Lemnos
Overview
 
Lemnos is an island of Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 in the northern part of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Lemnos peripheral unit
Lemnos (peripheral unit)
Lemnos is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of North Aegean. The regional unit covers the islands of Lemnos, Agios Efstratios and a few smaller, uninhabited islands, in the Aegean Sea.-Administration:...

, which is part of the North Aegean Periphery
Peripheries of Greece
The current official regional administrative divisions of Greece were instituted in 1987. Although best translated into English as "regions", the transcription peripheries is sometimes used, perhaps to distinguish them from the traditional regions which they replaced. The English word 'periphery'...

. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Myrina
Myrina, Greece
Myrina is a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the west coast of the island, and has a land area of 82.049 km², about 17.2% of the island's...

. At 477 km², it is the 8th largest island of Greece.
Lemnos is mostly flat (hence its more than 30 sand beaches), but the west, and especially the northwest part, is rough and mountainous (highest elevation: Mount Vigla, 470 m).
Encyclopedia
Lemnos is an island of Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

 in the northern part of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Lemnos peripheral unit
Lemnos (peripheral unit)
Lemnos is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of North Aegean. The regional unit covers the islands of Lemnos, Agios Efstratios and a few smaller, uninhabited islands, in the Aegean Sea.-Administration:...

, which is part of the North Aegean Periphery
Peripheries of Greece
The current official regional administrative divisions of Greece were instituted in 1987. Although best translated into English as "regions", the transcription peripheries is sometimes used, perhaps to distinguish them from the traditional regions which they replaced. The English word 'periphery'...

. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Myrina
Myrina, Greece
Myrina is a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the west coast of the island, and has a land area of 82.049 km², about 17.2% of the island's...

. At 477 km², it is the 8th largest island of Greece.

Geography

Lemnos is mostly flat (hence its more than 30 sand beaches), but the west, and especially the northwest part, is rough and mountainous (highest elevation: Mount Vigla, 470 m). The chief towns are Myrina
Myrina, Greece
Myrina is a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the west coast of the island, and has a land area of 82.049 km², about 17.2% of the island's...

, on the western coast, and Moudros
Moudros
Moudros is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the entire eastern peninsula of the island, with a land area of 185.127 km²,...

 on the eastern shore of a large bay in the middle of the island. Myrina (also called Kastro, meaning "castle") possesses a good harbour, which is in the process of being upgraded through construction of a west-facing sea wall. It is the seat of all trade carried on with the mainland. The hillsides afford pasture for sheep, and Lemnos has a strong husbandry tradition, being famous for its feta
Feta
Feta is a brined curd cheese traditionally made in Greece. Feta is an aged crumbly cheese, commonly produced in blocks, and has a slightly grainy texture. It is used as a table cheese, as well as in salads Feta is a brined curd cheese traditionally made in Greece. Feta is an aged crumbly cheese,...

 and melipasto cheeses, and for its yoghurt
Yoghurt
Yoghurt, yogurt or yogourt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used to make yoghurt are known as "yoghurt cultures"...

. Fruit and vegetables that grow on the island include almond
Almond
The almond , is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. Almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree...

s, fig
Ficus
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes, and hemiepiphyte in the family Moraceae. Collectively known as fig trees or figs, they are native throughout the tropics with a few species extending into the semi-warm temperate zone. The Common Fig Ficus is a genus of...

s, melon
Melon
thumb|200px|Various types of melonsThis list of melons includes members of the plant family Cucurbitaceae with edible, fleshy fruit e.g. gourds or cucurbits. The word "melon" can refer to either the plant or specifically to the fruit...

s, watermelon
Watermelon
Watermelon is a vine-like flowering plant originally from southern Africa. Its fruit, which is also called watermelon, is a special kind referred to by botanists as a pepo, a berry which has a thick rind and fleshy center...

s, tomato
Tomato
The word "tomato" may refer to the plant or the edible, typically red, fruit which it bears. Originating in South America, the tomato was spread around the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas, and its many varieties are now widely grown, often in greenhouses in cooler...

es, pumpkin
Pumpkin
A pumpkin is a gourd-like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae . It commonly refers to cultivars of any one of the species Cucurbita pepo, Cucurbita mixta, Cucurbita maxima, and Cucurbita moschata, and is native to North America...

s and olive
Olive
The olive , Olea europaea), is a species of a small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean Basin as well as northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.Its fruit, also called the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the...

s. The main crops are wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

, barley
Barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

, sesame
Sesame
Sesame is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. Numerous wild relatives occur in Africa and a smaller number in India. It is widely naturalized in tropical regions around the world and is cultivated for its edible seeds, which grow in pods....

; in fact Lemnos was Constantinople's granary during Byzantine
Byzantine
Byzantine usually refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.Byzantine may also refer to:* A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or native Greek during the Middle Ages...

 times. Lemnos also produces honey (from thyme
Thyme
Thyme is a culinary and medicinal herb of the genus Thymus.-History:Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming. The ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing it was a source of courage...

-fed bees), but, as is the case with most products of a local nature in Greece, the produced quantities are little more than simply sufficient for the local market. Muscat
Muscat (grape and wine)
The Muscat variety of grapes of the species Vitis vinifera is widely grown for wine, raisins and table grapes. Their color ranges from white to near black. Muscat almost always has a pronounced sweet floral aroma. Muscat grapes are grown around the world...

 grapes are grown widely, and are used to produce an unusual table wine that is dry yet has a strong Muscat flavor. Since 1985 the variety and quality of Lemnos wines have increased greatly. The island has an excellent airport, possessing a very long runway, capable of supporting Antonov
Antonov
Antonov, or Antonov Aeronautical Scientist/Technical Complex , formerly the Antonov Design Bureau, is a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company with particular expertise in the field of very large aircraft construction. Antonov ASTC is a state-owned commercial company...

 carriers.

Mythic Lemnos

For ancient Greeks, the island was sacred to Hephaestus
Hephaestus
Hephaestus was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan. He is the son of Zeus and Hera, the King and Queen of the Gods - or else, according to some accounts, of Hera alone. He was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals, metallurgy, fire and volcanoes...

, god of metallurgy
Metallurgy
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. It is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to their practical use...

, who— as he tells himself in Iliad
Iliad
The Iliad is an epic poem in dactylic hexameters, traditionally attributed to Homer. Set during the Trojan War, the ten-year siege of the city of Troy by a coalition of Greek states, it tells of the battles and events during the weeks of a quarrel between King Agamemnon and the warrior Achilles...

I.590ff— fell on Lemnos when his mother, Hera who found him too ugly, hurled him headlong out of Olympus
Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus is the highest mountain in Greece, located on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia, about 100 kilometres away from Thessaloniki, Greece's second largest city. Mount Olympus has 52 peaks. The highest peak Mytikas, meaning "nose", rises to 2,917 metres...

. There, he was cared for by the Sinties, according to Iliad or by Thetis
Thetis
Silver-footed Thetis , disposer or "placer" , is encountered in Greek mythology mostly as a sea nymph or known as the goddess of water, one of the fifty Nereids, daughters of the ancient one of the seas with shape-shifting abilities who survives in the historical vestiges of most later Greek myths...

 (Apollodorus, Bibliotheke I:3.5), and there with a Thracian nymph
Nymph
A nymph in Greek mythology is a female minor nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform. Different from gods, nymphs are generally regarded as divine spirits who animate nature, and are usually depicted as beautiful, young nubile maidens who love to dance and sing;...

 Cabiro (a daughter of Proteus
Proteus
In Greek mythology, Proteus is an early sea-god, one of several deities whom Homer calls the "Old Man of the Sea", whose name suggests the "first" , as protogonos is the "primordial" or the "firstborn". He became the son of Poseidon in the Olympian theogony In Greek mythology, Proteus (Πρωτεύς)...

) he fathered a tribe called the Kaberoi. Sacred initiatory rites dedicated to them were performed in the island.

Hephaestus' forge, which was located on Lemnos, as well as the name Aethaleia, sometimes applied to it, points to its volcanic character. It is said that fire occasionally blazed forth from Mosychlos, one of its mountains. The ancient geographer Pausanias
Pausanias (geographer)
Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the 2nd century AD, who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece , a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from firsthand observations, and is a crucial link between classical...

 relates that a small island called Chryse
Chryse
In Greek mythology, Chryse may refer to:*Persons:**Chryse, a lover of Ares and mother of Phlegyas.**Chryse, nymph of Lemnos**Chryse, daughter of Pallas and consort of Dardanus*Places:...

, off the Lemnian coast, was swallowed up by the sea. All volcanic action is now extinct.

The earliest inhabitants are said to have been a Thracian tribe, whom the Greeks called Sintians
Sintians
The Sintians , "the Raiders, the Plunderers", from ancient Greek sinteis, "destructive") were known to the Greeks as pirates and raiders; they are also referred to as a Thracian people who once inhabited the area of the nowadays Sintiki province of Greece and the island of Lemnos The Sintians ,...

, "robbers". The name Lemnos is said by Hecataeus
Hecataeus
Hecataeus of Miletus , named after the Greek goddess Hecate, was an early Greek historian of a wealthy family. He flourished during the time of the Persian invasion. After having travelled extensively, he settled in his native city, where he occupied a high position, and devoted his time to the...

 to have been applied in the form of a title to Cybele
Cybele
Cybele , was a Phrygian form of the Earth Mother or Great Mother. As with Greek Gaia , her Minoan equivalent Rhea and some aspects of Demeter, Cybele embodies the fertile Earth...

 among the Thracians
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

. The worship of Cybele was characteristic of Thrace, where it had spread from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Asia Minor is a geographical location at the westernmost protrusion of Asia, also called Anatolia, and corresponds to the western two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey...

 at a very early period. Hypsipyle and Myrina (the name of one of the chief towns) are Amazon names, which are always connected with Asiatic Cybele-worship.

According to the epitome of the Bibliotheke traditionally attributed to Apollodorus (Epitome I:9), when Dionysus
Dionysus
Dionysus was the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness and ecstasy in Greek mythology. His name in Linear B tablets shows he was worshipped from c. 1500—1100 BC by Mycenean Greeks: other traces of Dionysian-type cult have been found in ancient Minoan Crete...

 found Ariadne
Ariadne
Ariadne , in Greek mythology, was the daughter of King Minos of Crete, and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios, the Sun-titan. She aided Theseus in overcoming the Minotaur and was the bride of the god Dionysus.-Minos and Theseus:...

 abandoned on Naxos, he brought her to Lemnos and there fathered Thoas
Thoas
Thoas , son of Andraemon and Gorge, was one of the heroes who fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War. He was a former suitor of Helen of Troy and led a group of forty ships for the Aetolians, one of the larger contingents. In the Iliad it states that he received his lordship because the previous...

, Staphylus, Oenopion
Oenopion
In Greek mythology, Oenopion , son of Theseus or Dionysus and Ariadne, was a legendary king of Chios, which was assigned to him by Rhadamanthys, and was said to have brought winemaking to the island. By the nymph Helice, he had one daughter, called Merope in most sources, but "Haero" in Parthenius...

, and Peparethus. Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
Gaius Plinius Secundus , better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian...

 in his Natural History (xxxvi. 13) speaks of a remarkable labyrinth
Labyrinth
In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth was an elaborate structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos...

 in Lemnos, which has not been identified in modern times.

According to a Hellenic legend, the women were all deserted by their husbands for Thracian women, and in revenge they murdered every man on the island. From this barbarous act, the expression Lemnian deeds
Lemnian deeds
Lemnian deeds is a term that refers to the cruel slaughter of someone as revenge . There are two possible origins for this term: the epic of Jason and the Argonauts, and that of Herodotus narrative of the Pelasgians...

became proverbial among the Hellenes. according to Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius Rhodius, also known as Apollonius of Rhodes , early 3rd century BCE – after 246 BCE, was a poet, and a librarian at the Library of Alexandria...

' Argonautica the Argonauts
Argonauts
The Argonauts ) were a band of heroes in Greek mythology who, in the years before the Trojan War, accompanied Jason to Colchis in his quest to find the Golden Fleece. Their name comes from their ship, the Argo, which was named after its builder, Argus. "Argonauts", therefore, literally means...

 landing soon after found only women in the island, ruled by Hypsipyle
Hypsipyle
In Greek mythology, Hypsipyle was the Queen of Lemnos, daughter of Thoas and Myrina.During her reign, Aphrodite cursed the women of the island for having neglected her shrines. All the women developed extreme body odor that made them repugnant to the men of the nation. The men took up with...

, daughter of the old king Thoas
Thoas
Thoas , son of Andraemon and Gorge, was one of the heroes who fought for the Greeks in the Trojan War. He was a former suitor of Helen of Troy and led a group of forty ships for the Aetolians, one of the larger contingents. In the Iliad it states that he received his lordship because the previous...

. From the Argonauts and the Lemnian women were descended the race called Minyans
Minyans
According to Greek mythology and legendary prehistory of the Aegean region, the Minyans were an autochthonous group inhabiting the Aegean region...

, whose king Euneus
Euneus
In Greek mythology, Euneus was a son of Jason and Queen Hypsipyle of Lemnos; he had a twin brother whose name is variously given as Nebrophon, Thoas or Deipylus. They were separated from their mother after she was exiled from the island for having spared her own father Thoas...

, son of Jason
Jason
Jason was a late ancient Greek mythological hero from the late 10th Century BC, famous as the leader of the Argonauts and their quest for the Golden Fleece. He was the son of Aeson, the rightful king of Iolcus...

 and Hypsipyle, sent wine and provisions to the Achaeans at Troy
Troy
Troy was a city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida...

. According to later Greek historians, the Minyans were expelled by a Pelasgian
Pelasgians
The name Pelasgians was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that were either the ancestors of the Greeks or who preceded the Greeks in Greece, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world." In general, "Pelasgian" has come...

 tribe who came from Attica.

The historical element underlying these traditions is probably that the original Thracian people were gradually brought into communication with the Greeks as navigation began to unite the scattered islands of the Aegean
Aegean Sea
The Aegean Sea[p] is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the southern Balkan and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey. In the north, it is connected to the Marmara Sea and Black Sea by the Dardanelles and Bosporus...

; the Thracian inhabitants were technologically primitive in comparison with the Greek mariners.

In another legend, Philoctetes
Philoctetes
Philoctetes or Philocthetes according to Greek mythology, the son of King Poeas of Meliboea in Thessaly. He was a Greek hero, famed as an archer, and was a participant in the Trojan War. He was the subject of at least two plays by Sophocles, one of which is named after him, and one each by both...

 was left on Lemnos by the Greeks on their way to Troy; and there he suffered ten years' agony from his wounded foot, until Odysseus
Odysseus
Odysseus or Ulysses was a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey. Odysseus also plays a key role in Homer's Iliad and other works in the Epic Cycle....

 and Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus was the son of the warrior Achilles and the princess Deidamia in Greek mythology. Achilles' mother foretold many years before Achilles' birth that there would be a great war. She saw that her only son was to die if he fought in the war...

 induced him to accompany them to Troy. According to Sophocles
Sophocles
Sophocles is one of three ancient Greek tragedians whose plays have survived. His first plays were written later than those of Aeschylus, and earlier than or contemporary with those of Euripides...

, he lived beside Mount Hermaeus, which Aeschylus
Aeschylus
Aeschylus was the first of the three ancient Greek tragedians whose work has survived, the others being Sophocles and Euripides, and is often described as the father of tragedy. His name derives from the Greek word aiskhos , meaning "shame"...

 makes one of the beacon points to flash the news of Troy's downfall home to Argos
Argos
Argos is a city and a former municipality in Argolis, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Argos-Mykines, of which it is a municipal unit. It is 11 kilometres from Nafplion, which was its historic harbour...

.

History

Prehistory

The ruins of the oldest human settlement in the Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
The Aegean Islands are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea, with mainland Greece to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast...

 found so far have been unearthed in archaeological excavations on Lemnos by a team of Greek, Italian and American archaeologists
Archaeology
Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

 at the Ouriakos site on the Louri coast of Fyssini in Moudros
Moudros
Moudros is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the entire eastern peninsula of the island, with a land area of 185.127 km²,...

 municipality. The excavation began in early June 2009 and the finds brought to light, consisting mainly of high quality stone tools, are from the Epipaleolithic Period
Epipaleolithic
The Epipaleolithic Age was a period in the development of human technology marked by more advanced stone blades and other tools than the earlier Paleolithic age, although still before the development of agriculture in the Neolithic age...

, indicating a settlement of hunters and gatherers
Hunter-gatherer
A hunter-gatherer or forage society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species. Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were...

 and fishermen of the 12th millennium BC.

A rectangular building with a double row of stepped seats on the long sides, at the southwest side of the hill of Poliochni
Poliochni
Poliochni is a settlement in the Greek island of Limnos near Livadochori, it is in the municipal unit of Nea Koutali. Its 2001 population was 264 for the settlement.-History:...

, dates back to the Early Bronze Age and was possibly used as a kind of Bouleuterion
Bouleuterion
A bouleuterion was a building which housed the council of citizens in Ancient Greece. There are several extant remains of Bouleuterions around Greece and former Greek territories of ancient times....

.

In August and September 1926, members of the Italian School of Archaeology at Athens conducted trial excavations on the island. The overall purpose of the excavations was to shed light on the island's "Etrusco-Pelasgian" civilization. The excavations were conducted on the site of the city of Hephaistia
Hephaistia
Hephaistia is an archeological site on the northern shore of Lemnos, Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea. It was named in the honor of Hephaistos, greek god of metallurgy, whose cult was maintained on the island. It was once the capital of the island , of which only the ruins remained.The...

 (i.e. Palaiopolis) where the Pelasgians, according to Herodotus, surrendered to Miltiades
Miltiades the Younger
Miltiades the Younger or Miltiades IV was the son of one Cimon, a renowned Olympic chariot-racer. Miltiades considered himself a member of the Aeacidae, and is known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon; as well as his rather tragic downfall afterwards. His son Cimon was a major Athenian...

 of Athens. There, a necropolis (ca. 9th–8th centuries BC) was discovered, revealing bronze objects, pots, and over 130 ossuaries
Ossuary
An ossuary is a chest, building, well, or site made to serve as the final resting place of human skeletal remains. They are frequently used where burial space is scarce. A body is first buried in a temporary grave, then after some years the skeletal remains are removed and placed in an ossuary...

. The ossuaries contained distinctly male and female funeral ornaments. Male ossuaries contained knives and axes whereas female ossuaries contained earrings, bronze pins, necklaces, gold-diadems, and bracelets. The decorations on some of the gold objects contained spirals of Mycenaean
Mycenaean Greece
Mycenaean Greece was a cultural period of Bronze Age Greece taking its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in northeastern Argolis, in the Peloponnese of southern Greece. Athens, Pylos, Thebes, and Tiryns are also important Mycenaean sites...

 origin, but had no Geometric forms. According to their ornamentation, the pots discovered at the site were from the Geometric period. However, the pots also preserved spirals indicative of Mycenaean art. The results of the excavations indicate that the Early Iron Age inhabitants of Lemnos could be a remnant of a Mycenaean population and, in addition, the earliest attested refer to Lemnos is the Mycenaean Greek ra-mi-ni-ja, "Lemnian woman", written in Linear B
Linear B
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, an early form of Greek. It pre-dated the Greek alphabet by several centuries and seems to have died out with the fall of Mycenaean civilization...

 syllabic script. Professor Della Seta reports:

The lack of weapons of bronze
Bronze
Bronze is a metal alloy consisting primarily of copper, usually with tin as the main additive. It is hard and brittle, and it was particularly significant in antiquity, so much so that the Bronze Age was named after the metal...

, the abundance of weapons of iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

, and the type of the pots and the pins gives the impression that the necropolis
Necropolis
A necropolis is a large cemetery or burial ground, usually including structural tombs. The word comes from the Greek νεκρόπολις - nekropolis, literally meaning "city of the dead"...

 belongs to the ninth or eighth century B.C. That it did not belong to a Greek population, but to a population which, in the eyes of the Hellenes, appeared barbarous, is shown by the weapons. The Greek weapon, dagger or spear, is lacking: the weapons of the barbarians, the axe
Axe
The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape, split and cut wood; to harvest timber; as a weapon; and as a ceremonial or heraldic symbol...

 and the knife
Knife
A knife is a cutting tool with an exposed cutting edge or blade, hand-held or otherwise, with or without a handle. Knives were used at least two-and-a-half million years ago, as evidenced by the Oldowan tools...

, are common. Since, however, this population … preserves so many elements of Mycenaean art, the Tyrrhenians
Tyrrhenians
The Tyrrhenians or Tyrsenians is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people.- Earliest references :...

 or Pelasgians
Pelasgians
The name Pelasgians was used by some ancient Greek writers to refer to populations that were either the ancestors of the Greeks or who preceded the Greeks in Greece, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world." In general, "Pelasgian" has come...

 of Lemnos may be recognized as a remnant of a Mycenaean population.

Antiquity

Homer
Homer
In the Western classical tradition Homer , is the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, and is revered as the greatest ancient Greek epic poet. These epics lie at the beginning of the Western canon of literature, and have had an enormous influence on the history of literature.When he lived is...

 speaks as if there were one town in the island called Lemnos. In Classical times there were two towns, Myrina
Myrina, Greece
Myrina is a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the west coast of the island, and has a land area of 82.049 km², about 17.2% of the island's...

 (also called Kastro) and Hephaistia
Hephaistia
Hephaistia is an archeological site on the northern shore of Lemnos, Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea. It was named in the honor of Hephaistos, greek god of metallurgy, whose cult was maintained on the island. It was once the capital of the island , of which only the ruins remained.The...

, which was the chief town. Coins from Hephaestia are found in considerable number, and various types including the goddess Athena with her owl
Owl
Owls are a group of birds that belong to the order Strigiformes, constituting 200 bird of prey species. Most are solitary and nocturnal, with some exceptions . Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish...

, native religious symbols, the caps of the Dioscuri, Apollo
Apollo
Apollo is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in Greek and Roman mythology...

, etc. Few coins of Myrina are known. They belong to the period of Attic occupation, and bear Athenian types. A few coins are also known which bear the name of the whole island, rather than of either city.

A trace of the pre-Greek Lemnian language
Lemnian language
The Lemnian language is a language of the 6th century BC spoken on the island of Lemnos. It is mainly attested by an inscription found on a funerary stele, termed the Lemnos stele, discovered in 1885 near Kaminia. However, fragments of inscriptions on local pottery show that it was spoken there by...

 is found on a 6th century inscription on a funerary stele, the Lemnos stele. Lemnos later adopted the Attic dialect
Attic Greek
Attic Greek is the prestige dialect of Ancient Greek that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. Of the ancient dialects, it is the most similar to later Greek, and is the standard form of the language studied in courses of "Ancient Greek". It is sometimes included in Ionic.- Origin and range...

 of Athens.

Coming down to a better authenticated period, we find that Lemnos was conquered by Otanes, a general of Darius Hystaspis
Darius I of Persia
Darius I , also known as Darius the Great, was the third king of kings of the Achaemenid Empire...

. But soon (510 BC) it was reconquered by Miltiades the Younger
Miltiades the Younger
Miltiades the Younger or Miltiades IV was the son of one Cimon, a renowned Olympic chariot-racer. Miltiades considered himself a member of the Aeacidae, and is known mostly for his role in the Battle of Marathon; as well as his rather tragic downfall afterwards. His son Cimon was a major Athenian...

, the tyrant of the Thracian Chersonese. Miltiades later returned to Athens
Athens
Athens , is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, as its recorded history spans around 3,400 years. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state...

 and Lemnos was an Athenian possession until the Macedon
Macedon
Macedonia or Macedon was an ancient kingdom, centered in the northeastern part of the Greek peninsula, bordered by Epirus to the west, Paeonia to the north, the region of Thrace to the east and Thessaly to the south....

ian empire absorbed it.

In 197 BC, the Romans declared it free, but in 166 BC gave it over to Athens which retained nominal possession of it until the whole of Greece
Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece is a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity. Immediately following this period was the beginning of the Early Middle Ages and the Byzantine era. Included in Ancient Greece is the...

 was made a province of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
The Roman Republic was the period of the ancient Roman civilization where the government operated as a republic. It began with the overthrow of the Roman monarchy, traditionally dated around 508 BC, and its replacement by a government headed by two consuls, elected annually by the citizens and...

 in 146 BC. After the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 in 395, Lemnos passed to the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

.

Middle Ages and Ottoman period

As a province of the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

, Lemnos belonged to the theme of the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea (theme)
The Theme of the Aegean Sea was a Byzantine province in the northern Aegean Sea, established in the mid-9th century. As one of the Byzantine Empire's three dedicated naval themes , it served chiefly to provide ships and troops for the Byzantine navy, but also served as a civil administrative...

, and was a target of Saracen
Saracen
Saracen was a term used by the ancient Romans to refer to a people who lived in desert areas in and around the Roman province of Arabia, and who were distinguished from Arabs. In Europe during the Middle Ages the term was expanded to include Arabs, and then all who professed the religion of Islam...

 raids. Following the dissolution and division of the Empire after the Fourth Crusade
Fourth Crusade
The Fourth Crusade was originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt. Instead, in April 1204, the Crusaders of Western Europe invaded and conquered the Christian city of Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire...

, Lemnos was apportioned to the Latin Empire
Latin Empire
The Latin Empire or Latin Empire of Constantinople is the name given by historians to the feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire. It was established after the capture of Constantinople in 1204 and lasted until 1261...

, and given as a fief to the Venetian Navigajoso family under the megadux Filocalo Navigajoso
Filocalo Navigajoso
Filocalo Navigajoso was a Venetian nobleman and first Latin ruler of the island of Lemnos in Greece....

. Filocalo died in 1214, and was succeeded by his son Leonardo
Leonardo Navigajoso
Leonardo Navigajoso was a Venetian nobleman and second Latin ruler of the island of Lemnos in Greece.Leonardo inherited the title of megadux of the Latin Empire and the rule of one half of Lemnos upon the death of his father, Filocalo Navigajoso, in 1214. His two sisters inherited one quarter of...

 and his daughters, who partitioned the island into three fiefs between them. Leonardo retained the title of megadux of the Latin Empire and half the island with the capital, Kastro
Myrina
Myrina may refer to:*Myrina, Greece, capital of the Greek island of Lemnos*Myrina , ancient city on the coast of Mysia *Myrina , name of several female characters in Greek mythology...

, while his sisters and their husbands received one quarter each with the fortresses of Moudros
Moudros
Moudros is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the entire eastern peninsula of the island, with a land area of 185.127 km²,...

 and Kotsinos
Kotsinos
Kotsinos is a settlement on the island of Lemnos, Greece. It is part of the community of Repanidi, and the municipal unit of Moudros, and situated 25 to 30 km ENE of Myrina...

. Leonardo died in 1260 and was succeeded by his son Paolo Navigajoso
Paolo Navigajoso
Paolo Navigajoso was a scion of the noble Venetian Navigajoso family and third Latin ruler of the island of Lemnos in Greece.Paolo was the eldest son and heir of Leonardo Navigajoso...

, who resisted Byzantine attempts at reconquest until his death during a siege of the island by the Byzantine admiral Licario
Licario
Licario, called Ikarios by the Greek chroniclers, was a Byzantine admiral of Italian origin in the 13th century. At odds with the barons of his native Euboea, he entered the service of the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos , and reconquered many of the Aegean islands for him in the 1270s...

 in 1277. Resistance continued by his wife, but in 1278 the Navigajosi were forced to capitulate and cede the island back to Byzantium.

During the last centuries of Byzantium, Lemnos played a prominent role: following the loss of Asia Minor
Asia Minor
Asia Minor is a geographical location at the westernmost protrusion of Asia, also called Anatolia, and corresponds to the western two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey...

, it was a major source of food, and it played an important role in the recurring civil wars of the 14th century. Following the Fall of Constantinople
Fall of Constantinople
The Fall of Constantinople was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire, which occurred after a siege by the Ottoman Empire, under the command of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II, against the defending army commanded by Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI...

 to the Ottomans in 1453, the island was added to the domain of the Gattilusi of Lesbos, but following the fall of the Despotate of the Morea in 1460, Sultan Mehmed II
Mehmed II
Mehmed II , was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to September 1446, and later from...

 gave it as a domain to the last Despot, Demetrios Palaiologos
Demetrios Palaiologos
Demetrios Palaiologos or Demetrius Palaeologus , Despot in the Morea de facto 1436–1438 and 1451–1460 and de jure 1438–1451, previously governor of Lemnos 1422–1440, and of Mesembria 1440–1451...

.

The island then fell under Venetian
Republic of Venice
The Republic of Venice or Venetian Republic was a state originating from the city of Venice in Northeastern Italy. It existed for over a millennium, from the late 7th century until 1797. It was formally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice and is often referred to as La Serenissima, in...

 control. In 1476, the Venetians and the island's Greek inhabitants successfully defended Kotsinos against a Turkish siege, but the island was ceded to the Ottomans by the 1479 Treaty of Constantinople
Treaty of Constantinople (1479)
The Treaty of Constantinople was signed on January 25, 1479, which officially ended the fifteen-year war between the Republic of Venice and the Ottoman Empire. The agreement was established as a result of the Ottomans having reached the outskirts of Venice. Based on the terms of the treaty, the...

 which ended the First Ottoman-Venetian War
Ottoman–Venetian War (1463–1479)
The First Ottoman–Venetian War was fought between the Republic of Venice and her allies and the Ottoman Empire from 1463 to 1479. Fought shortly after the capture of Constantinople and the remnants of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottomans, it resulted in the loss of several Venetian holdings in...

. During the Fifth Ottoman-Venetian War
Cretan War (1645–1669)
The Cretan War or War of Candia , as the Fifth Ottoman–Venetian War is better known, was a conflict between the Republic of Venice and her allies against the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary States, fought over the island of Crete, Venice's largest and richest overseas possession...

, following a major victory
Battle of the Dardanelles (1656)
The Action of 26 June 1656 or Third Battle of the Dardanelles in the Sixth Ottoman-Venetian War took place on 26 and 27 June 1656 inside the Dardanelles Strait...

 over the Ottoman fleet, the Venetians captured the island again on 20 August 1656, but the Ottomans recovered it barely a year later, on 31 August 1657, after a siege of 36 days. In 1770, Kastro was besieged by Count Orlov
Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov
Count Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov was a Russian soldier and statesman, who rose to prominence during the reign of Catherine the Great.Orlov served in the Imperial Russian Army, and through his connections with his brother, became one of the key conspirators in the plot to overthrow Tsar Peter III...

 during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. The famous Sufi poet Niyazi Misri was exiled here for several years during the late 17th century.

Modern period

During the Russo-Turkish War of 1806–1812, Admiral Senyavin won the naval Battle of Lemnos
Battle of Athos
The naval Battle of Mount Athos took place from 19–22 June 1807 and was a key naval battle of the Russo-Turkish War...

 off the coast. In on 8 October 1912, during the First Balkan War
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, pitted the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies and achieved rapid success...

, Lemnos became part of Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

. The Greek navy under Rear Admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis
Pavlos Kountouriotis
Pavlos Kountouriotis was a Greek admiral and naval hero during the Balkan Wars and the first and third President of the Second Hellenic Republic.-Family Background:The Kountouriotes was a prominent Arvanite family from the island of Hydra...

 took it over without any casualties from the occupying Turkish Ottoman garrison, who were returned to Anatolia. Moudros Bay became a forward anchorage for the Greek fleet, which enabled it to keep watch on the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
The Dardanelles , formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. It is one of the Turkish Straits, along with its counterpart the Bosphorus. It is located at approximately...

 and prevent a foray by the Ottoman Navy
Ottoman Navy
The Ottoman Navy was established in the early 14th century. During its long existence it was involved in many conflicts; refer to list of Ottoman sieges and landings and list of Admirals in the Ottoman Empire for a brief chronology.- Pre-Ottoman:...

 into the Aegean. The Ottomans' two attempts to achieve this were beaten back in the battles of Elli
Naval Battle of Elli
The Battle of Elli , also known as the Battle of the Dardanelles, took place near the mouth of the Dardanelles on as part of the First Balkan War between the fleets of Greece and the Ottoman Empire...

 and Lemnos
Naval Battle of Lemnos
The Battle of Lemnos , fought on , was a naval battle during the First Balkan War, which defeated the second and last attempt of the Ottoman Empire to break the Greek naval blockade of the Dardanelles and reclaim supremacy over the Aegean Sea from Greece....

. Thus the Ottomans were prevented from supplying and reinforcing their land forces in Macedonia
Macedonia (Greece)
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of Greece in Southern Europe. Macedonia is the largest and second most populous Greek region...

 by sea, a critical factor in the success of the Balkan League
Balkan League
The Balkan League was an alliance formed by a series of bilateral treaties concluded in 1912 between the Balkan states of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia, and directed against the Ottoman Empire, which at the time still controlled much of the Balkan peninsula...

 in the war.

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, the Allies
Allies of World War I
The Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire; Italy entered the war on their side in 1915...

 in early 1915 used the island to try to capture the Dardanelles
Dardanelles
The Dardanelles , formerly known as the Hellespont, is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. It is one of the Turkish Straits, along with its counterpart the Bosphorus. It is located at approximately...

 Straits, some 50 km away. This was done chiefly by the British and largely through the enthusiasm of Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a predominantly Conservative British politician and statesman known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the century and served as Prime Minister twice...

. The harbour at Moudros was put under the control of British Admiral Rosslyn Wemyss, who was ordered to prepare the then largely unused harbour for operations against the Dardanelles.

The harbour was broad enough for British and French warships, but lacked suitable military facilities, which was recognized early on. Troops intended for Gallipoli
Gallipoli
The Gallipoli peninsula is located in Turkish Thrace , the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. Gallipoli derives its name from the Greek "Καλλίπολις" , meaning "Beautiful City"...

 had to train in Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

; and the port found it difficult to cope with casualties of the ill-starred Gallipoli campaign. The campaign was called off in evident failure at the close of 1915. Moudros' importance receded, although it remained the Allied base for the blockade of the Dardanelles during the war.

In late October 1918, the armistice
Armistice of Mudros
The Armistice of Moudros , concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I...

 between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies was signed at Moudros.

After the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 victory in the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

, many Kuban Cossacks
Kuban Cossacks
Kuban Cossacks or Kubanians are Cossacks who live in the Kuban region of Russia. Most of the Kuban Cossacks are of descendants of two major groups who were re-settled in the Western Northern Caucasus during the Caucasus War in the late 18th century...

, fled the country to avoid persecution from the Bolsheviks. A notable evacuation point was the Greek island of Lemnos where 18,000 Kuban Cossacks landed, though many later died of starvation and disease. Most left the island after a year.

Today the island of Lemnos (Limnos) has about 30 villages and settlements. The province includes the island of Agios Efstratios
Agios Efstratios
Agios Efstratios or Saint Eustratius is a small Greek island in the northern Aegean Sea about 30 km southwest of Lemnos and 80 km northwest of Lesbos...

 to the southwest which has some exceptional beaches and the only desert in Europe.

Climate

The climate in Lemnos is mainly Mediterranean
Mediterranean climate
A Mediterranean climate is the climate typical of most of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, and is a particular variety of subtropical climate...

. Winters are generally mild, but there will be a snowfall occasionally. Strong winds are a feature of the island, especially in August and in winter time, hence its nickname "the wind-ridden one" (in Greek, Ανεμόεσσα). The temperature is typically 2 to 5 degrees Celsius less than in Athens, especially in summertime.

Municipality

The present municipality Lemnos was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 4 former municipalities, that became municipal units:
  • Atsiki
    Atsiki
    Atsiki is a village and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It is located in the northern central part of the island and has a land area of...

  • Moudros
    Moudros
    Moudros is a town and a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the entire eastern peninsula of the island, with a land area of 185.127 km²,...

  • Myrina
    Myrina, Greece
    Myrina is a former municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Lemnos, of which it is a municipal unit. It covers the west coast of the island, and has a land area of 82.049 km², about 17.2% of the island's...

  • Nea Koutali
    Nea Koutali
    Nea Koutali is a municipality on the island of Lemnos, North Aegean, Greece. Located in the south central portion of the island with a land area of , it accounts for about 15.9% of the island's area, making it the smallest of the four municipalities on Lemnos...


Subdivisions

The municipal units Atsiki, Moudros, Myrina and Nea Koutali are subdivided into the following communities (constituent villages in brackets):

Atsiki
  • Agios Dimitrios
  • Atsiki (Atsiki, Propouli)
  • Dafni
  • Karpasi
  • Katalakko
  • Sardes
  • Varos (Varos, Aerolimin)

Moudros
  • Fisini (Fisini, Agia Sofia
    Agia Sofia, Lemnos
    Agia Sofia is a settlement in the Greek island of Lemnos. It is in the municipal unit of Moudros. Its 2001 population was 61 for the settlement.-Population:-History:The village was first mentioned for the first time in 1313 in a document....

    )
  • Kalliopi
    Kalliopi, Greece
    Kalliopi is a settlement in the Greek island of Limnos near Livadochori, it is in the municipal unit of Moudros. Its 2001 population was 264 for the settlement.-Population:-History:...

  • Kaminia
    Kaminia, Lemnos
    Kaminia is a village in the northeast of the Greek island of Lemnos. It is a community of the municipal unit of Moudros. From 1918 until 1998, it was a community. The 2001 population was 319 for the village and 347 for the municipal district. It is located in the southeastern peninsula of the...

     (Kaminia, Voroskopos)
  • Kontopouli
    Kontopouli
    Kontopouli is a settlement in the northeastern part of the Greek island of Limnos, in the municipal unit of Moudros. Its 2001 population was 661 for the village and 703 for the municipal district. Its total area is around . The vicinity was founded from a tiny characteristic farming settlement....

     (Kontopouli, Agios Alexandros
    Agios Alexandros
    Agios Alexandros is a settlement in the Greek island of Lemnos, it is in the municipal unit of Moudros and the community of Kontopouli. The population was 13 at the 2001 census. It is located ENE of Myrina and is connected with a road linking to the southern, central and western portions of the...

    , Agios Theodoros)
  • Lychna
    Lychna
    Lychna is a Greek settlement 25 km ENE of Myrina in the municipality of Moudros, Lemnos island, Greece. Its 2001 population was 132 people...

     (Lychna, Anemoessa)
  • Moudros (Moudros, Koukonisi)
  • Panagia
    Panagia, Lemnos
    Panagia , accented form: Panagía is a Greek village 35 km ENE of Myrina in the municipal unit of Moudros, Greece. Its 2001 population was 365 people. It is located in the northeast of the island of Lemnos...

     (Panagia, Kortisonas)
  • Plaka
    Plaka, Lemnos
    Plaka is a Greek village 35 km ENE of Myrina in the municipal unit of Moudros, Greece. Its 2001 population was 365 people. It is located in the northeast of the island of Lemnos...

  • Repanidi
    Repanidi
    Repanidi is a Greek village 20 km ENE of Myrina in the municipal unit of Moudros, Greece. Its 2001 population was 365 people. It is located in the northeast of the island of Lemnos...

     (Repanidi, Kotsinos
    Kotsinos
    Kotsinos is a settlement on the island of Lemnos, Greece. It is part of the community of Repanidi, and the municipal unit of Moudros, and situated 25 to 30 km ENE of Myrina...

    )
  • Roussopouli
  • Romano
  • Skandali


Myrina
  • Myrina
  • Thanos (Thanos, Paralia Thanous)
  • Kaspakas (Kaspakas, Agios Ioannis, Gali, Limenaria)
  • Kornos (Kornos, Psylloi)
  • Platy
    Platy, Lemnos
    Platy is a small village on Lemnos island in Greece. It is located between the village of Thanos and the main city, Myrina. The village of Thanos is Platy's rival village....

     (Platy, Paralia Plateos, Plagisos Molos)

Nea Koutali
  • Angariones
    Angariones
    Angariones is a village in the Greek island of Lemnos, part of the municipal unit Nea Koutali...

  • Diapori
    Diapori, Lemnos
    Diapori , older forms: -o and -on, accented form: Diapóri is a small fishing village in the Greek island of Limnos and the municipality of Nea Koutali 3 km south of Tsimandria...

  • Kallithea
    Kallithea, Lemnos
    Kallithea is a village in the Greek island of Lemnos, part of the municipal unit Nea Koutali. Its 2001 population was 234 for the village and the municipal district...

  • Kontias
    Kontias
    Kontias is a village on the Greek island of Limnos, and is the seat of the municipal unit Nea Koutali. Its 2001 population was 566.-Nearest places:The Village of Tsimandria in the eastNevgatis Beach in the westDiapori Habour to the South...

  • Livadochori
    Livadochori, Lemnos
    Livadochori is a village in the Greek island of Lesbos, part of the municipal unit Nea Koutali. Its 2001 population was 474.-Nearest places:*Karpasi, northeast*Kallithea, southeast...

     (Livadochori, Poliochni
    Poliochni
    Poliochni is a settlement in the Greek island of Limnos near Livadochori, it is in the municipal unit of Nea Koutali. Its 2001 population was 264 for the settlement.-History:...

    )
  • Nea Koutali
  • Pedino (Neo Pedino
    Neo Pedino
    Neo Pedino , is a new village on the Greek island of Lemnos, Greece founded in 1968. It is located northeast of Myrina. Its 2001 population was 108 for the village and 331 for the municipal district.-Settlements:*Palaio Pedino...

    , Palaio Pedino
    Palaio Pedino
    Palaio Pedino , is a village on the Greek island of Lemnos, located northeast of Myrina. The settlement of Palaio Pedino had a population of 5 in 2001. Its former name was Pesperago which was mentioned in the 14th century. It was renamed Pedino in 1955...

    , Vounaria)
  • Portianou
    Portianou
    Portianou is a village on the Greek island of Lemnos, located northeast of Myrina. Its population was 276 in 2001.-Population:- The name :...

  • Tsimandria
    Tsimandria
    Tsimandria is a village on Lemnos, a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea. It is part of the municipal unit of Nea Koutali since the late 1990s. It is close to a few beaches, including Diapori and Alagomandra...


Socio-economic data

In 2001 the island had 12,116 regular dwellings, of which 65% were stone-built, and 90.2% had pitched roofs made of red tiles (source: 18.3.2001 Census, National Statistical Service of Greece).

The island's economically active population in 2001 was 6,602. Of them, 12% were employers, 20.5% self-employed, 55.3% wage-earners, 7.1% unpaid, auxiliary family members, and 5.1% did not declare line of occupation. Of the economically active population, 17.9% worked in agriculture, 5.3% in light manufacturing, 11% in construction, 6.7% in hotels & restaurants, and the rest in other lines of business (source: 2001 Census, National Statistical Service of Greece).

Notable people

  • Alcamenes
    Alcamenes
    Alcamenes was an ancient Greek sculptor of Lemnos and Athens. He was a younger contemporary of Phidias and noted for the delicacy and finish of his works, among which a Hephaestus and an Aphrodite "of the Gardens" were conspicuous.Pausanias says Alcamenes was an ancient Greek sculptor of Lemnos and...

     (5th century BC); sculptor
  • Ilias Iliou
    Ilias Iliou
    Ilias Iliou was a Greek lawyer and politician, member of the Greek Parliament and leader of the United Democratic Left . He was also a distinguished writer and jurist.- Early years :...

     (1904–1985); politician, leader of United Democratic Left
    United Democratic Left
    The United Democratic Left was a political party in Greece, active mostly before the Greek military junta of 1967-1974.-Foundation:...

  • Rallis Kopsidis (born 1929); painter, writer

External links

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