (1750–1839) - Marchioness of AlornaMarquis of AlornaMarquis of Alorna was a Portuguese title of nobility granted, in 9 November 1748, by King John V of Portugal, to D. Pedro Miguel de Almeida Portugal e Vasconcelos, 3rd Count of Assumar and 44th viceroy of India....
, 8th Countess of Assumar, one of the greatest figures of Portuguese literature, known as Alcippe, and the most famous holder of the title;
- António José de Souza Manoel de Menezes Severim de Noronha (March 18, 1792, - April 26, 1860), 7th Count of Vila Flor, 1st Marquis of Vila Flor and 1st Duke of TerceiraDuke of TerceiraThe title duke of Terceira, de juro e herdade was created by decree of King Pedro IV of Portugal, on 8 November 1832...
, was a military officer, statesman and a leader of the Constitutionalist side in the Liberal WarsLiberal WarsThe Liberal Wars, also known as the Portuguese Civil War, the War of the Two Brothers, or Miguelite War, was a war between progressive constitutionalists and authoritarian absolutists in Portugal over royal succession that lasted from 1828 to 1834...
, as well as a Prime Minister of Portugal;
- Alexandre HerculanoAlexandre HerculanoAlexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo , was a Portuguese novelist and historian.-Early life:...
(Alexandre Herculano de Carvalho e Araújo; born March 28, 1810; died September 13, 1877 in SantarémSantarém, PortugalSantarém is a city in the Santarém Municipality in Portugal. The city itself has a population of 28,760 and the entire municipality has 64,124 inhabitants.It is the capital of Santarém District....
), was a novelNovelA novel is a book of long narrative in literary prose. The genre has historical roots both in the fields of the medieval and early modern romance and in the tradition of the novella. The latter supplied the present generic term in the late 18th century....
ist and historian;
- Camilo Castelo BrancoCamilo Castelo BrancoCamilo Ferreira Botelho Castelo-Branco,1st Viscount de Correia Botelho , was a prolific Portuguese writer of the 19th century, having authored over 260 books . His writing is, overall, considered original in that it combines the dramatic and sentimental spirit of Romanticism with a highly personal...
(Camilo Ferreira Botelho Castelo-Branco,1st Viscount de Correia Botelho; March 16, 1825 – June 1, 1890), was a prolific and notable writer, having authored over 260 books (mainly novels, plays and essays). His writing is, overall, considered original in that it combines the dramatic and sentimental spirit of Romanticism with a highly personal combination of bitterness, dark humour of sarcasm;
- Cesário VerdeCesário VerdeCesário Verde was a 19th-century Portuguese poet. His work, while mostly ignored during his lifetime and not well known outside of the country’s borders even today, is generally considered to be amongst the most important in Portuguese poetry and is widely taught in schools...
(February 25, 1855 – July 19, 1886) Poet. His work, while mostly ignored during his lifetime, is generally considered to be amongst the most important in Portuguese poetry and is widely taught in schools. This is partly due to his being championed by many other authors after his death, notably Fernando Pessoa;
- Henrique Mitchell de Paiva Couceiro ( December 30, 1861 - February 11, 1944), son of a Portuguese father and an Irish mother, was a soldier, colonial governor, monarchist politician and counter-revolutionary; he was notable for his role during the colonial occupation of AngolaAngolaAngola, officially the Republic of Angola , is a country in south-central Africa bordered by Namibia on the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo on the north, and Zambia on the east; its west coast is on the Atlantic Ocean with Luanda as its capital city...
and MozambiqueMozambiqueMozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique , is a country in southeastern Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest...
and for his dedication to the monarchist cause during the period of the First Portuguese Republic;
- Gago CoutinhoGago CoutinhoCarlos Viegas Gago Coutinho, GCTE, GCC, generally known simply as Gago Coutinho was a Portuguese aviation pioneer who, together with Sacadura Cabral , was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by air, from March to June 1922 , from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro.The Fairey IIIB seaplane used by...
or Carlos Viegas Gago Coutinho (17 February 1869 – 18 February 1959) was a aviationAviationAviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...
pioneer who, together with Sacadura CabralSacadura CabralArtur de Sacadura Freire Cabral, GCTE , known simply as Sacadura Cabral , was a Portuguese aviation pioneer who in 1922, together with Gago Coutinho , conducted the first flight across the South Atlantic Ocean, and also the first using astronomical navigation only, from Lisbon, Portugal, to Rio de...
(1881–1924), was the first to cross the South Atlantic Ocean by airFirst aerial crossing of the South AtlanticThe first aerial crossing of the South Atlantic was made by the Portuguese naval aviators Gago Coutinho and Sacadura Cabral in 1922, to mark the centennial of Brazil's independence...
, from March to June 1922 (some sources wrongly claim 1919), from Lisbon to Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...
. Gago Coutinho invented a type of sextantSextantA sextant is an instrument used to measure the angle between any two visible objects. Its primary use is to determine the angle between a celestial object and the horizon which is known as the altitude. Making this measurement is known as sighting the object, shooting the object, or taking a sight...
incorporating two spirit levels to provide an artificial horizon. This adaptation of the traditional marine sextant allowed navigation without visual reference to the real horizon.
- Fernando PessoaFernando PessoaFernando Pessoa, born Fernando António Nogueira de Seabra Pessoa , was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic and translator described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language.-Early years in Durban:On 13 July...
(13 June 1888 – 30 November 1935 ), poetPoetA poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...
, writerWriterA writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....
, literary critic and translator, considered one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century;
- Mário de Sá-CarneiroMário de Sá-CarneiroMário de Sá-Carneiro was a Portuguese poet and writer. He is one of the most well known of the "Geração D'Orpheu".-Life:...
(May 19, 1890 — April 26, 1916) was a poet and writer. He is one of the most well known of the "Geração D'Orpheu" and friend of Fernando Pessoa and Almada NegreirosAlmada NegreirosJosé Sobral de Almada Negreiros was a Portuguese artist. He was born in the then colony of São Tomé e Príncipe, the son of a Portuguese father, António Lobo de Almada Negreiros, and a Santomean mother, Elvira Freire Sobral...
- Amália RodriguesAmália RodriguesAmália da Piedade Rodrigues, GCSE, GCIH, , also known as Amália Rodrigues was a Portuguese singer and actress.She was known as the "Rainha do Fado" and was most influential in popularizing the fado worldwide. She was one of the most important figures in the genre's development, and enjoyed a...
(23 July 1920 – 6 October 1999), the Rainha do Fado , influential in popularizing the fado worldwide;
- Jorge Ferreira ChavesJorge Ferreira ChavesJorge Ferreira Chaves, was a Portuguese architect.Some authors may refer to him as "Jorge Chaves" or simply "Chaves"....
(22 February 1920 – 22 August 1982), architectArchitectAn architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...
- Mário Cesariny (9 August 1923 – 26 November 2006), surrealistSurrealismSurrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members....
poetPoetA poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...
, a minor painter;
- Alexandre O'NeillAlexandre O'NeillAlexandre Manuel Vahia de Castro O'Neill de Bulhões, GOSE was a Portuguese writer and poet of Irish descent.-Family:...
(19 December 1924 – 21 August 1986), poetPoet
/writerWriterA writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....
- Mário SoaresMário SoaresMário Alberto Nobre Lopes Soares, GColTE, GCC, GColL, KE , Portuguese politician, served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1976 to 1978 and from 1983 to 1985, and subsequently as the 17th President of Portugal from 1986 to 1996.-Family:...
(born 7 December 1924), politicianPoliticianA politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...
, 17th President and 53rd/60th Prime-Ministers of Portugal;
- Jaime MontestrelaJaime MontestrelaJaime Montestrela was a Portuguese poet and writer.-Biography:Jaime Monstestrela was born in 1925. His mother was from Madrid, his father a Portuguese surgeon. He belongs to this generation of Portuguese writers of the Salazar dictatorship years, which counts among its ranks Augusto Abaleira or...
(12 June 1925 - 8 November 1975), writerWriterA writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....
and psychiatristPsychiatristA psychiatrist is a physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders. All psychiatrists are trained in diagnostic evaluation and in psychotherapy...
- Paula RegoPaula RegoPaula Rego is a painter born in Portugal although she is a naturalised British citizen.-Biography:Rego was born in the Portuguese capital Lisbon, the daughter of an electrical engineer who worked for the Marconi Company. Although this gave her a comfortable middle class home, the family was...
(born c.1935), painterPaintingPainting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...
, illustratorIllustratorAn Illustrator is a narrative artist who specializes in enhancing writing by providing a visual representation that corresponds to the content of the associated text...
- Jorge Sampaio (born 18 September 1939), politicianPoliticianA politician, political leader, or political figure is an individual who is involved in influencing public policy and decision making...
, United NationsUnited NationsThe United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...
High Commissioner for the Alliance of CivilizationsAlliance of CivilizationsThe Alliance of Civilizations is an initiative proposed by the Prime Minister of the Government of Spain, José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero, at the 59th General Assembly of the United Nations in 2005. It was co-sponsored by the Turkish Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan...
, former Mayor of Lisbon and 18th President of PortugalPresident of PortugalPortugal has been a republic since 1910, and since that time the head of state has been the president, whose official title is President of the Portuguese Republic ....
- Gonçalo ByrneGonçalo ByrneGonçalo Byrne, GCIH is a Portuguese architect.Byrne is responsible for a vast accomplishment of architectural work, and has been awarded with many national and international prizes....
(born c.1941), architectArchitectAn architect is a person trained in the planning, design and oversight of the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to offer or render services in connection with the design and construction of a building, or group of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the...
- António DamásioAntonio DamasioAntonio Damasio is David Dornsife Professor of Neuroscience at the University of Southern California, where he heads USC's Brain and Creativity Institute and Adjunct Professor at the Salk Institute. Prior to taking up his posts at USC, in 2005, Damasio was M.W...
, (born c.1944), neuroscientistNeuroscienceNeuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics,...
- António GuterresAntónio GuterresAntónio Manuel de Oliveira Guterres, GCC is a Portuguese politician, a former prime minister and President of the Socialist International. Currently he is the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.-Early life:...
(born 30 April 1949), United Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesUnited Nations High Commissioner for RefugeesThe Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees , also known as The UN Refugee Agency is a United Nations agency mandated to protect and support refugees at the request of a government or the UN itself and assists in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to...
, 62nd Prime-Minister of Portugal;
- José Manuel Durão BarrosoJosé Manuel Durão BarrosoJosé Manuel Durão Barroso is a Portuguese politician. He is President of the European Commission, since 23 November 2004. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.-Academic career:...
(born 23 March 1956), President of the European CommissionPresident of the European CommissionThe President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission ― the executive branch of the :European Union ― the most powerful officeholder in the EU. The President is responsible for allocating portfolios to members of the Commission and can reshuffle or dismiss them if needed...
, 63rd Prime-Minister of Portugal;
- Joaquim de AlmeidaJoaquim de AlmeidaJoaquim António Portugal Baptista de Almeida is a Portuguese-born American actor. He began his acting doing some theater. During the 1980s, he started his film career appearing on the 1982 action film The Soldier, and later achieved recognition for playing Andrea Bonanno in the 1987 Italian film...
(born 15 March 1957), actor.
- Panda Bear (musician)Panda Bear (musician)Noah Benjamin Lennox also known as Panda Bear, is an experimental musician and a founding member of Animal Collective.-Early life:...
(born July 17, 1978), musician.
- Visit Portugal: Lisbon Past and Present – Official page by the Government of Portugal
- Associação de Turismo de Lisboa – Official site of the Lisbon Tourism Association
- OTLIS – Official site of the Lisbon Region Transport Operators Consortium
- Portal das Nações Official site of Parque das Nações in Lisbon