Kimchi
Overview
 
Kimchi also spelled gimchi, kimchee, or kim chee, is a traditional fermented
Fermentation (food)
Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol...

 Korean dish made of vegetables with varied seasonings. There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made with a main vegetable ingredient such as napa cabbage
Napa cabbage
Napa cabbage , also known as celery cabbage, is a type of Chinese cabbage originating near the Beijing region of China, and is widely used in East Asian cuisine. In much of the world, this is the vegetable referred to as "Chinese cabbage"...

, radish
Radish
The radish is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe, in pre-Roman times. They are grown and consumed throughout the world. Radishes have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and duration of required cultivation time...

, green onions
Scallion
Scallions , are the edible plants of various Allium species, all of which are "onion-like", having hollow green leaves and lacking a fully developed root bulb.-Etymology:The words...

 or cucumber
Cucumber
The cucumber is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. The plant is a creeping vine which bears cylindrical edible fruit when ripe. There are three main varieties of cucumber: "slicing", "pickling", and...

. It is the most common banchan
Banchan
Banchan refers to small dishes of food served along with cooked rice in Korean cuisine. This word is used both in the singular and plural....

, or side dish, in Korean cuisine. Kimchi is also a main ingredient for many popular Korean dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap
Kimchi bokkeumbap
Kimchi bokkeumbap is a variety of bokkeumbap , a popular dish in South Korea. Its name literally translates as "Kimchi fried rice"...

).
The oldest references to kimchi can be found from 2600 to 3000 years ago.
Encyclopedia
Kimchi also spelled gimchi, kimchee, or kim chee, is a traditional fermented
Fermentation (food)
Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. Fermentation in simple terms is the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol...

 Korean dish made of vegetables with varied seasonings. There are hundreds of varieties of kimchi made with a main vegetable ingredient such as napa cabbage
Napa cabbage
Napa cabbage , also known as celery cabbage, is a type of Chinese cabbage originating near the Beijing region of China, and is widely used in East Asian cuisine. In much of the world, this is the vegetable referred to as "Chinese cabbage"...

, radish
Radish
The radish is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe, in pre-Roman times. They are grown and consumed throughout the world. Radishes have numerous varieties, varying in size, color and duration of required cultivation time...

, green onions
Scallion
Scallions , are the edible plants of various Allium species, all of which are "onion-like", having hollow green leaves and lacking a fully developed root bulb.-Etymology:The words...

 or cucumber
Cucumber
The cucumber is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. The plant is a creeping vine which bears cylindrical edible fruit when ripe. There are three main varieties of cucumber: "slicing", "pickling", and...

. It is the most common banchan
Banchan
Banchan refers to small dishes of food served along with cooked rice in Korean cuisine. This word is used both in the singular and plural....

, or side dish, in Korean cuisine. Kimchi is also a main ingredient for many popular Korean dishes such as kimchi stew (김치찌개; kimchi jjigae), kimchi soup (김칫국; kimchiguk), and kimchi fried rice (김치볶음밥; kimchi bokkeumbap
Kimchi bokkeumbap
Kimchi bokkeumbap is a variety of bokkeumbap , a popular dish in South Korea. Its name literally translates as "Kimchi fried rice"...

).

History

The oldest references to kimchi can be found from 2600 to 3000 years ago. The first text-written evidence of its existence can be found in the first Chinese poetry book, Shi Jing
Shi Jing
The Classic of Poetry , translated variously as the Book of Songs, the Book of Odes, and often known simply as its original name The Odes, is the earliest existing collection of Chinese poems and songs. It comprises 305 poems and songs, with many range from the 10th to the 7th centuries BC...

(詩經). In this book, kimchi was referred to as jeo (菹). The term ji was used until the pre-modern terms chimchae (hanja
Hanja
Hanja is the Korean name for the Chinese characters hanzi. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean pronunciation...

: 沈菜, lit. soaked vegetables), dimchae, and timchae were adopted in the period of the Three Kingdoms of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea
The Three Kingdoms of Korea refer to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium...

. The word then was modified into jimchi, and is currently kimchi.

Early kimchi was made of cabbage and beef stock only. Red chili, a New World vegetable not found in Korea before European contact with the Americas, was introduced to Korea from Japan after the Hideyoshi Invasions (1592-1598) and became a staple ingredient in kimchi. Red chili pepper flakes are now used as the main ingredient for spice and source of heat for many varieties of kimchi. In the twelfth century other spices, creating flavors such as sweet and sour, and colors, such as white and orange, were added.

Main ingredients

Kimchi varieties are determined by the main vegetable ingredients and the mix of seasonings used to flavor the kimchi. The most popular type of kimchi is the baechu (napa cabbage) variety but there are many regional and seasonal varieties.

The Kimchi Field Museum
Kimchi Field Museum
The Kimchi Field Museum in Seoul, Korea is a museum whose mission is to inform the world about one of the major items of Korean cuisine, kimchi. Exhibitions focus exclusively on kimchi’s history, its varieties, and its importance to Korean culture and cuisine. It is open to anyone who is willing...

 in Seoul
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 has documented 187 historic and current varieties of kimchi. Although the most common seasonings include brine
Brine
Brine is water, saturated or nearly saturated with salt .Brine is used to preserve vegetables, fruit, fish, and meat, in a process known as brining . Brine is also commonly used to age Halloumi and Feta cheeses, or for pickling foodstuffs, as a means of preserving them...

, scallions and spices, ingredients can be replaced or added depending on the type of kimchi being made. Common seasonings also include ginger
Ginger
Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family . Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal....

, chopped radish, garlic
Garlic
Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Dating back over 6,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia, and has long been a staple in the Mediterranean region, as well as a frequent...

, saeujeot
Saeujeot
Saeujeot is a variety of jeotgal, salted and fermented food made with small shrimp in Korean cuisine. It is the most consumed jeotgal along with myeolchijeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, saeu and jeot...

(hangul: 새우젓), and aekjeot
Fish sauce
Fish sauce is a condiment that is derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. It is an essential ingredient in many curries and sauces. Fish sauce is a staple ingredient in numerous cultures in Southeast Asia and the coastal regions of East Asia, and features heavily in Thai and Vietnamese...

(hangul: 액젓, fish sauce).

Kimchi varieties

Kimchi can be categorized by main ingredients, regions or seasons. Korea's northern and southern sections have a considerable temperature difference.

Kimchi from the northern parts of Korea tend to have less salt as well as less red chilli and usually do not have brined seafood for seasoning. Northern kimchi often has a watery consistency. Kimchi made in the southern parts of Korea, such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do, uses salt, chili peppers and myeolchijeot
Myeolchijeot
Myeolchijeot or myeolchi jeot is a variety of jeotgal, a salted fermented dish made with anchovies in Korean cuisine. It is the most frequently consumed variety of jeotgal, along with saeujeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, myeolchi and jeot...

(hangul: 멸치젓, brined anchovy allowed to ferment) or saeujeot
Saeujeot
Saeujeot is a variety of jeotgal, salted and fermented food made with small shrimp in Korean cuisine. It is the most consumed jeotgal along with myeolchijeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, saeu and jeot...

(hangul
Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

: 새우젓, brined shrimp allowed to ferment), myeolchiaekjeot (Hangul: 멸치액젓, "kkanariaekjeot" 까나리액젓, liquid anchovy jeot, similar to fish sauce
Fish sauce
Fish sauce is a condiment that is derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. It is an essential ingredient in many curries and sauces. Fish sauce is a staple ingredient in numerous cultures in Southeast Asia and the coastal regions of East Asia, and features heavily in Thai and Vietnamese...

 used in Southeast Asia, but thicker). In the Seoul area
Seoul
Seoul , officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. A megacity with a population of over 10 million, it is the largest city proper in the OECD developed world...

 saeujeot is preferred.

Saeujeot
Saeujeot
Saeujeot is a variety of jeotgal, salted and fermented food made with small shrimp in Korean cuisine. It is the most consumed jeotgal along with myeolchijeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, saeu and jeot...

(hangul
Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

: 새우젓) or myeolchijeot is not added to the kimchi spice-seasoning mixture, but is simmered to reduce odors, eliminate tannic flavor and fats, and then is mixed with a thickener made of rice or wheat starch (Hangul: 풀). This technique has been falling into disuse for the past forty years.

Other brined jeot can be used, but are no longer common as modern commercialization has made aekjeot (액젓; either myeolchijeot or saeujeot) more affordable and convenient.

White kimchi (baek kimchi
Baek kimchi
Baek kimchi is a variety of kimchi made without the chili pepper powder commonly used for pickling kimchi in Korean cuisine. Baek kimchi has a mild and clean flavor, which appeals to children and the elderly, to whom the regular kimchi might be too spicy...

) is baechu (napa cabbage) seasoned without chili pepper and is neither red in color nor spicy. White radish kimchi (dongchimi
Dongchimi
Dongchimi is a variety of kimchi consisting of daikon, baechu , spring onions, fermented green chili, ginger, bae and watery brine in Korean cuisine...

) is another example of a popular kimchi that is not spicy. The watery white kimchi varieties are a popular ingredient in a number of dishes such as cold noodles in dongchimi brine
Brine
Brine is water, saturated or nearly saturated with salt .Brine is used to preserve vegetables, fruit, fish, and meat, in a process known as brining . Brine is also commonly used to age Halloumi and Feta cheeses, or for pickling foodstuffs, as a means of preserving them...

 (dongchimi guksu) and are eaten widely during the summer months.

By region

This regional classification dates back to 1960s and contains plenty of historical facts, but the current kimchi-making trends in Korea are generally different from those mentioned below.
  • Hamgyeong-do (Upper Northeast)

Due to its proximity to the ocean, people in this particular region use fresh fish and oysters to season their kimchi.
  • Hwanghae-do (Midwest)

The taste of kimchi in Hwanghae-do can be best described as "moderate" — not bland but not overly spicy. Most kimchi from this region has less color since red chili flakes are not used. The typical kimchi for Hwanghae-do is called pumpkin kimchi (bundi).
  • Gyeonggi-do
    Gyeonggi-do
    Gyeonggi-do is the most populous province in South Korea. The provincial capital is located at Suwon. Seoul—South Korea's largest city and national capital—is located in the heart of the province, but has been separately administered as a provincial-level special city since 1946...

    (Lower Midwest of Hwanghae-do) Gyeonggi-do kimchi is known for its eye-catching decorations.
  • Chungcheong-do (Between Gyeonggi-do and Jeolla-do)

Instead of using fermented fish, people in the region rely on salt and fermentation to make savory kimchi. Chungcheong-do is known for the greatest varieties of kimchi.
  • Gangwon-do (South Korea)
    Gangwon-do (South Korea)
    Gangwon-do is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. Before the division of Korea in 1945, Gangwon and its North Korean neighbour Kangwŏn formed a single province.-History:...

    /Kangwon-do (North Korea)
    (Mideast)

In Gangwon-do, kimchi is stored for longer periods of time. Unlike other coastal regions in Korea, kimchi in this area does not contain much salted fish.
  • Jeolla-do (Lower Southwest)

Salted yellow corvina and salted butterfish are used in this region to create different seasonings for kimchi.
  • Gyeongsang-do (Lower Southeast)

This region is famous for salty and spicy flavors in its dishes and their kimchi is no exception. The most common seasoning components include myeolchijeot
Myeolchijeot
Myeolchijeot or myeolchi jeot is a variety of jeotgal, a salted fermented dish made with anchovies in Korean cuisine. It is the most frequently consumed variety of jeotgal, along with saeujeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, myeolchi and jeot...

 (멸치젓
Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

) which produces a briny and savory flavor.
  • Foreign Countries

In some places of the world people sometimes make kimchi with western cabbage
Cabbage
Cabbage is a popular cultivar of the species Brassica oleracea Linne of the Family Brassicaceae and is a leafy green vegetable...

 and many other alternative ingredients such as broccoli
Broccoli
Broccoli is a plant in the cabbage family, whose large flower head is used as a vegetable.-General:The word broccoli, from the Italian plural of , refers to "the flowering top of a cabbage"....

.

By season

Different types of kimchi were traditionally made at different times of the year, based on when various vegetables were in season and also to take advantage of hot and cold seasons before the era of refrigeration. Although the advent of modern refrigeration —- including kimchi refrigerators specifically designed with precise controls to keep different varieties of kimchi at optimal temperatures at various stages of fermentation —- has made this seasonality unnecessary, Koreans continue to consume kimchi according to traditional seasonal preferences.

Spring

Traditionally, after a long period of consuming gimjang
Gimjang
Gimjang , also spelled kimjang, is the traditional process of preparation and preservation of kimchi, the spicy Korean pickled vegetable dish, in the wintertime. During the summer months, Kimchi is made fresh, from seasonal vegetables...

 kimchi
(hangul: 김장김치) during the winter, fresh potherbs and vegetables were popular for making kimchi. These kinds of kimchi were not fermented or even stored for long periods of time but were consumed fresh.

Summer

Young summer radishes and cucumbers are popular summer vegetables made into kimchi, yeolmu kimchi (hangul
Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

: 열무김치) which is eaten in several bites. Brined fish or shellfish can be added, and freshly ground dried chili peppers are often used.

Autumn

Baechu kimchi is the most common type of kimchi in the fall. It is prepared by inserting blended stuffing materials, called sok (literally, inside), between layers of salted leaves of uncut, whole Napa cabbage
Napa cabbage
Napa cabbage , also known as celery cabbage, is a type of Chinese cabbage originating near the Beijing region of China, and is widely used in East Asian cuisine. In much of the world, this is the vegetable referred to as "Chinese cabbage"...

. The ingredients of sok (hangul
Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

: 속) can vary, depending on the different regions and weather conditions. Generally, baechu kimchi used to have a strong salty flavor until the late 1960s when a large amount of myeolchijeot
Myeolchijeot
Myeolchijeot or myeolchi jeot is a variety of jeotgal, a salted fermented dish made with anchovies in Korean cuisine. It is the most frequently consumed variety of jeotgal, along with saeujeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, myeolchi and jeot...

or saeujeot
Saeujeot
Saeujeot is a variety of jeotgal, salted and fermented food made with small shrimp in Korean cuisine. It is the most consumed jeotgal along with myeolchijeot in South Korea. The name consists of the two Korean words, saeu and jeot...

had been used. Since the advent of aekjeot (액젓
Hangul
Hangul,Pronounced or ; Korean: 한글 Hangeul/Han'gŭl or 조선글 Chosŏn'gŭl/Joseongeul the Korean alphabet, is the native alphabet of the Korean language. It is a separate script from Hanja, the logographic Chinese characters which are also sometimes used to write Korean...

, Korean fish sauce
Fish sauce
Fish sauce is a condiment that is derived from fish that have been allowed to ferment. It is an essential ingredient in many curries and sauces. Fish sauce is a staple ingredient in numerous cultures in Southeast Asia and the coastal regions of East Asia, and features heavily in Thai and Vietnamese...

) in the early 1970s, however, low-sodium kimchi is preferably made both at homes and at factories.

Winter

Traditionally, the greatest varieties of kimchi were available during the winter. In preparation for the long winter months, many types of kimjang
Gimjang
Gimjang , also spelled kimjang, is the traditional process of preparation and preservation of kimchi, the spicy Korean pickled vegetable dish, in the wintertime. During the summer months, Kimchi is made fresh, from seasonal vegetables...

 kimchi (hangul: 김장 김치) were prepared in early winter and stored in the ground in large kimchi pots. Today, modern kimchi refrigerators offering precise temperature controls are used to store kimjang kimchi. November and December are traditionally when people begin to make kimchi; women often gather together in each others' homes to help with winter kimchi preparations. White kimchi (baek kimchi
Baek kimchi
Baek kimchi is a variety of kimchi made without the chili pepper powder commonly used for pickling kimchi in Korean cuisine. Baek kimchi has a mild and clean flavor, which appeals to children and the elderly, to whom the regular kimchi might be too spicy...

) is a popular kimchi to make during the wintertime. "Baechu kimchi" is made with salted baechu filled with thin strips of radish, parsley, pine nuts, pears, chestnuts, shredded red pepper, manna lichen (석이버섯)
Umbilicaria esculenta
Umbilicaria esculenta is a lichen of the genus Umbilicaria that grows on rocks. It can be found in East Asia including in China, Japan, and Korea . It is edible when properly prepared and has been used as a food source and medicine...

, garlic, and ginger.

Nutrition and health

Kimchi is made of various vegetables and contains a high concentration of dietary fiber
Dietary fiber
Dietary fiber, dietary fibre, or sometimes roughage is the indigestible portion of plant foods having two main components:* soluble fiber that is readily fermented in the colon into gases and physiologically active byproducts, and* insoluble fiber that is metabolically inert, absorbing water as it...

, while being low in calories. One serving also provides over 50% of the daily recommended amount of vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

 and carotene
Carotene
The term carotene is used for several related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but cannot be made by animals. Carotene is an orange photosynthetic pigment important for photosynthesis. Carotenes are all coloured to the human eye...

. Most types of kimchi contain onions, garlic, and chilli peppers, all of which are salutary. The vegetables being made into kimchi also contribute to the overall nutritional value. Kimchi is rich in vitamin A, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), calcium, and iron, and contains a number of lactic acid bacteria
Lactic acid bacteria
The lactic acid bacteria comprise a clade of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or cocci that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and lactic products, produce...

, among those the typical species Lactobacillus kimchii
Lactobacillus kimchii
Lactobacillus kimchii is a bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacterium of the genus Lactobacillus. It is named for and found in the Korean fermented-vegetable food kimchi....

. Health
Health (magazine)
Health is an American magazine focused on women's health. It was purchased by Time Inc. in 1991. The company now operates as a part of Time's Southern Progress Corporation. The magazine's topics range from diet and recipes to fashion tips and dealing with life issues such as stress...

magazine named kimchi in its list of top five "World's Healthiest Foods" for being rich in vitamins, aiding digestion, and even possibly reducing cancer growth.
One study conducted by Seoul National University
Seoul National University
Seoul National University , colloquially known in Korean as Seoul-dae , is a national research university in Seoul, Korea, ranked 24th in the world in publications in an analysis of data from the Science Citation Index, 7th in Asia and 42nd in the world by the 2011 QS World University Rankings...

 claimed that chickens infected with the H5N1 virus, also called avian flu, recovered after eating food containing the same bacteria found in kimchi. During the 2003 SARS outbreak in Asia, many people even believed that kimchi could protect against infection, although there was no scientific evidence to support this belief. However, in May 2009, the Korea Food Research Institute, Korea’s state food research organization, said they had conducted a larger study on 200 chickens, which supported the theory that it boosts chickens' immunity to the virus.
Nutritional composition of typical kimchi
Nutrients per 100 g * Nutrients per 100 g
Food energy
Food energy
Food energy is the amount of energy obtained from food that is available through cellular respiration.Food energy is expressed in food calories or kilojoules...

32 kcal Moisture 88.4 g
Crude protein 2.0 g Crude Lipid 0.6 g
Total sugar 1.3 g Crude fiber 1.2 g
Crude ash 0.5 g Calcium 45 mg
Phosphorus 28 mg Vitamin A 492 IU
Vitamin B1 0.03 mg Vitamin B2 0.06 mg
Niacin 2.1 mg Vitamin C 21 mg


* Per 100 grams of edible portion.

1996 Japanese kimchi dispute

In 1996, Korea protested Japanese commercial production of "kimchi" arguing that the Japanese-produced product was different from kimchi (in particular, that it was not fermented). Korea lobbied for an international standard from the Codex Alimentarius
Codex Alimentarius
The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relating to foods, food production and food safety. Its name derives from the Codex Alimentarius Austriacus...

, an organization associated with the World Health Organization that defines voluntary standards for food preparation for international trade purposes. A Codex Alimentarius standard was published in 2001 that described production methods similar to those traditionally used in Korea which prohibited marketing of Japanese produced traditional "kimchi" in international trade.

2010 kimchi ingredient price crisis

Due to heavy rainfall shortening the harvesting time for cabbage and other main ingredients for kimchi in 2010, a major spike occurred in the price of kimchi ingredients and kimchi itself. Korean newspapers have labeled this a national tragedy. In response to the Kimchi price crisis, the South Korean government announced the temporary reducing of tariffs on imported cabbage to coincide with the Kimjang season.

See also

  • Foods containing tyramine
  • Jangajji
    Jangajji
    Jangajji or jangachi is a type of pickle in Korean cuisine which is made by pickling or marinating vegetables in a sauce for a long period of time. The dish is also sometimes called janghwa . It was historically made during the harvest season and was eaten as a banchan when vegetables were scarce...

  • Jeotgal
    Jeotgal
    Jeotgal or jeot is a salted fermented food in Korean cuisine. It is made with various seafood, such as shrimp, oysters, shellfish, fish, fish eggs, and fish intestines....

  • Kimchi refrigerator
  • Korean cuisine
  • List of English words of Korean origin
  • Pao cai
    Pao cai
    Pao cai is a type of pickle, usually pickled cabbage, often found in Chinese, and particularly Sichuanese cuisine. It is most common to northern and western China; however, there is also a unique form of pao cai, called suan cai, which is prominent in Northeast China.Chinese pao cai closely...

  • Sauerkraut
    Sauerkraut
    Sauerkraut , directly translated from German: "sour cabbage", is finely shredded cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. It has a long shelf-life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid...

  • Torshi

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
x
OK