Krasnaya Gorka fort
Krasnaya Gorka is a coastal artillery
Coastal artillery is the branch of armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications....
fortress west of Lomonosov, Russia
Lomonosov is a municipal town in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of St. Petersburg, Russia, situated on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, west of St. Petersburg proper. Population:...
on the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland
Gulf of Finland
The Gulf of Finland is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea. It extends between Finland and Estonia all the way to Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf include Helsinki and Tallinn...
, opposite Kotlin Island
Kotlin is a Russian island, located near the head of the Gulf of Finland, west of Saint Petersburg in the Baltic Sea. Kotlin separates the Neva Bay from the rest of the gulf...
and the Baltic Fleet
The Twice Red Banner Baltic Fleet - is the Russian Navy's presence in the Baltic Sea. In previous historical periods, it has been part of the navy of Imperial Russia and later the Soviet Union. The Fleet gained the 'Twice Red Banner' appellation during the Soviet period, indicating two awards of...
's base at Kronshtadt. The nearest settlement is Lebyazhye
Lebyazhye, Lomonosovsky District, Leningrad Oblast
Lebyazhye is an urban locality in Lomonosovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland west of Lomonosov and east of Sosnovy Bor. Population:...
HistoryThe fort was established in the 18th Century and substantially modernised in the late 19th – early 20th century with the installation of 12 inch guns in concrete casemates. There is an outlying fort called Seraiya Loshad (Grey Horse) containing smaller guns.
The fort was armed with:
- 8 11 inch howitzers
- 8 10 inch guns
- 6 6 inch canet type guns
- 4 12 inch guns in concrete casemates
- 4 12 inch guns in armoured turrets
The work was completed in 1914.
During the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...
the fort helped defend the city of Petrograd. In June 1919 the garrison mutinied against the Bolshevik regime but this revolt was suppressed by the Reds. Though the British Royal Navy was actively supporting the White Russians in the area their attacks on Red ships were not able to aid the mutineers.
Later in autumn 1919 the forts were unsuccessfully attacked by the Estonian 1st Division supported by bombardment by HMS Erebus
HMS Erebus (I02)
HMS Erebus was a World War I monitor launched on 19 June 1916 and served in both world wars. She and her sister HMS Terror are known as the Erebus class...
. In 1921 the guns of the fort bombarded Kronstadt during the Kronstadt rebellion
The Kronstadt rebellion was one of many major unsuccessful left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War...
. During World War II the fort played a vital part in defending the Siege of Leningrad
Siege of Leningrad
The Siege of Leningrad, also known as the Leningrad Blockade was a prolonged military operation resulting from the failure of the German Army Group North to capture Leningrad, now known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II. It started on 8 September 1941, when the last...
and maintaining the Oranienbaum Bridgehead
The Oranienbaum Bridgehead was an isolated portion of the Leningrad Oblast in Russia, which was retained under Soviet control during the siege of Leningrad in World War II...
. The fort was decommissioned in 1960 and partially demolished. The local authorities of the St Petersburg region are discussing whether to convert the site into a military museum.