Lemon
Overview
 
The lemon is both a small evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

 tree (Citrus ×
Hybrid name
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name. The ICBN provides the following options in dealing with a hybrid:...

 limon
, often given as C. limon) native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world – primarily for its juice
Juice
Juice is the liquid that is naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue.Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree...

, though the pulp and rind
Peel (fruit)
Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which could be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp, but the term exocarp does also include the hard cases of nuts, which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but...

 (zest
Zest (ingredient)
Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime. Zest is used to add flavor to foods....

) are also used, mainly in cooking
Cooking
Cooking is the process of preparing food by use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions. Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training...

 and baking
Baking
Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. It is primarily used for the preparation of bread, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts, quiches, cookies and crackers. Such items...

. Lemon juice
Lemon juice
The lemon fruit, from a citrus plant, provides a useful liquid when squeezed. Lemon juice, either in natural strength or concentrated, is sold as a bottled product, usually with the addition of preservatives and a small amount of lemon oil.-Uses:...

 is about 5% to 6% (approximately 0.3 M) citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

, which gives lemons a sour taste, and a pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 of 2–3.
Encyclopedia
The lemon is both a small evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

 tree (Citrus ×
Hybrid name
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name. The ICBN provides the following options in dealing with a hybrid:...

 limon
, often given as C. limon) native to Asia, and the tree's ellipsoidal yellow fruit. The fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world – primarily for its juice
Juice
Juice is the liquid that is naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue.Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree...

, though the pulp and rind
Peel (fruit)
Peel, also known as rind or skin, is the outer protective layer of a fruit or vegetable which could be peeled off. The rind is usually the botanical exocarp, but the term exocarp does also include the hard cases of nuts, which are not named peels since they are not peeled off by hand or peeler, but...

 (zest
Zest (ingredient)
Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime. Zest is used to add flavor to foods....

) are also used, mainly in cooking
Cooking
Cooking is the process of preparing food by use of heat. Cooking techniques and ingredients vary widely across the world, reflecting unique environmental, economic, and cultural traditions. Cooks themselves also vary widely in skill and training...

 and baking
Baking
Baking is the technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convection, and not by radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. It is primarily used for the preparation of bread, cakes, pastries and pies, tarts, quiches, cookies and crackers. Such items...

. Lemon juice
Lemon juice
The lemon fruit, from a citrus plant, provides a useful liquid when squeezed. Lemon juice, either in natural strength or concentrated, is sold as a bottled product, usually with the addition of preservatives and a small amount of lemon oil.-Uses:...

 is about 5% to 6% (approximately 0.3 M) citric acid
Citric acid
Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

, which gives lemons a sour taste, and a pH
PH
In chemistry, pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution. Pure water is said to be neutral, with a pH close to 7.0 at . Solutions with a pH less than 7 are said to be acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic or alkaline...

 of 2–3. Many lemon flavored drinks and foods are available, including lemonade
Lemonade
Lemonade is a lemon-flavored drink, typically made from lemons, water and sugar.The term can refer to three different types of beverage:...

 and sherbet lemons. The distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in many dishes across the world.

History

The exact origin of the lemon has remained a mystery, though it is widely presumed that lemons first grew in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, northern Burma, and China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. In South and South East Asia, it was known for its antiseptic properties and it was used as an antidote for various poisons. Lemons entered Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 (near southern Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

) no later than the 1st century AD, during the time of Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

. However, they were not widely cultivated. It was later introduced to Persia and then to Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 and Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 around ACE
Ace
An ace is a playing card. In the standard French deck, an ace has a single suit symbol located in the middle of the card, sometimes large and decorated, especially in the case of the Ace of Spades...

 700. The lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th century Arabic treatise on farming, and was also used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic garden
Islamic garden
Traditionally, an Islamic garden is a cool place of rest and reflection, and a reminder of paradise. The Qur'an has many references to gardens, and the garden is used as an earthly analogue for the life in paradise which is promised to believers:...

s. It was distributed widely throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The genetic origin of the lemon, however, was reported to be hybrid between sour orange and citron
Citron
Not to be confused with Cintron.The citron is a fragrant citrus fruit, botanically classified as Citrus medica by both the Swingle and Tanaka systems...

.

The first substantial lemon cultivation in Europe began in Genoa
Genoa
Genoa |Ligurian]] Zena ; Latin and, archaically, English Genua) is a city and an important seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria....

 in the middle of the 15th century. It was later introduced to the Americas
Americas
The Americas, or America , are lands in the Western hemisphere, also known as the New World. In English, the plural form the Americas is often used to refer to the landmasses of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions, while the singular form America is primarily...

 in 1493 when Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the...

 brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola
Hispaniola
Hispaniola is a major island in the Caribbean, containing the two sovereign states of the Dominican Republic and Haiti. The island is located between the islands of Cuba to the west and Puerto Rico to the east, within the hurricane belt...

 along his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds. It was mainly used as ornament and medicine. In the 18th and 19th centuries, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 and California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, when lemons began to be used in cooking and flavoring.

In 1747, James Lind's experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy
Scurvy
Scurvy is a disease resulting from a deficiency of vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of collagen in humans. The chemical name for vitamin C, ascorbic acid, is derived from the Latin name of scurvy, scorbutus, which also provides the adjective scorbutic...

 involved adding vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

 to their diets with lemon juice.

The etymological path of the word lemon suggests a Middle Eastern origin. One of the earliest occurrences of "lemon" is found in a Middle English customs document of 1420–1421, which draws from the Old French limon, thence the Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, from the Persian līmūn.

Growing Lemons

There are about 1600 sub species of lemon and the tribe Citrae has 13 genera most of which can be grafted or crossed with other species of citrus. It has been suggested that lemons. limes and sour orange are a mutation of the citron.

Lemons in common with other citrus, often benefit from a vigorous rootstock grafted to a sweeter, slow growing variety.

Differences between orange and lemon

Whilst in some cases it is generally accepted to be clear (sweet / sour) or (orange /yellow) in reality it is not. Various examples occur, which do not agree, either with the popular definition of oranges and lemons, or with that given by botanists. For instance the k/ratta citrus of India has an orange leaf, an orange exterior, an orange pulp, yet its fruit is prominently mammillate (ie
covered with rounded protuberances), and its flower is tinged purple. Again, the acid-less citrus, the* mitha-nimboo, has a lemon-yellow exterior, a white pulp, and it is mammillate; its leaves are like those of a lemon, yet its flowers are pure white. The jkamblri proper has orange-like leaves, the flowers are slightly tinged with purple, the pulp, varies from white to pale yellow, or orange, and the fruit is mammillate, and of two kinds externally, either of an orange colour, or of a lemon-yellow, and possibly also of a fawn colour.

Varieties

  • Bush lemon tree
This naturalized lemon grows wild in subtropical Australia. They are very hardy, and have a thick skin with a true lemon flavor; the zest is good for cooking. It grows to about 4m in a sunny position.
  • Eureka
Because it grows year-round and abundantly, this is the common supermarket lemon.
  • Femminello St. Teresa, or Sorrento : Native to Italy
    Italy
    Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

    , this fruit's zest is high in lemon oils. It is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello
    Limoncello
    Limoncello is an Italian lemon liqueur mainly produced in Southern Italy, especially in the region around the Gulf of Naples, the Sorrentine Peninsula and the coast of Amalfi and islands of Procida, Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia, Menton in France, and the Maltese island of Gozo...

    .
  • Jhambiri C. jhambiri (Tan) The Rough lemon has a lemon yellow exterior and a very sour pulp. It is widely used as a rootstock in S. Asia
  • Lisbon
A good quality bitter lemon with high juice and acid levels, the fruits of Lisbon are very similar to Eureka. The vigorous and productive trees are very thorny, particularly when young.
  • Meyer
    Meyer lemon
    Citrus × meyeri, the Meyer lemon, is a citrus fruit native to China thought to be a cross between a true lemon and either a mandarin or common orange. It was introduced to the United States in 1908 as S.P.I...

This is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named for Frank N. Meyer, who first discovered it in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons require more care when shipping and are not widely grown on a commercial basis. Meyer lemons have a much thinner rind, and often mature to a yellow-orange color. Meyer lemons are slightly more frost-tolerant than other lemons.
  • Ponderosa
The tree is very hardy and can handle frosts; the fruit are thick-skinned and very large. Likely a citron-lemon hybrid.
  • Variegated Pink
A varietal of the eureka or lisbon cultivars with variegated patterns in the foliage and the rinds of immature green fruit. Upon maturing to yellow, the variegated patter recedes in the fruit rind. The flesh and juice are pink or pinkish-orange instead of yellow.
  • Verna
A Spanish variety of unknown origin
  • Villafranca
  • Yen Ben
An Australasian cultivar
  • Yuzu
    Yuzu
    The yuzu is a citrus fruit and plant originating in East Asia. It is believed to be a hybrid of sour mandarin and Ichang papeda...

Cultivated in Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

 and Korea
Korea
Korea ) is an East Asian geographic region that is currently divided into two separate sovereign states — North Korea and South Korea. Located on the Korean Peninsula, Korea is bordered by the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Russia to the northeast, and is separated from Japan to the...

 for centuries, yuzu have a flavor akin to a mixture of meyer lemon and white grapefruit. Yuzu is likely a wild hybrid between an ichang papeda and a sour mandarin
Mandarin orange
The orange, also known as the ' or mandarine , is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges. Mandarin oranges are usually eaten plain or in fruit salads...

, and is a close relative of sudachi
Sudachi
Sudachi is a small, round, green citrus fruit which belongs to the papeda subgroup of citrus plants....

 and kaffir limes. Yuzu rival citranges and kumquats as the most cold-tolerant citrus.

Nutritional value

The average lemon contains approximately 3 tablespoons of juice. Allowing lemons to come to room temperature before squeezing (or heating briefly in a microwave
Microwave oven
A microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that heats food by dielectric heating, using microwave radiation to heat polarized molecules within the food...

) makes the juice easier to extract. Lemons left unrefrigerated for long periods of time are susceptible to mold
Mold
Molds are fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae. Molds are not considered to be microbes but microscopic fungi that grow as single cells called yeasts...

.

Culinary uses

Lemon juice, rind, and zest are used in a wide variety of culinary applications:
  • Lemon juice
    Lemon juice
    The lemon fruit, from a citrus plant, provides a useful liquid when squeezed. Lemon juice, either in natural strength or concentrated, is sold as a bottled product, usually with the addition of preservatives and a small amount of lemon oil.-Uses:...

     is used to make lemonade
    Lemonade
    Lemonade is a lemon-flavored drink, typically made from lemons, water and sugar.The term can refer to three different types of beverage:...

    , soft drinks, and marinades for both fish, where its acid neutralizes amine
    Amine
    Amines are organic compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group. Important amines include amino acids, biogenic amines,...

    s in fish by converting them into non-volatile ammonium
    Ammonium
    The ammonium cation is a positively charged polyatomic cation with the chemical formula NH. It is formed by the protonation of ammonia...

     salts, and meat, where the acid partially hydrolyzes
    Hydrolysis
    Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction during which molecules of water are split into hydrogen cations and hydroxide anions in the process of a chemical mechanism. It is the type of reaction that is used to break down certain polymers, especially those made by condensation polymerization...

     tough collagen fibers, tenderizing
    Tenderizing
    In cooking, tenderizing is a process to break down collagens in meat to make it more palatable for consumption.There are a number of ways to tenderize meat:*Mechanical tenderization, such as pounding or piercing....

     the meat, but the low pH denatures the proteins, causing them to dry out when cooked.


Lemon juice is also used as a short-term preservative
Preservative
A preservative is a naturally occurring or synthetically produced substance that is added to products such as foods, pharmaceuticals, paints, biological samples, wood, etc. to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes....

 on certain foods that tend to oxidize and turn brown after being sliced, such as apples, bananas and avocados, where its acid denatures the enzymes which cause browning and degradation. Lemon juice and rind are used to make marmalade
Marmalade
Marmalade is a fruit preserve made from the juice and peel of citrus fruits, boiled with sugar and water. The benchmark citrus fruit for marmalade production in Britain is the "Seville orange" from Spain, Citrus aurantium var...

 and lemon liqueur
Lemon liqueur
Lemon liqueur is a liqueur made from lemons, liquor, and sugar. It is light to bright lemon yellow in color; intensely lemony in flavor; clear, cloudy, or opaque; and sweet or sweet and sour. Lemon zest is used, with or without lemon juice. If juice is omitted, water may be added, and the...

.
  • Lemon slices and lemon rind are used a garnish for both food and drinks.
  • Lemon zest
    Zest (ingredient)
    Zest is a food ingredient that is prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of citrus fruits such as lemon, orange, citron, and lime. Zest is used to add flavor to foods....

    , the grated outer rind of the fruit, is used to add flavor to baked goods, puddings, rice and other dishes.
  • Pickled lemons
    Preserved lemon
    Preserved lemon or lemon pickle is a condiment that is common in Indian Cuisine , especially South Indian cuisine and also in North African cuisine, especially Moroccan cuisine. It is also known as "country lemon" and leems. Diced, quartered, halved, or whole lemons are pickled in a brine of...

     are a Moroccan delicacy
    Delicacy
    A delicacy is a food item that is considered highly desirable in certain cultures. Often this is because of unusual flavors or characteristics or because it is rare....

    .

Non culinary uses

Aromatherapy, first aid and medicine
  • In one of the most comprehensive scientific investigations done yet, researchers at The Ohio State University revealed lemon oil aroma used in aromatherapy
    Aromatherapy
    Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile plant materials, known as essential oils, and other aromatic compounds for the purpose of altering a person's mind, mood, cognitive function or health....

     does not influence the human immune system
    Immune system
    An immune system is a system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells. It detects a wide variety of agents, from viruses to parasitic worms, and needs to distinguish them from the organism's own...

    , but may enhance mood.
  • The low pH of juice makes it antibacterial.

Commercial use
  • Lemons were the primary commercial source of citric acid
    Citric acid
    Citric acid is a weak organic acid. It is a natural preservative/conservative and is also used to add an acidic, or sour, taste to foods and soft drinks...

     prior to the development of fermentation
    Fermentation (biochemistry)
    Fermentation is the process of extracting energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, such as carbohydrates, using an endogenous electron acceptor, which is usually an organic compound. In contrast, respiration is where electrons are donated to an exogenous electron acceptor, such as oxygen,...

    -based processes.
  • A halved lemon is used as a finger moistener for those counting large amounts of bills, such as tellers and cashiers.


Household use
  • The peel oil is used as a wood cleaner and polish, where the solvent property of d-limonene is employed to dissolve old wax, fingerprints, and grime.
  • A halved lemon dipped in salt or baking powder can be used to brighten copper cookware. The acid dissolves the tarnish and the abrasives assist the cleaning.
  • As a sanitary kitchen deodorizer the juice can deodorize, remove grease, bleach stains, and disinfect; when mixed with baking soda, it can remove stains from plastic food storage containers.

Insecticide
  • The d-limonene
    Limonene
    Limonene is a colourless liquid hydrocarbon classified as a cyclic terpene. The more common D isomer possesses a strong smell of oranges. It is used in chemical synthesis as a precursor to carvone and as a renewably-based solvent in cleaning products....

     in lemon oil is used as a nontoxic insecticide
    Insecticide
    An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against the eggs and larvae of insects respectively. Insecticides are used in agriculture, medicine, industry and the household. The use of insecticides is believed to be one of the major factors behind...

     treatment. See orange oil
    Orange oil
    Orange oil is an essential oil produced by cells inside the rind of an orange fruit. In contrast to most essential oils, it is extracted as a by-product of orange juice production by centrifugation, producing a cold-pressed oil...

    .

Science education
  • A popular science experiment in schools involves attaching electrode
    Electrode
    An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit...

    s to a lemon and using it as a battery
    Battery (electricity)
    An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

     to produce electricity. Although very low power, several lemon batteries
    Lemon battery
    A lemon battery is a device used in experiments proposed in many science textbooks around the world. It is made by inserting two different metallic objects, for example a galvanized nail and a copper coin, into a lemon. The copper coin serves as the positive electrode or cathode and the galvanized...

     can power a small digital watch. These experiments also work with other fruits and vegetables.
  • Lemon juice is sometimes used as an acid
    Acid
    An acid is a substance which reacts with a base. Commonly, acids can be identified as tasting sour, reacting with metals such as calcium, and bases like sodium carbonate. Aqueous acids have a pH of less than 7, where an acid of lower pH is typically stronger, and turn blue litmus paper red...

     in educational science experiments.

Lemon alternatives

Many plants are noted to taste or smell similar to lemons.
  • Certain cultivars of basil
    Basil
    Basil, or Sweet Basil, is a common name for the culinary herb Ocimum basilicum , of the family Lamiaceae , sometimes known as Saint Joseph's Wort in some English-speaking countries....

  • Cymbopogon
    Cymbopogon
    Cymbopogon is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World and Oceania. It is a tall perennial grass...

     (lemon grass)
  • Lemon balm
    Lemon balm
    Lemon balm , not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region....

    , a hybrid Pelargonium x melissinum (scented "geranium")
  • Lemongrass
  • Lemon myrtle
    Lemon myrtle
    Backhousia citriodora is a flowering plant in the family Myrtaceae, genus Backhousia. It is endemic to subtropical rainforests of central and south-eastern Queensland, Australia, with a natural distribution from Mackay to Brisbane...

    , recently, this Australian bush food has become a popular alternative to lemons. The crushed and dried leaves and edible essential oil
    Essential oil
    An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove...

    s have a strong, sweet lemon taste, but contain no citric acid. Lemon myrtle is popular in foods that curdle with lemon juice, such as cheesecake
    Cheesecake
    Cheesecake is a dessert consisting of a topping made of soft, fresh cheese, usually on a crust or base made from biscuit , pastry or sponge cake. They may be baked or unbaked...

     and ice cream
    Ice cream
    Ice cream is a frozen dessert usually made from dairy products, such as milk and cream, and often combined with fruits or other ingredients and flavours. Most varieties contain sugar, although some are made with other sweeteners...

    .
  • Lemon thyme
  • Lemon verbena
    Lemon verbena
    Aloysia citrodora is a species of flowering plant in the verbena family, Verbenaceae, that is native to Argentina, Paraguay, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile, Bolivia, and Peru. Common names include Lemon Verbena and Lemon Beebrush. It was brought to Europe by the Spanish in the 17th...

  • Limes, another common sour citrus fruit, used similarly to lemons
  • Certain cultivars of mint
    Mentha
    Mentha is a genus of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae . The species are not clearly distinct and estimates of the number of species varies from 13 to 18. Hybridization between some of the species occurs naturally...


Production

India tops the production list with about 16% of the world's overall lemon and lime output, followed by Mexico (~14.5%), Argentina (~10%), Brazil (~8%) and Spain (~7%).
Top Ten Lemons and Limes Producers – 2007
Country Production (Tonne
Tonne
The tonne, known as the metric ton in the US , often put pleonastically as "metric tonne" to avoid confusion with ton, is a metric system unit of mass equal to 1000 kilograms. The tonne is not an International System of Units unit, but is accepted for use with the SI...

s)
2,060,000F
1,880,000F
1,260,000F
1,060,000F
880,000F
745,100F
722,000
706,652
615,000F
546,584
World 13,032,388F
No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division


External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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