Kanonersky Tunnel
Kanonersky Tunnel is a tunnel
A tunnel is an underground passageway, completely enclosed except for openings for egress, commonly at each end.A tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers...

 under Sea canаl in the Kirovskiy Distrikt
Kirovsky District, Saint Petersburg
Kirovsky District, Saint Petersburg is an administrative and municipal district , one of the 18 in Saint Petersburg, Russia....

 of Saint-Petersburg.
It is from outside Gutuevsky island to it approaches Dvinskaya street to Kanonersky Island, White square
White Square
White Square is a new office center located at the end of Tverskaya Street, between Lesnaya and Butirsky Val, adjacent to Belorusskaya Metro Station, just 3 km from the Red Square in Moscow, Russia....



Before1983  it was only possible to get on the island by ferry (it was last ferry line of Saint Petersburg) or a private boat, daily through Sea canаl which was a crossing for more than 2 million peoples..
Constantly operating crossing also was necessary for transportation of cargoes from Big port Saint Petersburg
Big port Saint Petersburg
Big port Saint Petersburg is the state enterprise providing the organisation of trading navigation in sea port Saint Petersburg and behind its limits in established zones of responsibility of the Russian Federation.- Overview :The port...

Because of that on the Sea channel movement of courts sea-gauge to 10 metres (32.8 ft) and width to 40 metres (131.2 ft), bridge building have refused. The decision to build a tunnel was accepted.

The project has been prepared Lengiprotrans, building carried out Giprostroymost.
Geodetic maintenance of building carried out Petersburg State University of Means of Communication
Petersburg State University of Means of Communication
The Petersburg State Transport University is a higher education institution specializing in railway transport. Before 1990 it was known as "Leningrad Institute of Railway Engineers"...

Tunnel built a method buried sections: in preliminary dug trench it has been laid five identical sections, each of which had length of 75 metres (246.1 ft) and weighed about 8000 tonnes (8,818.5 ST).
This method has been applied for the first time in Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, the length of a site dipping sections has made 375 metres (1,230.3 ft).
For building of the sections on the bank of the Sea canal the original dock-sluice has been constructed.
After sluicing
A sluice is a water channel that is controlled at its head by a gate . For example, a millrace is a sluice that channels water toward a water mill...

 the created sections closed from end faces by metal partitions, were counterbalanced by water and on the Sea canal were transported to the place of immersing.
It fell on a tackles also was joined to earlier established section, forming a uniform design.
For the immersing control divers
Surface supplied diving
Surface supplied diving refers to divers using equipment supplied with breathing gas using a diver's umbilical from the surface, either from the shore or from a diving support vessel sometimes indirectly via a diving bell...

 at the underwater
Underwater is a term describing the realm below the surface of water where the water exists in a natural feature such as an ocean, sea, lake, pond, or river. Three quarters of the planet Earth is covered by water...


After packing of designs from them have pumped out water and have built underground tunnels and portals; the full length of a tunnel has made 927 metres (3,041.3 ft).
It is constructed on two lanes (on one in each part), except is in a tunnel there is a foot path, and also on a tunnel pass cables of an electrical supply and communication, the water supply and central heating pipes connecting Kanonersky island with a city.

Periodically water gets into the tunnel, experts explain this is because defects in the waterproofing.
After solemn opening of a tunnel, it has been closed for three months for completion, in 1998-2002 tunnel major repairs,
In 2004 Lengiprotrans again made repair work.
In 2006 there was a mooring damage over a tunnel, from it the tunnel also has been damaged, and the end of June, 2009 tunnel repair again was required, the drainage system has been replaced.

The tunnel is not closed on repair, but movement is essentially limited.
Failures in a tunnel occur seldom and because of low speeds do without victims, but elimination of their consequences can occupy some hours.
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