James Long (filibuster)
James Long led the unsuccessful filibuster
Filibuster (military)
A filibuster, or freebooter, is someone who engages in an unauthorized military expedition into a foreign country to foment or support a revolution...

 Long Expedition
Long expedition
The Long Expedition was an 1819 attempt to take control of Spanish Texas. It was led by James Long and successfully established a small independent government, known as the Republic of Texas . The expedition crumbled later in the year, as Spanish troops drove the invaders out...

 to Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...



Long was a former US Army surgeon
In medicine, a surgeon is a specialist in surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive medical treatment that involves the cutting of a body, whether human or animal, for a specific reason such as the removal of diseased tissue or to repair a tear or breakage...

 in the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

 who served at the Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans
The Battle of New Orleans took place on January 8, 1815 and was the final major battle of the War of 1812. American forces, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, defeated an invading British Army intent on seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the...

. He married Jane Herbert Dent Wilkinson in 1815 and owned a plantation in Natchez
Natchez may refer to:* Natchez people, a Native American nation* Natchez language, the language of that Native American tribe* Natchez, Mississippi, United States* Natchez, Louisiana, United States* Natchez, Indiana, United States...

, Mississippi.

Many Americans and French settlers the American southwest were opposed to the Adams-Onis treaty
Adams-Onís Treaty
The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty or the Purchase of Florida, was a treaty between the United States and Spain in 1819 that gave Florida to the U.S. and set out a boundary between the U.S. and New Spain . It settled a standing border dispute between the two...

 of 1819 that settled the border dispute between the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

. Long teamed up with José Félix Trespalacios
José Félix Trespalacios
José Félix Trespalacios was the first governor of Coahuila y Texas as part of the United Mexican States.Trespalacios was a member of the militia in Chihuahua but then in 1814 was charged with organizing rebellion and was sentenced to death. His sentence was reduced to ten years in prison, but he...

 a former Mexican who had fought against Spanish rule in Mexico. They made their first filibuster expedition to Texas in 1819. He attempted to recruit Jean Lafitte
Jean Lafitte
Jean Lafitte was a pirate and privateer in the Gulf of Mexico in the early 19th century. He and his elder brother, Pierre, spelled their last name Laffite, but English-language documents of the time used "Lafitte", and this is the commonly seen spelling in the United States, including for places...

 and his men, but Lafitte turned him down. Several of Long's recruits were former French soldiers who had started a settlement in Texas the Champ d'Asile
Champ d'Asile
Champ d'Asile was a short-lived settlement started in Texas in 1818 by French veterans of the Napoleonic Wars. It was led by General Charles Lallemand. It was started in January 1818, by 20 Bonapartists from the Vine and Olive Colony. The land was offered to French settlers on March 3 1817, after...

 that Spanish troops crushed in 1818. Long was successful in capturing Nacogdoches, with his followers proclaiming Long the first President of the Republic of Texas, which lasted only one month, and is not affiliated with the Republic of Texas that was the result of the Texas Revolution. However a Spanish expedition routed Long and his followers.

Long led a second unsuccessful expedition from the Bolivar Peninsula the following year bringing his pregnant wife Jane Long and 300 troops. Then his troops seized Presidio La Bahía
Presidio La Bahía
The Presidio Nuestra Señora de Loreto de la Bahía, known more commonly as Presidio La Bahia, or simply La Bahia is a fort constructed by the Spanish Army that became the nucleus of the city of Goliad, Texas, United States. Originally founded in 1721 on the ruins of the failed French Fort Saint...

. He was caught and imprisoned, then shot in Mexico by a guard 6 months later. One of Long's followers, Benjamin Milam
Benjamin Milam
Benjamin Rush "Ben" Milam was a leading figure in the Texas Revolution. Milam County, Texas was named in his honor. He was born in Kentucky.- Early life :...

 believed that Trespalacios who had been captured and freed was responsible.

His widow, Jane Long, claimed to be the first woman of English descent to settle in Texas gave birth to Mary James Long the first child born in Texas of English descent, a claim which has been disproved by census records from 1807 to 1826, which show a number of Anglo-American births. Throughout a long winter, she and her children struggled as she waited for her husband's return. At one point, several Karankawa
Karankawa were a group of Native American peoples, now extinct as a tribal group, who played a pivotal part in early Texas history....

Indians appeared, but Long fired a cannon each day to make them think there was an army stationed there. Finally, during the spring, Long heard of her husband's death. She then, with some friendly travelers, left Texas, hoping to one day return, and she did. She came back in 1820s as a bonafide colonist.

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