Jubail
Overview
 
Jubail is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 coast of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

. It consists of the Old Town of Al Jubail, which was originally a small fishing village, up to 1975 and the new industrial area.

In 1975, Jubail was designated as a site for a new industrial city by the Saudi government, and has seen rapid expansion and industrialization since. The new Industrial City and residential areas were named Madīnat al Jubayl aṣ Ṣinā`īyah (Jubail Industrial City).
Encyclopedia
Jubail is a city in the Eastern province on the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 coast of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

. It consists of the Old Town of Al Jubail, which was originally a small fishing village, up to 1975 and the new industrial area.

In 1975, Jubail was designated as a site for a new industrial city by the Saudi government, and has seen rapid expansion and industrialization since. The new Industrial City and residential areas were named Madīnat al Jubayl aṣ Ṣinā`īyah (Jubail Industrial City). The Seventh Census Report for Jubail Industrial City, prepared in 2009, gives a resident population of 150,367.

The industrial city is the largest industrial complex of its kind in the world and consists of petrochemical
Petrochemical
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane....

 plants,fertilizer plants, steel works, industrial port and a huge number support industries. There is also the Royal Saudi Naval Base plus a separate Commercial Port and Military Air Base. It holds the Middle East's largest and the world's 4th largest petrochemical company, SABIC
SABIC
SABIC is a diversified manufacturing company, active in chemicals and intermediates, industrial polymers, fertilizers and metals. It is the largest public company in Saudi Arabia as listed in Tadawul, but the Saudi government still owns 70% of its shares...

. Jubail is home to the world's largest seawater
Seawater
Seawater is water from a sea or ocean. On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% . This means that every kilogram of seawater has approximately of dissolved salts . The average density of seawater at the ocean surface is 1.025 g/ml...

 desalination plant, MARAFIQ. It provides 50% of the country's drinking water through desalination of seawater from the Persian Gulf.

History

The town of Al-Jubail on the Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf, in Southwest Asia, is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.The Persian Gulf was the focus of the 1980–1988 Iran-Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers...

 coast of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has ancient roots. Human habitation dates back at least 7,000 years when the people of Dilmun
Dilmun
Dilmun or Telmun is a land mentioned by Mesopotamian civilizations as a trade partner, a source of the metal copper, and an entrepôt of the Mesopotamia-to-Indus Valley Civilization trade route...

 - whose civilization radiated up and down the Persian Gulf - established a settlement there. The first human settler might have been encouraged to stay by the site’s fine natural harbour and the abundance of fish and pearl oyster
Pearl oyster
Pearl oysters are saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs of the genus Pinctada in the family Pteriidae. They have a strong inner shell layer composed of nacre, also known as "mother of pearl"....

s just offshore. More importantly, the presence of potable water wells near the town ensured the continued viability of human settlement.

In September 1933, Jubail gained a measure of fame as the landing site for the first team of geologists to explore for oil in Saudi Arabia.

Bechtel began work on the Jubail Industrial City project more than 30 years ago and is still working in Jubail now. It also stands as one of the greatest achievements of Bechtel, its employees, and families who worked and lived there. Bechtel has managed the Jubail project since it began in the mid-1970s, and in 2004, the Royal Commission for Jubail and Yanbu asked the company to manage Jubail II, a $3.8 billion expansion of the city’s industrial and residential areas.

Jubail is a complete city, with all the industry, infrastructure, housing, shopping, educational and medical facilities required to support its present population of around 150,000 people. Saudi Arabian Bechtel Company (SABCO) performs ongoing engineering, procurement and construction management. Jubail II will add a second industrial area to house up to 22 new primary industries. The project calls for the expansion of King Fahd Industrial Port, pipeline refurbishment, increasing capacity of the cooling system, and new desalination plants.

Airport

Although Jubail has three small airports; Jubail Airport
Jubail Airport
Jubail Airport is an airfield in the northwest of Jubail City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. It is located near the industrial area and occupies an area of about 60 km².- Overview :...

, Abu Ali Airport
Abu Ali Airport
Abu Ali Airport is a small airstrip in the Island of Abu Ali, part of Jubail City in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. It occupies a small land area of about 0.5 km².-Overview:...

, and one in King Abdulaziz Naval Base
King Abdulaziz Naval Base
The King Abdul-Aziz Naval Base is a naval base in the Eastern Province Royal Saudi Naval Forces .It is home to the Eastern Fleet and the Naval Academy. Their Navy Ratings "SK" and "YN" learned basic skills in this school....

, none of them are for public use. The city is being served by King Fahd International Airport
King Fahd International Airport
King Fahd International Airport is located 20 kilometers northwest of Dammam, Saudi Arabia. It is the largest airport in the world in terms of land area . The airport's basic infrastructure was complete by the end of 1990, which allowed the Allied forces engaged in the first Gulf War in early...

 in Dammam
Dammam
Dammam is the capital of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, the most oil-rich region in the world. The judicial and administrative bodies of the province and several government departments are located in the city. Dammam is the largest city in the Eastern Province and third largest in Saudi...

 , the terminal is about 70 km (43.5 mi) driving distance from Jubail.

Highway

Jubail is directly connected with other cities by two major highways; the Dhahran-Jubail Highway
Dhahran-Jubail Highway
An important highway located in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. It connects Dhahran in the south and Jubail in the north crossing the cities between which are Dammam, Saihat, Qatif, Safwa city and nearby Ras Tanura...

 and Abu Hadriyah Highway
Abu Hadriyah Highway
A major highway in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. It extends from King Fahd Causeway to Kuwait borders serving major cities such as Dammam and Jubail....

.

Railway

A branch of the Saudi Landbridge Project
Saudi Landbridge Project
The Saudi Landbridge Project is a planned railway project which forms part of the .Intended mainly for freight, the railway will connect Jeddah on the Red Sea coast with the Saudi Arabian capital Riyadh. The existing 450 km line between Riyadh and Dammam will be upgraded, and a second...

 railway is proposed to connect Jubail to Dammam.

Seaport

There are two seaports in Jubail; Jubail Commercial Seaport and King Fahd Industrial Seaport.

Main sights

Jubail is home to a 4th century church
Jubail Church
Jubail Church is one of the oldest still remaining church buildings in the world. The abandoned structure is located in Jubail, Saudi Arabia. It dates to the fourth century and was discovered in 1986. The government hides it from locals and bans foreigners from visiting it, even archaeologists...

, listed amongst the oldest surviving churches in the world.

External links

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