Konstantin Tsiolkovsky
Overview
 
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (19 September 1935) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 rocket
Rocket
A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

 scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory
Astronautics
Astronautics, and related astronautical engineering, is the theory and practice of navigation beyond the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, it is the science and technology of space flight....

. Along with his followers the German Hermann Oberth
Hermann Oberth
Hermann Julius Oberth was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer. He is considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics.- Early life :...

 and the American Robert H. Goddard
Robert H. Goddard
Robert Hutchings Goddard was an American professor, physicist and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket, which he successfully launched on March 16, 1926...

, he is considered to be one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics
Astronautics
Astronautics, and related astronautical engineering, is the theory and practice of navigation beyond the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, it is the science and technology of space flight....

. His works later inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers such as Sergey Korolyov
Sergey Korolyov
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev ; died 14 January 1966 in Moscow, Russia) was the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the 1950s and 1960s...

 and Valentin Glushko
Valentin Glushko
Valentin Petrovich Glushko or Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko was a Soviet engineer, and the principal Soviet designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.-Biography:...

 and contributed to the success of the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
The Soviet space program is the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991...

.

Tsiolkovsky spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of Kaluga
Kaluga
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow. Population: It is served by Grabtsevo Airport.-History:...

, about 200 km (124.3 mi) southwest of Moscow.
Encyclopedia
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (19 September 1935) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 rocket
Rocket
A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

 scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory
Astronautics
Astronautics, and related astronautical engineering, is the theory and practice of navigation beyond the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, it is the science and technology of space flight....

. Along with his followers the German Hermann Oberth
Hermann Oberth
Hermann Julius Oberth was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer. He is considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics.- Early life :...

 and the American Robert H. Goddard
Robert H. Goddard
Robert Hutchings Goddard was an American professor, physicist and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket, which he successfully launched on March 16, 1926...

, he is considered to be one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics
Astronautics
Astronautics, and related astronautical engineering, is the theory and practice of navigation beyond the Earth's atmosphere. In other words, it is the science and technology of space flight....

. His works later inspired leading Soviet rocket engineers such as Sergey Korolyov
Sergey Korolyov
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev ; died 14 January 1966 in Moscow, Russia) was the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the 1950s and 1960s...

 and Valentin Glushko
Valentin Glushko
Valentin Petrovich Glushko or Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko was a Soviet engineer, and the principal Soviet designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.-Biography:...

 and contributed to the success of the Soviet space program
Soviet space program
The Soviet space program is the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991...

.

Tsiolkovsky spent most of his life in a log house on the outskirts of Kaluga
Kaluga
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow. Population: It is served by Grabtsevo Airport.-History:...

, about 200 km (124.3 mi) southwest of Moscow. A recluse
Recluse
A recluse is a person who lives in voluntary seclusion from the public and society, often close to nature. The word is from the Latin recludere, which means "shut up" or "sequester." There are many potential reasons for becoming a recluse: a personal philosophy that rejects consumer society; a...

 by nature, he appeared strange and bizarre to his fellow town-folk.

Biography

He was born in Izhevskoye (now in Spassky District
Spassky District, Ryazan Oblast
Spassky District, Ryazan Oblast is an administrative and municipal district , one of the 25 in Ryazan Oblast, Russia....

, Ryazan Oblast
Ryazan Oblast
Ryazan Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Ryazan, which is the oblast's largest city. Population: -Geography:...

), in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

, to a middle-class family. His father, Edward Tsiolkovsky (in ), was Polish
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

; his mother, Maria Yumasheva, was an educated Russian woman of Tartar descent. His father was an orthodox priest of Polish descent deported to Russia as a result of his political activities. At the age of 9, Konstantin caught scarlet fever and became hard of hearing. He was not admitted to elementary schools because of his hearing problem, so he was self-taught.

After falling behind in his studies, Tsiolkovsky spent three years attending a library where Russian cosmism
Russian cosmism
Russian cosmism was a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century. It entailed a broad theory of natural philosophy combining elements of religion and ethics with a history and philosophy of the origin, evolution and future existence of the cosmos and...

 proponent Nikolai Fyodorov
Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov
Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov was a Russian Orthodox Christian philosopher, who was part of the Russian cosmism movement and a precursor of transhumanism...

 worked. He later came to believe that colonizing space would lead to the perfection of the human race, with immortality and a carefree existence.

Additionally, inspired by the fiction of Jules Verne
Jules Verne
Jules Gabriel Verne was a French author who pioneered the science fiction genre. He is best known for his novels Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea , A Journey to the Center of the Earth , and Around the World in Eighty Days...

, Tsiolkovsky theorized many aspects of space travel and rocket propulsion
Spacecraft propulsion
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the...

. He is considered the father of spaceflight
Spaceflight
Spaceflight is the act of travelling into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft which may, or may not, have humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the Russian Soyuz program, the U.S. Space shuttle program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station...

 and the first person to conceive the space elevator
Space elevator
A space elevator, also known as a geostationary orbital tether or a beanstalk, is a proposed non-rocket spacelaunch structure...

, becoming inspired in 1895 by the newly-constructed Eiffel Tower
Eiffel Tower
The Eiffel Tower is a puddle iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris. Built in 1889, it has become both a global icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world...

 in Paris.

Tsiolkovsky worked as a high school mathematics teacher until retiring in 1920. He did not particularly flourish under a communist system, in particular Tsiolkovsky's support of eugenics
Eugenics
Eugenics is the "applied science or the bio-social movement which advocates the use of practices aimed at improving the genetic composition of a population", usually referring to human populations. The origins of the concept of eugenics began with certain interpretations of Mendelian inheritance,...

 made him politically unpopular. However, from the mid 1920s onwards the importance of his other work was acknowledged, and he was honoured for it. He died on 19 September 1935 in Kaluga
Kaluga
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow. Population: It is served by Grabtsevo Airport.-History:...

 and was buried in state
State funeral
A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony, observing the strict rules of protocol, held to honor heads of state or other important people of national significance. State funerals usually include much pomp and ceremony as well as religious overtones and distinctive elements of military tradition...

.

Scientific achievements

This section has recently been partly machine translated from the Russian article. Please supply an improved translation if possible.

Tsiolkovsky stated that he developed the theory of rocketry only as a supplement to philosophical research on the subject. He wrote more than 400 works, most of which are little known to the general reader because of their questionable value.

During his lifetime he published over 88 works on space travel and related subjects. Among his works are designs for rockets with steering thrusters, multi-stage boosters, space station
Space station
A space station is a spacecraft capable of supporting a crew which is designed to remain in space for an extended period of time, and to which other spacecraft can dock. A space station is distinguished from other spacecraft used for human spaceflight by its lack of major propulsion or landing...

s, airlock
Airlock
An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it...

s for exiting a spaceship into the vacuum of space, and closed cycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies
Space habitat
A space habitat is a space station intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple waystation or other specialized facility...

.

The first scientific study of Tsiolkovsky dates to the year 1880-1881. Unaware of the discoveries already made, he wrote a paper called "Theory of Gases," in which he outlined the basis of the kinetic theory of gases. His second work - "The mechanics of the animal organism" received favorable feedback and Tsiolkovsky was inducted into the Russian Physico-Chemical Society. The main works of Tsiolkovsky after 1884 dealt with four major areas: the scientific rationale for the all-metal balloon (Airship), the streamlined airplane, trains, hovercrafts, and rockets for interplanetary travel.

Tsiolkovsky developed the first aerodynamic laboratory in Russia in his apartment. In 1897, he built the first Russian wind tunnel with an open test section, developed a method of experiment in it and 1900, with a grant from the Academy of Sciences, made a purge of the simplest models and determined the drag coefficient of the ball, flat plates, cylinders, cones and other bodies. Tsiolkovsky's work in the field of aerodynamics was a source of ideas for Zhukovsky. Tsiolkovsky described the airflow of bodies of different geometric shapes.

Tsiolkovsky studied the mechanics of powered flight, which were designated "dirigibles" (the word "airship" was not yet invented). Tsiolkovsky first proposed the idea of ​​an all-metal dirigible, and built its model. The first printed work on the airship was "Managed Metallic Balloon" (1892), in which was given the scientific and technical rationale for the design of an airship with a metal sheath. Progressive for his time, Tsiolkovsky was not supported on the airship project: the author was refused a grant to build the model. An appeal to the General Aviation Staff of the Russian army also had no success. In 1892, he turned to the new and unexplored field of aircraft heavier than air. Tsiolkovsky's idea was to build an airplane with a metal frame. In the article "An airplane or a birdlike (aircraft) flying machine" (1894) are the descriptions and drawings of a monoplane, which by its appearance and aerodynamics was the design of an anticipated construction aircraft that would emerge over 15–18 years. In an Aviation Airplane, the wings have a thick profile with a rounded front edge and the fuselage is faired. But work on the airplane, as well as on the airship, did not receive recognition from the official representatives of Russian science. For further research Tsiolkovsky had neither the means nor even moral support.

Since 1896 Tsiolkovsky systematically studied the theory of motion of jet apparatus. Thoughts on the use of the rocket principle in the cosmos were expressed as early as 1883 by Tsiolkovsky. But a rigorous theory of jet propulsion described them in 1896. Tsiolkovsky derived the formula (it was called "Formula of Aviation"), establishing the relationship between:
  • speed of a rocket at any moment
  • specific impulse fuel
  • mass of the rocket in the initial and final time



When finished recording math, Tsiolkovsky automatically set the date: May 10, 1897. In the same year the formula for the motion of the body of variable mass was published in the thesis of the Russian mathematician I. V. Meshchersky ("Dynamics of a point of variable mass," IV Meshchersky, St. Petersburg., 1897).

His most important work, published in 1903, was The Exploration of Cosmic Space by Means of Reaction Devices ,. Tsiolkovsky calculated, with the Tsiolkovsky equation, that the horizontal speed required for a minimal orbit
Orbit
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of an object around a point in space, for example the orbit of a planet around the center of a star system, such as the Solar System...

 around the Earth is 8,000 m/s (5 miles per second) and that this could be achieved by means of a multistage rocket
Multistage rocket
A multistage rocket is a rocket that usestwo or more stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant. A tandem or serial stage is mounted on top of another stage; a parallel stage is attached alongside another stage. The result is effectively two or more rockets stacked on top of or...

 fueled by liquid oxygen
Liquid oxygen
Liquid oxygen — abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries — is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.-Physical properties:...

 and liquid hydrogen
Liquid hydrogen
Liquid hydrogen is the liquid state of the element hydrogen. Hydrogen is found naturally in the molecular H2 form.To exist as a liquid, H2 must be pressurized above and cooled below hydrogen's Critical point. However, for hydrogen to be in a full liquid state without boiling off, it needs to be...

.

In 1903 he published an article "Investigation of outer space rocket appliances", in which for the first time it was proved that a rocket could perform space flight. In this article, and its subsequent sequels (1911 and 1914), he developed some ideas of missiles and the use of liquid rocket engine.

Result of the first publication was not the one expected by Tsiolkovsky. No foreign scientists appreciated the research, which today is a major science. He was simply ahead of his time. In 1911 published the second part of the work "The study of outer space rocket appliances." Tsiolkovsky evaluates work to overcome the force of gravity, determines the speed you need to exit the device into the solar system ("escape velocity") and flight time. At this time the article Tsiolkovsky made a splash in the scientific world. Tsiolkovsky has found many friends in the world of science.

In 1926—1929 Tsiolkovsky solves the practical problem: how to get fuel into the rocket to get the separation speed and leave the Earth. It turned out that the finite speed of the rocket depends on the rate of gas flowing from it and from how many times the weight of the fuel exceeds the empty weight of the rocket.

Tsiolkovsky made a number of ideas that have been used in rockets. They proposed: gas rudders (graphite) for the rocket flight control and change the trajectory of its center of mass, use of components of the fuel to cool the outer shell of the spacecraft (during re-entry Earth), The walls of the combustion chamber and nozzle, pump system feeding the fuel components, the optimal descent trajectory of the spacecraft while returning from space, etc.[source?] In the field of rocket propellants Tsiolkovsky studied a large number of different oxidizing and combustible fuel recommended couples: liquid oxygen and hydrogen and oxygen with hydrocarbons. Tsiolkovsky much fruitful work on the creation of the theory of jet aircraft, has invented his chart Gas Turbine Engine; In 1927 published the theory and design of a train on an air cushion. He first proposed a "bottom of the retractable body" chassis. Space flight and the airship was the main problem that he devoted his life. Tsiolkovsky had been developing the idea of the air cushion
Hovercraft
A hovercraft is a craft capable of traveling over surfaces while supported by a cushion of slow moving, high-pressure air which is ejected against the surface below and contained within a "skirt." Although supported by air, a hovercraft is not considered an aircraft.Hovercraft are used throughout...

 since 1921, publishing fundamental paper on it in 1927, entitled "Air Resistance and the Express Train" . In 1929 Tsiolkovsky proposed the construction of multistage rockets in his book Space Rocket Trains .

Tsiolkovsky championed the idea of ​​the diversity of life in Universe, was the first theorist and advocate of human space exploration.

Hearing problems did not prevent the scientist a good understanding of music. There is his work "The Origin of music and its essence."

Tsiolkovsky never built a rocket; he apparently did not expect many of his theories to ever be implemented. Only late in his lifetime was Tsiolkovsky honoured for his pioneering work. He supported the Bolshevik Revolution, and the new Soviet government wished to identify itself with technology. In 1918 he was elected as a member of the Socialist Academy, and in 1921 received a lifetime pension.

Legacy

Although many called his ideas impractical, Tsiolkovsky influenced later rocket scientists throughout Europe, like Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and in the United States after that.A former member of the Nazi party,...

. Russian search teams at Peenemünde
Peenemünde
The Peenemünde Army Research Center was founded in 1937 as one of five military proving grounds under the Army Weapons Office ....

 found a German translation of a book by Tsiolkovsky of which "almost every page...was embellished by von Braun's comments and notes." Leading Russian rocket-engine designer Valentin Glushko
Valentin Glushko
Valentin Petrovich Glushko or Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko was a Soviet engineer, and the principal Soviet designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.-Biography:...

 and rocket designer Sergey Korolyov
Sergey Korolyov
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev ; died 14 January 1966 in Moscow, Russia) was the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer in the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union during the 1950s and 1960s...

 studied Tsiolkovsky's works as youths, and both sought to turn Tsiolkovsky's theories into reality. In particular, Korolyov saw traveling to Mars as the more important priority, until in 1964 he decided to compete with the American Project Apollo
Project Apollo
The Apollo program was the spaceflight effort carried out by the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration , that landed the first humans on Earth's Moon. Conceived during the Presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower, Apollo began in earnest after President John F...

 for the moon.

Philosophical work

Tsiolovsky wrote a book called The Will of the Universe. The Unknown Intelligence in 1928 in which he propounded a philosophy of panpsychism
Panpsychism
In philosophy, panpsychism is the view that all matter has a mental aspect, or, alternatively, all objects have a unified center of experience or point of view...

. He believed humans would eventually colonize the Milky Way galaxy.

Tributes

  • The State Museum of the History of Cosmonautics in Kaluga
    Kaluga
    Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow. Population: It is served by Grabtsevo Airport.-History:...

     now bears his name.
  • The crater Tsiolkovskiy
    Tsiolkovskiy (crater)
    Tsiolkovskiy is a large lunar impact crater that is located on the far side of the Moon. It lies in the southern hemisphere, to the west of the crater Gagarin, and northwest of Milne. Just to the south is Waterman, with Neujmin to the south-southwest. This feature was discovered on photographs sent...

      (the most prominent crater on the far side of the Moon
    Moon
    The Moon is Earth's only known natural satellite,There are a number of near-Earth asteroids including 3753 Cruithne that are co-orbital with Earth: their orbits bring them close to Earth for periods of time but then alter in the long term . These are quasi-satellites and not true moons. For more...

    ) was named after him, while asteroid
    Asteroid
    Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

     1590 Tsiolkovskaja was named after his wife. (The Soviet Union obtained naming rights by operating Luna 3
    Luna 3
    The Soviet space probe Luna 3 of 1959 was the third space probe to be sent to the neighborhood of the Moon, and this mission was an early feat in the spaceborne exploration of outer space...

    , the first space device to successfully transmit images of the side of the moon not seen from Earth.)
  • There is a statue of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky directly outside the Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium
    Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium
    The Sir Thomas Brisbane Planetarium is a planetarium located on the grounds of Brisbane Botanic Gardens in the suburb of Toowong, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia...

     in Brisbane
    Brisbane
    Brisbane is the capital and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland and the third most populous city in Australia. Brisbane's metropolitan area has a population of over 2 million, and the South East Queensland urban conurbation, centred around Brisbane, encompasses a population of...

    , Queensland
    Queensland
    Queensland is a state of Australia, occupying the north-eastern section of the mainland continent. It is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Sea and Pacific Ocean...

    , Australia
    Australia
    Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

    .

In popular culture

  • SF writer Alexander Beliaev
    Alexander Beliaev
    Alexander Romanovich Belyayev was a Russian and Soviet author of science fiction. His body of work from the 1920s and 1930s made him a highly regarded figure in Soviet science fiction...

     has written a book in which a city and a space station are named after him.
  • A lunar station is named Tsiolkovsky in Stanisław Lem's novel Tales of Pirx the Pilot
    Tales of Pirx the Pilot
    Stanisław Lem's Tales of Pirx the Pilot , published in Poland in 1968, and translated to English in two parts in 1979 and 1982, is a series of short stories about a spaceship pilot named Pirx...

    , story "The Conditional Reflex".
  • A space station is named Tsiolkovsky 1 in William Gibson
    William Gibson
    William Gibson is an American-Canadian science fiction author.William Gibson may also refer to:-Association football:*Will Gibson , Scottish footballer...

    's short story "Hinterlands
    Hinterlands (short story)
    "Hinterlands" is a science fiction short story written by William Gibson in 1981 and published in his short fiction collection Burning Chrome in 1986. The story is a fable about the 'cargo cult' mentality...

    ".
  • The character Aeolia Schenberg in the anime series Mobile Suit Gundam 00
    Mobile Suit Gundam 00
    is an anime TV series, the eleventh incarnation of Sunrise's long-running Gundam franchise consisting of two seasons. It is directed by Seiji Mizushima and written by Yōsuke Kuroda, and features character designs by Yun Kōga. The twenty-five episode season was officially announced by Sunrise...

    is based on Tsiolkovsky.
  • The Zvezda module of the International Space Station
    International Space Station
    The International Space Station is a habitable, artificial satellite in low Earth orbit. The ISS follows the Salyut, Almaz, Cosmos, Skylab, and Mir space stations, as the 11th space station launched, not including the Genesis I and II prototypes...

     has photos of Tsiolkovsky and Yuri Gagarin
    Yuri Gagarin
    Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. He was the first human to journey into outer space, when his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth on April 12, 1961....

     posted on the wall above the aft hatchway.
  • The Space Elevator
    Space elevator
    A space elevator, also known as a geostationary orbital tether or a beanstalk, is a proposed non-rocket spacelaunch structure...

    s in the Horus Heresy
    Horus Heresy
    In the fictional Warhammer 40,000 universe, the Horus Heresy was a galaxy-spanning civil war that marked the end of the Great Crusade which took place in the 31st millennium. First described in the 1988 Games Workshop book Realm of Chaos: Slaves to Darkness, it was used as the background for the...

     novel Mechanicum are called "Tsiolkovsky Towers".
  • The Science ship in the Star Trek: The Next Generation
    Star Trek: The Next Generation
    Star Trek: The Next Generation is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry as part of the Star Trek franchise. Roddenberry, Rick Berman, and Michael Piller served as executive producers at different times throughout the production...

    episode "The Naked Now" is named after him.
  • Episode eight of Denpa Onna to Seishun Otoko
    Denpa Onna to Seishun Otoko
    is a Japanese light novel series written by Hitoma Iruma, with illustrations by Buriki. The series includes eight novels released between January 2009 and April 2011, published by ASCII Media Works under their Dengeki Bunko imprint. A manga adaptation started serialization in the October 2010 issue...

    is called "Tsiolkovsky's Prayer"
  • In the book Limit, written by Frank Schätzing in 2009, the theory of the Space Elevator
    Space elevator
    A space elevator, also known as a geostationary orbital tether or a beanstalk, is a proposed non-rocket spacelaunch structure...

     is applied in a hypothetical future.

Works


See also

  • Cosmism (Russian)
  • Russian philosophy
    Russian philosophy
    Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements. Authors who developed them are listed below sorted by movement.While most authors listed below are primarily philosophers, also included here are some Russian fiction writers, like Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky, who are also known as...

  • Space exploration
    Space exploration
    Space exploration is the use of space technology to explore outer space. Physical exploration of space is conducted both by human spaceflights and by robotic spacecraft....

  • Spaceflight
    Spaceflight
    Spaceflight is the act of travelling into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft which may, or may not, have humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the Russian Soyuz program, the U.S. Space shuttle program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station...

  • Space colonization
    Space colonization
    Space colonization is the concept of permanent human habitation outside of Earth. Although hypothetical at the present time, there are many proposals and speculations about the first space colony...

  • History of the internal combustion engine
    History of the internal combustion engine
    Although various forms of internal combustion engines were developed before the 19th century, their use was hindered until the commercial drilling and production of petroleum began in the mid-1850s...

  • Timeline of hydrogen technologies
    Timeline of hydrogen technologies
    Timeline of hydrogen technologies — A timeline of the history of hydrogen technology.-1600s:* 1625 - First description of hydrogen by Johann Baptista van Helmont...

  • Tsiolkovsky rocket equation
    Tsiolkovsky rocket equation
    The Tsiolkovsky rocket equation, or ideal rocket equation is an equation that is useful for considering vehicles that follow the basic principle of a rocket: where a device that can apply acceleration to itself by expelling part of its mass with high speed and moving due to the conservation of...

  • Cosmonauts Alley
    Cosmonauts Alley
    Cosmonauts Alley is a wide avenue in northern Moscow leading to the Russian Museum of Cosmonautics and the Monument to the Conquerors of Space . The pedestrian-only avenue connects the museum and monument to the VDNKh subway station....


External links

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