Kreisleriana, Op.
Opus number
An Opus number , pl. opera and opuses, abbreviated, sing. Op. and pl. Opp. refers to a number generally assigned by composers to an individual composition or set of compositions on publication, to help identify their works...

 16, is a composition in eight movements
Movement (music)
A movement is a self-contained part of a musical composition or musical form. While individual or selected movements from a composition are sometimes performed separately, a performance of the complete work requires all the movements to be performed in succession...

 by Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann, sometimes known as Robert Alexander Schumann, was a German composer, aesthete and influential music critic. He is regarded as one of the greatest and most representative composers of the Romantic era....

 for solo piano
The piano is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard. It is one of the most popular instruments in the world. Widely used in classical and jazz music for solo performances, ensemble use, chamber music and accompaniment, the piano is also very popular as an aid to composing and rehearsal...

, subtitled , written in April 1838. Dedicated to Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric François Chopin was a Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is considered one of the great masters of Romantic music and has been called "the poet of the piano"....

, it is a very dramatic work and is considered to be one of Schumann's finest compositions.
The work's programme
Program music
Program music or programme music is a type of art music that attempts to musically render an extra-musical narrative. The narrative itself might be offered to the audience in the form of program notes, inviting imaginative correlations with the music...

, or at any rate the basis for a depiction of psychological music-drama, is based on the character Johannes Kreisler
Johannes Kreisler
Johannes Kreisler is the name of a character in three novels by E.T.A. Hoffmann: Kreisleriana , Johannes Kreisler, des Kapellmeisters Musikalische Leiden , Lebensansichten des Katers Murr nebst Fragmentarischer Biographie des Kapellmeisters Johannes Kreisler in Zufälligen Makulaturblättern...

 from works of E. T. A. Hoffmann. Like the kaleidoscopic Kreisler, each number has multiple contrasting sections, resembling the imaginary musician's manic-depression, and recalling Florestan and Eusebius, the two imaginary characters of Schumann's inner vision (representing his impulsive and dreamy sides, respectively). Johannes Kreisler appeared in three books by E. T. A. Hoffmann, most notably in Kreisleriana (a section of "" published in 1814).

Schumann used material from the eighth movement, "", for the fourth movement of his first symphony
Symphony No. 1 (Schumann)
Symphony No. 1 in B flat major, Op. 38 was the first symphonic work composed by Robert Schumann. Although Schumann made some "symphonic attempts" in the autumn of 1840 soon after he married his beloved Clara Wieck, he did not compose his First Symphony until early 1841...



(181 KB
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information. Although the prefix kilo- means 1000, the term kilobyte and symbol KB have historically been used to refer to either 1024 bytes or 1000 bytes, dependent upon context, in the fields of computer science and information...

, 31:38 minutes)

Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIDI is an industry-standard protocol, first defined in 1982 by Gordon Hall, that enables electronic musical instruments , computers and other electronic equipment to communicate and synchronize with each other...

 rendition of a piano performance
  1. (Extremely animated), D minor
    D minor
    D minor is a minor scale based on D, consisting of the pitches D, E, F, G, A, B, and C. In the harmonic minor, the C is raised to C. Its key signature has one flat ....

  2. (Very inwardly and not too quickly), B-flat major
  3. (Very agitated), G minor
    G minor
    G minor is a minor scale based on G, consisting of the pitches G, A, B, C, D, E, and F. For the harmonic minor scale, the F is raised to F. Its relative major is B-flat major, and its parallel major is G major....

  4. (Very slowly), B-flat major/D minor
  5. (Very lively), G minor
  6. (Very slowly), B-flat major
  7. (Very fast), C minor
    C minor
    C minor is a minor scale based on C, consisting of the pitches C, D, E, F, G, A, and B. The harmonic minor raises the B to B. Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with naturals and accidentals as necessary.Its key signature consists of three flats...

    /E-flat major
  8. (Fast and playful), G minor

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.