Joseph Estrada
Overview
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada (born Jose Marcelo Ejercito on April 19, 1937) was the 13th President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.

Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years.
Encyclopedia
Joseph "Erap" Ejercito Estrada (born Jose Marcelo Ejercito on April 19, 1937) was the 13th President of the Philippines
President of the Philippines
The President of the Philippines is the head of state and head of government of the Philippines. The president leads the executive branch of the Philippine government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines...

, serving from 1998 until 2001. Estrada was the first person in the Post-EDSA era to be elected both to the presidency and vice-presidency.

Estrada gained popularity as a film actor, playing the lead role in over 100 films in an acting career spanning 33 years. He leveraged his popularity as an actor to make gains in politics, serving as mayor of San Juan for seventeen years, as Senator
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

 for one term, then as Vice President of the Philippines
Vice President of the Philippines
-Description:The Vice-President is the first in the Philippine line of succession, assuming the Presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal by impeachment and subsequent conviction of the incumbent. The position was abolished by Martial Law in 1972, and was not included in the original text...

 under the administration of President Fidel Ramos.

Estrada was elected President in 1998 with a wide margin of votes separating him from the other challengers, and was sworn into the presidency on June 30, 1998. In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
The Moro Islamic Liberation Front is an Islamist group located in the southern Philippines. It is one of two Islamic militant groups, the other being the Abu Sayyaf, that are fighting against Government of the Philippines...

 and captured its headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned an impeachment
Impeachment
Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as other punishment....

 trial in the Senate, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted by People Power 2 after the prosecution walked out of the impeachment court when the Senator Judges voted no in the opening of the second envelope.

In 2007, he was sentenced by the special division of the Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan
The Sandiganbayan is a special court in the Philippines which was established under Presidential Decree No. 1606. Its rank is equivalent to the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice...

 to reclusion perpetua
Reclusion perpetua
Reclusión perpetua is a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment in the Philippines, Argentina, and several other countries....

 for plunder
Embezzlement
Embezzlement is the act of dishonestly appropriating or secreting assets by one or more individuals to whom such assets have been entrusted....

, but was later granted pardon by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and is currently a member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga...

. He ran for president anew in the 2010 Philippine presidential election, but lost to then Senator Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Aquino III
Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

.

Early life and career

Joseph Ejercito Estrada was born on April 19, 1937 in Tondo
Tondo, Manila
Tondo is a district of Manila, Philippines. The locale has existed prior to the arrival of the Spanish, referred to as "Tundun" in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. One of the most densely populated areas of land in the world, Tondo is located in the northwest portion of the city and is primarily...

, an urban district of Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

. His family later moved to the wealthy suburb of San Juan. He belonged to a upper middle class family, and was the eighth of ten children of Emilio Ejercito and his wife Maria Marcelo. He finished his primary studies at the Ateneo de Manila University
Ateneo de Manila University
The Ateneo de Manila University is a private teaching and research university run by the Society of Jesus in the Philippines. It began in 1859 when the City of Manila handed control of the Escuela Municipal de Manila in Intramuros, Manila, to the Jesuits...

 and subsequently enrolled on an engineering course at the Mapua Institute of Technology in an effort to please his father, but dropped out.

In his twenties, he began a career as a drama actor. He adopted the drama name "Joseph Estrada", as his mother objected to his chosen career and his decision to quit schooling. He also acquired the nickname "Erap" (a play on the Tagalog
Tagalog language
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a third of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by most of the rest. It is the first language of the Philippine region IV and of Metro Manila...

 slang "pare", meaning buddy) from his friend Fernando Poe, Jr.
Fernando Poe, Jr.
Ronald Allan Poe y Kelley , better known as Fernando Poe, Jr. and colloquially known as FPJ and Da King, was a Filipino actor and cultural icon. From the 1950s, Poe played steadfast film heroes who fight for the common man, which won him respect and admiration...

.

Film

He played the lead role in more than 100 movies, and produced more than 70 films. He was the first FAMAS Hall of Fame recipient for Best Actor (1981) and also became a Hall of Fame award-winner as a producer (1983). He often played heroes of the downtrodden classes, making him popular among the nation's many unschooled and impoverished citizens. This proved advantageous to his political career.

In 1974 he founded the Movie Workers Welfare Foundation (Mowelfund), which helps filmmakers through medical reimbursements, hospitalization, surgery and death benefits, livelihood, and alternative income opportunities and housing. Its educational arm, the Mowelfund Film Institute, has produced some of the most skilled and respected producers, filmmakers, writers and performers in both the independent and mainstream sectors of the industry since its inception in 1979. He also founded, together with Guillermo de Vega, the first Metro Manila Film Festival in 1975.

Mayor of San Juan

Estrada entered politics in 1967 when he ran for mayor of San Juan, then a municipality of Metro Manila, and succeeded in only 1969 after winning an electoral protest against Braulio Sto. Domingo. His administration was marked by unequaled accomplishments in infrastructure development. These included the establishment of the first Municipal High School, the Agora complex, a modern slaughterhouse, a sprawling government center with a post office, a mini-park and the concreting of 98 percent of the town's roads and alleys.

As mayor, he paid particular attention to the elementary education of children by improving and renovating school buildings and constructing additional school structures, health centers, barangay halls and playgrounds in all the barangays and providing artesian wells to areas with low water supply. He relocated some 1,800 squatter families out of San Juan to Taytay, Rizal, at no cost. He was also the first mayor to computerize assessment of the Real Estate Tax in the Municipal Assessor’s Office. When Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

 assumed the presidency in 1986, all elected officials of the local government were forcibly removed and replaced by appointed officers-in-charge, including Estrada.

Senator of the Philippines

The following year, he won a seat in the Senate
Senate of the Philippines
The Senate of the Philippines is the upper chamber of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines, the Congress of the Philippines...

 under the Grand Alliance for Democracy (GAD) placing 16th in the elections (out of 24 winners). In 1987, he set his sights on a Senate run and handily garnered a seat. He was appointed Chairman of the Committee on Public Works. He was Vice-Chairman of the Committees on Health, Natural Resources and Ecology and Urban Planning.

In the Senate, Estrada was credited with the passage of, among other major pieces of legislation, the bills on irrigation project and the protection and propagation of carabao
Carabao
The carabao or Bubalus bubalis carabanesis is a subspecies of the domesticated water buffalo found in the Philippines, Guam, Indonesia, Malaysia, and various parts of Southeast Asia...

s, the beast of burden in the rural areas.

As a senator, he was one of the so-called “Magnificent 12” who voted to terminate the RP-US Military Bases Agreement leading to the withdrawal of American servicemen from the Clark Air Base in Pampanga and the Subic Naval Base in Zambales.

In 1989, the Free Press cited him as one of the Three Outstanding Senators of the Year. He was conferred the degree of Doctor of Humanities, Honoris Causa by the Bicol University in April 1997, and the University of Pangasinan in 1990.

Vice-Presidency

In 1992, Joseph Estrada ran for vice-president as the running mate of Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr.
Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr.
Eduardo Murphy Cojuangco, Jr. , also known as Danding Cojuangco, is the chairman of San Miguel Corporation, the largest food and beverage corporation in the Philippines and Southeast Asia, former Philippine ambassador, and former governor of Tarlac. In 2005, his personal wealth was estimated at...

 under the Nationalist People's Coalition
Nationalist People's Coalition
The Nationalist People's Coalition or NPC is a political party in the Philippines.-History:The Party was founded in 1991 after some members of the Nacionalista Party led by then Rizal Governor Isidro Rodriguez bolted from the Nacionalista Party after some disagreements with Nacionalista party...

 party. Though the latter lost to former National Defense Secretary Fidel Ramos, Estrada won the vice-presidency garnering more votes than his closest opponent, Ramon Mitra, Jr.'s
Ramon Mitra, Jr.
Ramon "Monching" Villarosa Mitra, Jr. , was a prominent Filipino statesman, diplomat, and a renown pro-democracy activist of the Philippines....

 running mate, Marcelo Fernan
Marcelo Fernan
Marcelo "Celing" Briones Fernán was a Filipino lawyer and political figure. He is the only Filipino to have served as both Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and as Senate president...

.

As Vice-President, Estrada he was the chairman of President Ramos' Presidential Anti-Crime Commission (PACC). Estrada arrested criminal warlords and kidnapping syndicates. He resigned as chairman in 1997.

In the same year Estrada, together with former President Corazon Aquino
Corazon Aquino
Maria Corazon Sumulong Cojuangco-Aquino was the 11th President of the Philippines and the first woman to hold that office in Philippine history. She is best remembered for leading the 1986 People Power Revolution, which toppled Ferdinand Marcos and restored democracy in the Philippines...

, Cardinal Jaime Sin, Senator Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and other political leaders, led an anti-charter change rally brought in an estimated half a million people to Rizal Park against the charter change moves by Ramos and his supporters.

Presidency

Estrada was inaugurated on June 30, 1998 in the historical town of Malolos in Bulacan
Bulacan
Bulacan , officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region in the island of Luzon, north of Manila , and part of the Metro...

 province in paying tribute to the cradle of the First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic
The Philippine Republic , more commonly known as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic was a short-lived insurgent revolutionary government in the Philippines...

. That afternoon the new president delivered his inaugural address at the Quirino Grandstand in Luneta. He assumed office amid the Asian Financial Crisis and with agricultural problems due to poor weather conditions, thereby slowing the economic growth to −0.6% in 1998 from a 5.2% in 1997. The economy recovered by 3.4% in 1999 and 4% in 2000. In 2000 he declared an "all-out-war" against the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
The Moro Islamic Liberation Front is an Islamist group located in the southern Philippines. It is one of two Islamic militant groups, the other being the Abu Sayyaf, that are fighting against Government of the Philippines...

 and captured it's headquarters and other camps. However, allegations of corruption spawned a railroaded impeachment
Impeachment
Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as other punishment....

 trial in the Senate courtesy of house speaker Manuel Villar, and in 2001 Estrada was ousted from a coup after the trial was aborted.

In his Inaugural Address, Estrada said:

Economy

In 1998, Estrada was elected president. Even with its strong economic team
Team
A team comprises a group of people or animals linked in a common purpose. Teams are especially appropriate for conducting tasks that are high in complexity and have many interdependent subtasks.A group in itself does not necessarily constitute a team...

, the Estrada administration failed to capitalize on the gains of the previous administration. His administration was severely criticized for cronyism
Cronyism
Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle to meritocracy....

, incompetence
Competence (human resources)
Competence is the ability of an individual to perform a job properly. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. As defined, the term "competence" first appeared in...

, and corruption, causing it to lose the confidence of foreign investors. Foreign investors' confidence was further damaged when, in his second year, Estrada was accused of exerting influence in an investigation of a friend's involvement in stock market manipulation. Social unrest brought about by bombings, bomb threats, kidnappings, etc. contributed to the economy's troubles. Economic performance was also hurt by climatic disturbance that caused extremes of dry and wet weather. By the end of Estrada's administration, the fiscal deficit had reportedly doubled to more than P 100 billion from a low of P 49 billion in 1998. Despite such setbacks, the rate of GNP in 1999 increased to 3.6 percent from 0.1 percent in 1998, and the GDP posted a 3.2 percent growth rate, up from a low of −0.5 percent in 1998. Debt reached P 2.1 trillion in 1999. Domestic debt amounted to P 986.7 billion while foreign debt stood at US$ 52.2 billion.

War against the MILF

During the Ramos administration a cessation of hostilities agreement was signed between the Philippine Government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Moro Islamic Liberation Front
The Moro Islamic Liberation Front is an Islamist group located in the southern Philippines. It is one of two Islamic militant groups, the other being the Abu Sayyaf, that are fighting against Government of the Philippines...

 (MILF
MILF
MILF, an acronym for "Mother/Mom/Mum I'd Like to Fuck", is a common colloquial term generally regarded as vulgar when spelled out. It denotes a sexually attractive older female, generally between 25 and 50 years of age.-History:...

) in July 1997. This was continued by a series of peace talks and negotiations in Estrada administration. The MILF, an Islamic group formed in 1977, seeks to be an independent Islamic State from the Philippines, and, despite the agreements, a sequence of terrorist attacks on the Philippine military and civilians still continued. It was later divulged in a Senate Hearing by then Lt. (now Senator) Antonio Trillanes that the Military was behind these terrorist attacks to justify the "all-out-war" policy of the government which was masterminded by Chief of Staff Angelo Reyes, and which included the kidnapping a foreign priest, namely Father Luciano Benedetti; the destruction by arson of Talayan, Maguindanao's municipal hall; the takeover of the Kauswagan Municipal Hall; the bombing of the Lady of Mediatrix boat at Ozamiz City
Ozamiz City
Ozamiz is a 2nd class city in the province of Misamis Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 123,137.- History :...

; and the takeover of the Narciso Ramos Highway. By doing so, they inflicted severe damage on the country's image abroad, and scared much-needed investments away. For this reason, on
March 21, 2000, Estrada declared an "all-out-war" against the MILF. During the war the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines
The Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines is the official organization of the Catholic episcopacy in the Philippines. Archbishop Jose S. Palma of Cebu is the current president while Archbishop Socrates B. Villegas of Lingayen-Dagupan is the current Vice President. The CBCP has 99 active...

 (CBCP) asked Estrada to negotiate a cease-fire with MILF, but Estrada opposed the idea arguing that a cease-fire would cause more terrorist attacks. For the next three months of the war, Camp Abubakar, headquarters of the MILF, fell along with other 13 major camps and 43 minor camps, and then all of which became under controlled by the government. The MILF leader Hashim Salamat fled to Malaysia. The MILF later declared a Jihad
Jihad
Jihad , an Islamic term, is a religious duty of Muslims. In Arabic, the word jihād translates as a noun meaning "struggle". Jihad appears 41 times in the Quran and frequently in the idiomatic expression "striving in the way of God ". A person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid; the plural is...

 on the government. On July 10 of the same year, the President went to Minadanao and raised the Philippine flag symbolizing victory. After the war the President said, "... will speed up government efforts to bring genuine and lasting peace and development in Mindanao". In the middle of July the president ordered the military to arrest top MILF leaders.

In his state of the nation address, popularly called "SONA", the president highlighted his vision for Mindanao:
  • The first is to restore and maintain peace in Mindanao—because without peace, there can be no development.
  • The second is to develop Mindanao—because without development, there can be no peace.
  • The third is to continue seeking peace talks with the MILF within the framework of the Constitution—because a peace agreed upon in good faith is preferable to a peace enforced by force of arms.
  • And the fourth is to continue with the implementation of the peace agreement between the government and the Moro National Liberation Front, or MNLF—because that is our commitment to our countrymen and to the international community.


In addition to this the president said his administration can move with more speed in transforming Mindanao into a progressive economic center. High on the list of priorities was the plight of MILF guerrillas who were tired of fighting and had no camps left to which to report. On October 5, 2000 the first massive surrender of 669 MILF mujahideen led by the renegade vice mayor of Marugong, Lanao del Sur Malupandi Cosandi Sarip and seven other battalion commanders, surrendered to President Estrada at the 4th ID headquarters in Camp Edilberto Evangelista, Bgy. Patag, Cagayan de Oro City. They were followed shortly by a second batch of 855 surrenderees led by MILF Commander Sayben Ampaso on December 29, 2000.

Corruption charges and impeachment

In October 2000, Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur
Ilocos Sur is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Vigan City, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital...

 governor Luis "Chavit" Singson
Chavit Singson
Luis Crisologo Singson , better known as Chavit Singson, is a Filipino politician. He was a former Governor of the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines since 1998. He ran for the Senate in the 2007 Elections in the Philippines but he lost greatly...

, a close friend the President, alleged that he had personally given Estrada P400 million as payoff from jueteng hidden in a bank account known as "Jose Velarde" – a grassroots-based numbers game, as well as P180 million from the government price subsidy for the tobacco farmers' marketing cooperative after Estrada ordered a full blown investigation into Chavit Singson's alleged misuse of millions of pesos in public funds. Singson's allegation caused controversy across the nation, which culminated in the House of Representatives' filing of an impeachment case against Estrada on November 13, 2000. House Speaker Manny Villar
Manny Villar
Manuel "Manny" Bamba Villar, Jr. is a Filipino businessman and politician. He is currently a Philippine Senator, president of the Nacionalista Party...

 fast-tracked the impeachment complaint. The impeachment suit was brought to the Senate and an impeachment court was formed, with Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr.
Hilario Davide, Jr.
Hilario Gelbolingo Davide, Jr, GCSS is a former Ambassador/Permanent Representative of the Permanent Mission of the Republic of the Philippines to the United Nations in New York City....

 as presiding officer. Estrada, pleaded “not guilty”.

This was the first time the Filipino public witnessed, through radio and television, an elected president stand in trial and face possible impeachment with full media coverage. During the trial, the prosecution presented witnesses and alleged evidences to the impeachment court regarding Estrada's alleged involvement in jueteng. The existence of secret bank accounts which he allegedly uses for receiving payoffs was also brought to the fore.

Protests

On the evening of January 16, 2001, the impeachment court voted not to open an envelope that was alleged to contain incriminating evidence against the president simply because it was not part of the impeachment complaint. The final vote was 11–10, in favor of keeping the envelope closed. The prosecution panel (of congressmen and lawyers) walked out of the Impeachment Court in protest of this vote. The 11 senators who voted not to open the envelope are known as the "Craven Eleven." That night, anti-Estrada protesters gathered in front of the EDSA Shrine at Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue , formerly known as Highway 54, is the main circumferential road and highway of Metro Manila in the Philippines. It is an important commuting artery between the northern and southern parts of the metropolitan area...

, not too far away from the site of the 1986 People Power Revolution that overthrew Ferdinand Marcos.

On January 19, 2001, Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff Angelo Reyes
Angelo Reyes
Angelo Tomas Reyes was the Armed Forces of the Philippines Chief of Staff from 2000 to 2001 under President Joseph Estrada...

, seeing the political upheaval throughout the country, "decided to withdraw his support" from the president and transfer his allegiance to the vice president, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

Resignation

The following day, the Supreme Court declared that the seat of presidency was vacant, saying that Estrada "constructively resigned his post". At noon, the Chief Justice swore in Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, as President of the Philippines. Prior to Estrada's departure from Malacañang, he issued the following press release:

Post-Presidency

Estrada returned to his old home in San Juan. He maintained that he never resigned, implying that Arroyo's government was illegitimate.

The new government ceated a special court and charged him with plunder and had him arrested in April. Filipino supporters marched to the EDSA Shrine demanding Estrada's release and his reinstatement as president but were dispersed by high-grade teargas and warning shots from automatic rifles. On the morning of May 1, the protesters marched straight to Malacanang Palace
Malacañang Palace
The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every...

. Violence erupted and the government declared a State of Rebellion
State of Rebellion
In the Philippines, a state of rebellion is a government declaration that suspends a number of civil rights for a short period of time. It is a form of martial law that allows a government to suppress protest, detain and arrest people, search private property, read private mail, and listen to phone...

. Many Filipino protesters were badly injured and arrested, including politicians. The government called out the military and was able to quell the demonstration with teargas and automatic rifles. The bloody uprising came to be known as EDSA III
EDSA III
EDSA III was a protest sparked by the arrest in April 2001 of newly deposed President Joseph Estrada of the Philippines. The protest was held for seven days in a major highway in Metropolitan Manila, the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or EDSA, which eventually culminated in an attempt to storm the...

.

Estrada was initially detained at the Veteran's Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City
Quezon City
Quezon City is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. Located on the island of Luzon, Quezon City is one of the cities and municipalities that make up Metro Manila, the National Capital Region. The city was named after Manuel L...

 and then transferred to a military facility in Tanay, Rizal
Tanay, Rizal
Tanay is a 1st class municipality in the province of Rizal, Philippines. It is located 57 kilometers east of Manila, although a typical commute between Manila and Tanay will take between one to three hours depending upon traffic conditions...

, but he was later transferred to a nearby vacation home, virtually in house arrest. Under Philippine law, plunder had a maximum penalty of death, however the death penalty was eventually repealed.

Trial

On September 12, 2007, the Sandiganbayan finally gave its decision, finding Estrada not guilty on his perjury case but guilty of plunder "beyond reasonable doubt." He was sentenced to Reclusión perpetua
Reclusion perpetua
Reclusión perpetua is a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment in the Philippines, Argentina, and several other countries....

. He was thus the first Philippine President who was impeached and then convicted.

On September 26, 2007, Joseph Estrada appealed by filing a 63-page motion for reconsideration of the Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan
The Sandiganbayan is a special court in the Philippines which was established under Presidential Decree No. 1606. Its rank is equivalent to the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice...

 judgment penned by Teresita de Castro
Teresita de Castro
Teresita Jose Leonardo-de Castro is an Associate Justice of the Philippine Supreme Court. Prior to her appointment to the High Court by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, she had been the Presiding Justice of the Sandiganbayan.-Profile:...

 (submitting 5 legal grounds). Estrada alleged that the court erred "when it convicted him by acquitting his alleged co-conspirators."

On October 5, 2007, the Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan
The Sandiganbayan is a special court in the Philippines which was established under Presidential Decree No. 1606. Its rank is equivalent to the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice...

's Special Division ruled to have set for October 19, oral argument
Oral argument
Oral arguments are spoken presentations to a judge or appellate court by a lawyer of the legal reasons why they should prevail. Oral argument at the appellate level accompanies written briefs, which also advance the argument of each party in the legal dispute...

 (instead of a defense reply) on Joseph Estrada’s motion for reconsideration. Estrada asked for court permission to attend the hearing, since it ordered the prosecution to file comment before October 11.

Perjury case

The Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan
The Sandiganbayan is a special court in the Philippines which was established under Presidential Decree No. 1606. Its rank is equivalent to the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice...

's special division, on June 27, 2008, ordered Estrada to file comment within 10 days, on the motion of the Ombudsman's Special Prosecutor to re-open the trial of his perjury
Perjury
Perjury, also known as forswearing, is the willful act of swearing a false oath or affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters material to a judicial proceeding. That is, the witness falsely promises to tell the truth about matters which affect the outcome of the...

 case regarding 1999 statement of assets, liabilities and net worth (SALN). The court will also resolve Banco de Oro's (formerly Equitable PCI Bank), plea that it cannot determine "without hazard to itself" who to turn over to the P1.1 billion Jose Velarde assets due to claims by Wellex Group / William Gatchalian and a Bureau of Internal Revenue
Bureau of Internal Revenue (Philippines)
The Bureau of Internal Revenue is an attached agency of Department of Finance. BIR collects more than one-half of the total revenues of the government.-Functions:...

 stay order.

Pardon and release from detention

On October 22, 2007, Acting Justice Secretary Agnes Devanadera stated that Joseph Estrada is seeking a “full, free, and unconditional pardon” from President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. Estrada's lawyer Jose Flaminiano wrote Arroyo: "The time has come to end President Estrada's fight for justice and vindication before the courts. Today [Monday], we filed a withdrawal of his Motion for Reconsideration." Estrada, 70, stressed the "delicate condition" of his mother in asking for pardon.

On October 25, 2007, President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo granted executive clemency to Joseph Estrada based on the recommendation by the Department of Justice (DoJ). Acting Executive Secretary and Press Secretary Ignacio R. Bunye quoted the signed Order: "In view hereof in pursuant of the authority conferred upon me by the Constitution, I hereby grant Executive clemency to Joseph Ejercito Estrada, convicted by the Sandiganbayan of plunder and imposed a penalty of reclusion perpetua. He is hereby restored to his civil and political rights."
Bunye noted that Estrada committed in his application not to seek public office, and he would be free from his Tanay resthouse on October 26, noon. On October 26, 2007, after almost 7 years of detention, Joseph Estrada was finally released after the Sandiganbayan
Sandiganbayan
The Sandiganbayan is a special court in the Philippines which was established under Presidential Decree No. 1606. Its rank is equivalent to the Court of Appeals. The court consists of 14 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice...

 promulgated the historical Resolution.

Activities

When he was released he gave a message to the Filipino people that he can once again help the lives of the people, especially the poor. He also stated that he made errors as a public servant but he assured them that corruption was not one of them. After the release he had a nationwide tour called "Lakbay Pasasalamat" (Thank you tour) and during those trips he thanked the people for their support and gave them relief goods such as food, medicines and clothing. In politics, he is convincing leaders of the opposition to have unity in the party or, he said, he will run.

2010 Presidential election

Joseph Estrada has stated in interviews that he would be willing to run for the opposition in the event that they are unable to unite behind a single candidate. Fr. Joaquin Bernas and Christian Monsod, members of the constitutional commission that drafted the 1987 Constitution, have stated that the constitution clearly prohibits any elected president from seeking a second term at any point in time. Romulo Macalintal, election counsel of President Arroyo, has clarified that the constitutional ban doesn't prevent Estrada from attaining the presidency in the event that he were to be elevated from the vice-presidency, for example.
However, Rufus Rodriquez, one of Estrada's lawyers, claims that the former president is within his rights to do so because the prohibition banning re-election only applies to the incumbent president.

On October 22, 2009 former President Joseph Estrada announced that he would run again for president with Makati City Mayor Jejomar Binay
Jejomar Binay
Jejomar "Jojo" Cabauatan Binay, Sr. , also known as Jojo Binay or VPNay, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th Vice President of the Philippines since 2010. Previously, he was Mayor of Makati City from 1986 to 1998 and again from 2001 to 2010...

 as his running mate.

His Senatorial lineup includes: Francisco Tatad
Francisco Tatad
Francisco “Kit” Tatad is a political figure in the Philippines.-Journalist:Tatad practiced journalism as a wire service reporter for the Agence France-Presse...

, Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile
Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

, Jinggoy Estrada
Jinggoy Estrada
Jose Pimentel Ejercito, Jr. , better known as Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada, is a Filipino politician and former film actor who has been a member of the Senate of the Philippines since 2004...

 and Joey de Venecia
Joey de Venecia
Jose "Joey" P. de Venecia III is the eldest son of Jose de Venecia, Jr., the Philippines' former five-term Speaker of Congress. He received much attention in the Philippines as a whistleblower related to the corruption scandal surrounding the ZTE broadband project.-Early life:He was born in 1963...

.

Other activities

In October 2010, Foreign Policy (magazine) included Estrada in its list of five former head of states/governments who did not make "a positive difference in the world", but "faded away into obscurity." Also included in this "Bad Exes" list were Thailand's Thaksin Shinawatra
Thaksin Shinawatra
Thaksin Shinawatra is a Thai businessman and politician, who was Prime Minister of Thailand from 2001 to 2006, when he was overthrown in a military coup....

, Spain's Jose Maria Aznar
José María Aznar
José María Alfredo Aznar López served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004. He is on the board of directors of News Corporation.-Early life:...

, and Germany's Gerhard Schroder
Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder is a German politician, and was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. A member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany , he led a coalition government of the SPD and the Greens. Before becoming a full-time politician, he was a lawyer, and before becoming Chancellor...

.

Estrada announced in November 2010 that he will be selling his 3,000 square-metre (0.74-acre) home in San Juan, Metro Manila for nearly seven million dollars (300 million Philippine peso
Philippine peso
The peso is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos . Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used...

) to "pursue his real estate business." Agence France Presse reported that Estrada "has put up two high-rise residential condominium buildings and plans to build a third soon."

Electoral history

San Juan mayoralty elections
  • Estrada won every mayoralty election in San Juan from 1969 to 1984.

Senatorial election, 1987:
  • Joseph Estrada (GAD
    Grand Alliance for Democracy
    The Grand Alliance for Democracy was a political coalition during the 1987 Philippine legislative election. The coalition opposed the policies of incumbent president Corazon Aquino and her Lakas ng Bayan coalition, while severing ties with ousted president Ferdinand Marcos...

    ) – 10,029,978 (14th, 24 candidates with the highest number of votes win the 24 seats in the Senate)

Vice Presidential election, 1992
Philippine presidential election, 1992
Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 11, 1992. This was the first general elections under the 1987 Philippine Constitution. An estimated 80,000 candidates ran for 17,000 posts from the presidency down to municipal councilors...

:
  • Joseph Estrada (PMP
    Partido ng Masang Pilipino
    The Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino , formerly Partido ng Masang Pilipino is a populist political party in the Philippines. It is the political party of former Philippine President Joseph Estrada...

    ) – 6,739,738 (33.00%)
  • Marcelo Fernan
    Marcelo Fernan
    Marcelo "Celing" Briones Fernán was a Filipino lawyer and political figure. He is the only Filipino to have served as both Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and as Senate president...

     (LDP
    Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino
    The Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino is a political party in the Philippines founded in 1988.There are no results available of the last elections for the House of Representatives, but according to the website of the House, the party holds 7 out of 235 seats . The party is divided into two factions...

    )- 4,438,494 (21.74%)
  • Emilio Osmeña (Lakas-NUCD)- 3,362,467 (16.47%)
  • Ramon Magsaysay, Jr.
    Ramon Magsaysay, Jr.
    Ramón Banzon Magsaysay, Jr. is a political figure and senator of the Philippines.-Early life and career:Magsaysay Jr. was born in Manila to former President Ramón Magsaysay and Luz Banzon. He was 15 when his father was elected president and was 18 when his father died in a plane crash in Cebu...

     (PRP
    People's Reform Party
    The People's Reform Party is a political party in the Philippines. Founded on April 12, 1991 as the political party of former Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor-Santiago for her bid as President in the 1992 Presidential Elections. During the 1992 Elections, the party nominated Santiago as...

    )- 2,900,556 (14.20%)
  • Aquilino Pimentel, Jr.
    Aquilino Pimentel, Jr.
    Aquilino "Nene" Quilinging Pimentel, Jr. is a Filipino politician who served as the President of the Senate of the Philippines from 2000-2001.-Delegate to the 1971 Constitutional Convention:...

     (PDP-Laban)- 2,023,289 (9.91%)
  • Vicente Magsaysay
    Vicente Magsaysay
    Vicente Magsaysay is a Filipino who has been the Chairman of the Board of The Philippine Postal Bank since January 22, 2009. He was previously Governor of the province of Zambales. He was also a senatorial candidate running under the banner of TEAM Unity. He built the Jesus F...

     (KBL
    Kilusang Bagong Lipunan
    The Kilusang Bagong Lipunan , formerly the Kilusang Bagong Lipunan ng Nagkakaisang Nacionalista, Liberal, at iba pa, , is a political party in the Philippines...

    )- 699,895 (3.43%)
  • Eva Estrada-Kalaw
    Eva Estrada-Kalaw
    Eva Reynada Estrada-Kalaw is a Filipino politician, served as a Senator in the Senate of the Philippines for 7 years. . Serving in Senate during the presidency of Ferdinand Marcos , she was part of a major transformation in Philippine domestic and foreign policies.-Early life:Evangelina R...

     (Nacionalista
    Nacionalista Party
    The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

    )- 255,730 (1.25%)

Presidential election, 1998
Philippine presidential election, 1998
Presidential elections, legislative elections and local elections were held in the Philippines on May 11, 1998. In the presidential election, Vice President Joseph Estrada won a six-year term as President by a landslide victory. In the vice-presidential race, Senator Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo won a...

:
  • Joseph Estrada (LAMMP
    Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino
    Laban ng Makabayang Masang Pilipino was the umbrella political coalition party of the opposition during the 1998 Philippine Presidential Elections that led to the presidency of then Vice President Joseph Estrada...

    )- 10,722,295 (39.86%)
  • Jose de Venecia (Lakas-NUCD-UMDP)- 4,268,483 (15.87%)
  • Raul Roco
    Raul Roco
    Raul Sagarbarria Roco was a political figure in the Philippines. He was the standard-bearer of Aksyon Demokratiko, which he founded in 1997 as a vehicle for his presidential bids in 1998 and 2004. He was a former senator and the Secretary of the Department of Education under the presidency of...

     (Aksyon Demokratiko)- 3,720,212 (13.83%)
  • Emilio Osmeña (PROMDI
    Probinsya Muna Development Initiative
    The Probinsya Muna Development Initiative is a provincial political party in the Philippines based in Cebu....

    )- 3,347,631 (12.44%)
  • Alfredo Lim
    Alfredo Lim
    Alfredo Siojo Lim is the incumbent Mayor of the City of Manila and a former senator of the Philippines. A widower, he first served as mayor of Manila from 1992 to 1998 and returned to that post after winning in the 2007 mayoral election.-Early life and career:Born on December 21, 1929 in 1324 J...

     (Liberal
    Liberal Party (Philippines)
    The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

    ) – 2,344,362 (8.71%)
  • Renato de Villa
    Renato de Villa
    Renato "Rene" de Villa is a political figure in the Philippines and founder of the rightist political party Partido ng Demokratikong Reporma-Lapiang Manggagawa.-Biography:...

     (Reporma-LM
    Partido ng Demokratikong Reporma-Lapiang Manggagawa
    Reporma-LM ', or Reporma for short, is a political party in the Philippines...

    )- 1,308,352 (4.86%)
  • Miriam Defensor Santiago (PRP
    People's Reform Party
    The People's Reform Party is a political party in the Philippines. Founded on April 12, 1991 as the political party of former Agrarian Reform Secretary Miriam Defensor-Santiago for her bid as President in the 1992 Presidential Elections. During the 1992 Elections, the party nominated Santiago as...

    )- 797,206 (2.96%)
  • Juan Ponce Enrile
    Juan Ponce Enrile
    Juan Ponce Enrile is a Filipino politician. As a protege of President Ferdinand Marcos, he served as Justice Secretary and then Defense Secretary under the Marcos regime. He later became one of the leaders of the 1986 People Power Movement that drove Marcos from power...

     (Independent)- 343,139 (1.28%)
  • Santiago Dumlao (Kilusan para sa Pambansang Pagpapanibago)- 32,212 (0.12%)
  • Manuel Morato
    Manuel Morato
    Manoling Morato is an infamous public servant in the Philippines.-Early life and career:Morato is the son of Calauag, Quezon Mayor and Quezon City's first appointed mayor Tomàs Morató, a blond and blue-eyed Spanish settler in the Philippines. He graduated with Bachelor of Science degree in...

     (Partido Bansang Marangal)- 18,644 (0.07%)

Presidential election, 2010
Philippine presidential election, 2010
-Timeline:The COMELEC-mandated election period for this election was from January 10 to June 9, 2010.-2008:*August 26 - Then Metro Manila Development Authority Chairman Bayani Fernando announces bid for presidency....

:
  • Benigno Aquino III
    Benigno Aquino III
    Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III , also known as Noynoy Aquino or PNoy, is a Filipino politician who has been the 15th and current President of the Philippines since June 2010....

     (Liberal
    Liberal Party (Philippines)
    The Liberal Party of the Philippines is a liberal party in the Philippines, founded by then senators Senate President Manuel Roxas, Senate President Pro-Tempore Elpidio Quirino, and former 9th Senatorial District Senator Jose Avelino, on November 24, 1945 by a breakaway Liberal group from the...

    )- 15,208,678 (42.08%)
  • Joseph Estrada (PMP)- 9,487,837 (26.25%)
  • Manny Villar
    Manny Villar
    Manuel "Manny" Bamba Villar, Jr. is a Filipino businessman and politician. He is currently a Philippine Senator, president of the Nacionalista Party...

     (Nacionalista
    Nacionalista Party
    The Nacionalista Party is the oldest political party in the Philippines today and was responsible for leading the country throughout the majority of the 20th century since its founding in 1907...

    )- 5,573,835 (15.42%)
  • Gilberto Teodoro
    Gilberto Teodoro
    Gilberto Eduardo Gerardo Cojuangco Teodoro, Jr. , or more commonly known as Gilbert/Gibo, is the former secretary of the national defense of the republic of the Philippines, having assumed the post in August 2007 until November 15, 2009...

     (Lakas Kampi CMD)- 4,095,839 (11.33%)
  • Eddie Villanueva
    Eddie Villanueva
    Eduardo C. Villanueva , known as Bro. Eddie Villanueva, is a religious and political leader in the Philippines and a presidential candidate in the 2010 Philippine election as standard bearer of the Bangon Pilipinas Party...

     (Bangon Pilipinas
    Bangon Pilipinas Party
    Bangon Pilipinas Party is a political party in the Philippines, formed in 2004 and unaffiliated with either major coalition in the 2007 elections.-Candidates for Philippine general elections, 2010:...

    )- 1,125,878 (3.12%)
  • Richard Gordon
    Richard Gordon (politician)
    Richard "Dick" Juico Gordon is a Filipino politician and broadcaster who currently serves as the chairman of the Philippine National Red Cross....

     (Bagumbayan-VNP)- 501,727 (1.39%)
  • Nicanor Perlas
    Nicanor Perlas
    Nicanor Jesus "Nicky"/"Nick" Pineda Perlas, III is a Filipino activist and a recipient of the Right Livelihood Award in 2003. He was a Philippine presidential aspirant for the 2010 presidential elections but lost to Liberal Party's President Benigno C...

     (independent)- 54,575 (0.15%)
  • Jamby Madrigal
    Jamby Madrigal
    Maria Ana Consuelo Madrigal-Valade , better known as Jamby Madrigal, is a politician in the Philippines. She was elected during the 2004 general elections as a Senator...

     (independent)- 46,489 (0.13%)
  • John Carlos de los Reyes
    John Carlos de los Reyes
    John Carlos "JC" Gordon de los Reyes is a Philippine councilor in Olongapo City and the presidential candidate of the Ang Kapatiran Party for the 2010 Philippine presidential election.- Educational Background and Career :...

     (Ang Kapatiran
    Ang Kapatiran
    Ang Kapatiran Party , also known as the Alliance for the Common Good is a political party in the Philippines, formed in 2004 and unaffiliated with either major coalition in the 2007 elections. However, it did not participate in the 2004 elections...

    )- 44,244 (0.12%)

Family

Estrada is the first president to be a celebrity. He is also the first mustached president. Estrada is married to (the former Doctor and first lady-turned-senator) Luisa Pimentel
Loi Estrada
Luisa Pimentel-Ejercito , better known as Loi Estrada was a Filipino politician. She is the wife of former Philippine President Joseph Estrada, and was the twelfth First Lady of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001. She was born to Rufino Pimentel and Manuela Fernandez...

 and had three children by her:
  • Jose Ejercito, Jr. (better known as "Jinggoy Estrada
    Jinggoy Estrada
    Jose Pimentel Ejercito, Jr. , better known as Jinggoy Ejercito Estrada, is a Filipino politician and former film actor who has been a member of the Senate of the Philippines since 2004...

    "; former Mayor of San Juan turned Senator/married to Precy Vitug)
  • Jackie Ejercito (married to Beaver Lopez, son of Meralco
    Meralco
    The Manila Electric Company , also known as MERALCO or Meralco, is the Philippines' largest distributor of electrical power.The word MERALCO, is an acronym for Manila Electric Railroad And Light COmpany, which was the company's original name from 1903 to 1919.MERALCO is the Metro Manila's only...

     chairman Manuel Lopez)
  • Jude Ejercito (married to Weng Ocampo)

Joseph Estrada met his wife Loi while working as an orderly at the National Center for Mental Health (NMCH) in Mandaluyong City.

He also has five more children from his out-of-wedlock relationships. All his children listed below are with his former-mistresses:
  • JV Ejercito (with San Juan City Mayor Guia Gomez)
  • Jojo Ejercito (with ex-model Joy Rowena)
  • Jerika Ejercito (with former live-in partner Laarni Enriquez)
  • Jake Ejercito (with Laarni Enriquez)
  • Jacob Ejercito (with Laarni Enriquez)

Other relatives

Several of Ejercito's relatives became prominent figures in politics and showbiz in their own right
  • Emilio Ejercito, Jr. a.k.a. George Estregan
    George Estregan
    Emilio Marcelo Ejercito, Jr. , better known as George Estregan, Sr. or simply George Estregan, was a three-time FAMAS award-winning Filipino film actor....

    , brother of former President and former actor
  • E.R. Ejercito
    E.R. Ejercito
    E.R. Ejercito is a former action star currently serving as the Governor of Laguna. Prior to his election as governor, he previously served as mayor of Pagsanjan, Laguna...

    , nephew of former President, actor and former Mayor of Pagsanjan
    Pagsanjan, Laguna
    Pagsanjan is a 2nd class municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 35,944 people in 7,274 households. It is situated about 92 kilometers south of Manila. The main tourist spot of Pagsanjan is the Pagsanjan Falls or...

     turned Governor of Laguna
  • Gary Estrada
    Gary Estrada
    Gary Ejercito, better known as Gary Estrada, is a television and movie star in the Philippines. He is renowned for his movies, athletic physique, and cleanly handsome face...

    , nephew of former President, actor and Board Member of Quezon
    Quezon
    -History:Originally, what now forms Quezon was divided among the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, and Nueva Ecija. The area was first explored by Juan de Salcedo in 1571-1572, during his expedition from Laguna to Camarines provinces....

  • Gherome Ejercito
    Gherome Ejercito
    Gherome Ejercito is a Filipino retired professional basketball player who last played for the Rain or Shine Elasto Painters in the Philippine Basketball Association. He is the son of former actor George Estregan .-References:...

    , nephew of former President and basketball player

Ancestry



In popular culture

Since the beginning of his political career, Estrada has been the butt of many jokes in the Philippines. Majority of the jokes about him center around his limited English vocabulary, while others focus on his corruption scandals. During his presidential campaign in 1998, Estrada authorized the distribution of the joke compilation book ERAPtion: How to Speak English Without Really Trial.

Awards and honors

  • 1962 FAMAS Best Actor for Markang Rehas
  • 1964 FAMAS Best Actor for Geron Busabos
  • 1965 FAMAS Best Actor for Ang Batang Quiapo
  • 1966 FAMAS Best Actor for Ito ang Pilipino
  • 1969 FAMAS Best Actor for Patria Adorada
  • 1971 Outstanding Mayor and foremost Nationalist by the Inter-Provincial Information Service
  • 1972 One of the Ten Outstanding Young Men (TOYM) in Public Administration by the Philippine Jaycees
  • 1981 FAMAS Best Actor for Kumander Alibasbas
  • 1981 FAMAS Hall of Fame
  • 2007 Most Outstanding Citizen of San Juan

External links


|-
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