, ecologist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the aqua-lung
, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française
He was also known as "le Commandant Cousteau" or "Captain Cousteau".
Cousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac
, Gironde, France to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau.
From birth, man carries the weight of gravity on his shoulders. He is bolted to earth. But man has only to sink beneath the surface and he is free.
Buoyed by water, he can fly in any direction — up, down, sideways — by merely flipping his hand. Under water, man becomes an archangel.
The sea is the universal sewer.
We must plant the sea and herd its animals … using the sea as farmers instead of hunters. That is what civilization is all about — farming replacing hunting.
Farming as we do it is hunting, and in the sea we act like barbarians.
If we go on the way we have, the fault is our greed — if we are not willing — we will disappear from the face of the globe, to be replaced by the insect.
What is a scientist after all? It is a curious man looking through a keyhole, the keyhole of nature, trying to know what’s going on.
Man, of all the animals, is probably the only one to regard himself as a great delicacy.
I am not a scientist. I am, rather, an impresario of scientists.
I said that the oceans were sick but they're not going to die. There is no death possible in the oceans — there will always be life — but they're getting sicker every year.
, ecologist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water. He co-developed the aqua-lung
, pioneered marine conservation and was a member of the Académie française
He was also known as "le Commandant Cousteau" or "Captain Cousteau".
Early lifeCousteau was born on 11 June 1910, in Saint-André-de-Cubzac
, Gironde, France to Daniel and Élisabeth Cousteau. He had one brother, Pierre-Antoine
. Cousteau completed his preparatory studies at the prestigious Collège Stanislas
in Paris. In 1930, he entered the École Navale
and graduated as a gunnery officer. After an automobile accident cut short his career in naval aviation, Cousteau indulged his interest in the sea.
, where he was serving on the Condorcet, Cousteau carried out his first underwater experiments, thanks to his friend Philippe Tailliez
who in 1936 lent him some Fernez underwater goggles, predecessors of modern diving mask
s. Cousteau also belonged to the information service of the French Navy
, and was sent on missions to Shanghai and Japan (1935–1938) and in the USSR (1939).
On 12 July 1937 he married Simone Melchior
, with whom he had two sons, Jean-Michel
(born 1938) and Philippe
(1940–1979). His sons took part in the adventures of the Calypso
. In 1991, one year after his wife Simone's death from cancer, he married Francine Triplet
. They already had a daughter Diane Cousteau (born 1980) and a son Pierre-Yves Cousteau (born 1982), born during Cousteau's marriage to his first wife.
Early 1940s: Innovation of modern underwater divingThe years of World War II
were decisive for the history of diving. After the armistice of 1940
, the family of Simone and Jacques-Yves Cousteau took refuge in Megève
, where he became a friend of the Ichac family who also lived there. Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Marcel Ichac shared the same desire to reveal to the general public unknown and inaccessible places — for Cousteau the underwater world and for Ichac the high mountains. The two neighbors took the first ex-aequo prize of the Congress of Documentary Film in 1943, for the first French underwater film: Par dix-huit mètres de fond (18 meters deep), made without breathing apparatus the previous year in the Embiez islands (Var) with Philippe Tailliez
and Frédéric Dumas
, without forgetting the paramount part played, as originator of the depth-pressure-proof camera case, by the mechanical engineer Léon Vèche (engineer of Arts and Métiers and the Naval College).
In 1943, they made the film Épaves (Shipwrecks): for this occasion, they used two of the very first Aqua-Lung
prototypes. Those prototypes were made in Boulogne-Billancourt
by the Air Liquide
company following Gagnan's and Cousteau's instructions. When making Épaves, Cousteau could not find the necessary blank reels of movie film, but had to buy hundreds of small still camera film reels the same width, intended for a make of child's camera, and cemented
them together to make long reels.
Having kept bonds with the English speakers (he spent part of his childhood in the United States and usually spoke English) and with French soldiers in North Africa (under Admiral Lemonnier), Jacques-Yves Cousteau (whose villa "Baobab" at Sanary (Var) was opposite Admiral Darlan's villa "Reine"), helped the French Navy to join again with the Allies; he assembled a commando operation against the Italian espionage services in France, and received several military decorations for his deeds. At that time, he kept his distance from his brother Pierre-Antoine Cousteau
, a "pen anti-semite" who wrote the collaborationist newspaper Je suis partout (I am everywhere) and who received the death sentence in 1946. However this was later commuted to a life sentence, and Pierre-Antoine was released in 1954.
During the 1940s, Cousteau is credited with improving the aqua-lung design which gave birth to the open-circuit scuba technology used today. According to his first book, The Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and Adventure
(1953), Cousteau started diving with Fernez
goggles in 1936, and in 1939 used the self contained underwater breathing apparatus invented in 1926 by Commander Yves le Prieur
. Cousteau was not satisfied with the length of time he could spend underwater with the Le Prieur apparatus so he improved it to extend underwater duration by adding a demand regulator, invented in 1942 by Émile Gagnan
. In 1943 Cousteau tried out the first prototype aqua-lung
which finally made extended underwater exploration possible.
Late 1940s: GERS and Élie MonnierIn 1946, Cousteau and Tailliez showed the film "Épaves" to Admiral Lemonnier, and the admiral gave them the responsibility of setting up the Groupement de Recherches Sous-marines (GRS) (Underwater Research Group) of the French Navy
. A little later it became the GERS (Groupe d'Études et de Recherches Sous-Marines, = Underwater Studies and Research Group), then the COMISMER ("COMmandement des Interventions Sous la MER", = "Undersea Interventions Command"), and finally more recently the CEPHISMER. In 1947, Chief Petty Officer
became the first diver to die using an aqualung while attempting a new depth record with the GERS near Toulon.
In 1948, between missions of mine clearance, underwater exploration and technological and physiological tests, Cousteau undertook a first campaign in the Mediterranean on board the sloop Élie Monnier, with Philippe Tailliez, Frédéric Dumas, Jean Alinat and the scenario writer Marcel Ichac. The small team also undertook the exploration of the Roman wreck of Mahdia (Tunisia). It was the first underwater archaeology operation using autonomous diving, opening the way for scientific underwater archaeology. Cousteau and Marcel Ichac brought back from there the Carnets diving film (presented and preceded with the Cannes Film Festival
Cousteau and the Élie Monnier then took part in the rescue of Professor Jacques Piccard
's bathyscaphe, the FNRS-2
, during the 1949 expedition to Dakar. Thanks to this rescue, the French Navy was able to reuse the sphere of the bathyscaphe to construct the FNRS-3
The adventures of this period are told in the two books The Silent World
(1953, by Cousteau and Dumas) and Plongées sans câble (1954, by Philippe Tailliez
1950–1970sIn 1949, Cousteau left the French Navy
In 1950, he founded the French Oceanographic Campaigns (FOC), and leased a ship called Calypso
from Thomas Loel Guinness
for a symbolic one franc a year. Cousteau refitted the Calypso as a mobile laboratory for field research and as his principal vessel for diving and filming. He also carried out underwater archaeological excavations in the Mediterranean, in particular at Grand-Congloué (1952).
With the publication of his first book in 1953, The Silent World
, he correctly predicted the existence of the echolocation
abilities of porpoises. He reported that his research vessel, the Élie Monier, was heading to the Straits of Gibraltar and noticed a group of porpoises following them. Cousteau changed course a few degrees off the optimal course to the center of the strait, and the porpoises followed for a few minutes, then diverged toward mid-channel again. It was evident that they knew where the optimal course lay, even if the humans did not. Cousteau concluded that the cetaceans had something like sonar
, which was a relatively new feature on submarines.
Cousteau won the Palme d'Or
at the Cannes Film Festival
in 1956 for The Silent World
co-produced with Louis Malle
. With the assistance of Jean Mollard, he made a "diving saucer" SP-350, an experimental underwater vehicle which could reach a depth of 350 meters. The successful experiment was quickly repeated in 1965 with two vehicles which reached 500 meters.
In 1957, he was elected as director of the Oceanographical Museum of Monaco
. He directed Précontinent, about the experiments of diving in saturation (long-duration immersion, houses under the sea), and was admitted to the United States National Academy of Sciences
In October 1960, a large amount of radioactive waste
was going to be discarded in the Mediterranean Sea by the Commissariat à l'énergie atomique
(CEA). The CEA argued that the dumps were experimental in nature, and that French oceanographers such as Vsevelod Romanovsky had recommended it. Romanovsky and other French scientists, including Louis Fage and Jacques Cousteau, repudiated the claim, saying that Romanovsky had in mind a much smaller amount. The CEA claimed that there was little circulation (and hence little need for concern) at the dump site between Nice and Corsica, but French public opinion sided with the oceanographers rather than with the CEA atomic energy scientists. The CEA chief, Francis Perrin
, decided to postpone the dump. Cousteau organized a publicity campaign which in less than two weeks gained wide popular support. The train carrying the waste was stopped by women and children sitting on the railway tracks, and it was sent back to its origin.
A meeting with American television companies (ABC, Métromédia, NBC) created the series The Underwater Odyssey of Commander Cousteau, with the character of the commander in the red bonnet inherited from standard diving dress
) intended to give the films a "personalized adventure" style.
In 1970, he wrote the book The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea with Philippe
, his son. In this book, Costeau described the oceanic whitetip shark
as "the most dangerous of all sharks".
In 1973, along with his two sons and Frederick Hyman, he created the Cousteau Society for the Protection of Ocean Life, Frederick Hyman being its first President; it now has more than 300,000 members.
Three years after the volcano's last eruption, on 19 December 1973, the Cousteau team was filming on Deception Island, Antarctica when Michel Laval, Calypsos second in command, was struck and killed by a propeller of the helicopter that was ferrying between Calypso and the island.
In 1976, Cousteau uncovered the wreck of HMHS Britannic
. He also found the wreck of La Therese in Crete
In 1977, together with Peter Scott
, he received the UN International Environment prize.
On 28 June 1979, while the Calypso was on an expedition to Portugal
, his second son, Philippe
, his preferred and designated successor and with whom he had co-produced all his films since 1969, died in a PBY Catalina flying boat crash in the Tagus river near Lisbon. Cousteau was deeply affected. He called his then eldest son, the architect Jean-Michel Cousteau
, to his side. This collaboration lasted 14 years.
1980–1990sIn 1980, Cousteau traveled to Canada to make two films on the Saint Lawrence River
and the Great Lakes
, Cries from the Deep and St. Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea.
In 1985, he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom
from Ronald Reagan
On 24 November 1988, he was elected to the French Academy, chair 17, succeeding Jean Delay. His official reception under the Cupola took place on 22 June 1989, the response to his speech of reception being given by Bertrand Poirot-Delpech. After his death, he was replaced under the Cupola by Érik Orsenna on 28 May 1998.
In June 1990, the composer Jean Michel Jarre
paid homage to the commander by entitling his new album Waiting for Cousteau
. He also composed the music for Cousteau's documentary "Palawan, the last refuge".
On 2 December 1990, his wife Simone Cousteau died of cancer.
In June 1991, in Paris, Jacques-Yves Cousteau remarried, to Francine Triplet, with whom he had (before this marriage) two children, Diane and Pierre-Yves. Francine Cousteau currently continues her husband's work as the head of the Cousteau Foundation and Cousteau Society. From that point, the relations between Jacques-Yves and his elder son worsened.
In November 1991, Cousteau gave an interview to the UNESCO courier, in which he stated that he was in favour of human population control and population decrease. The full article text can be found online.
In 1992, he was invited to Rio de Janeiro
, Brazil, for the United Nations' International Conference on Environment and Development, and then he became a regular consultant for the UN and the World Bank
In 1996, he sued his son who wished to open a holiday center named "Cousteau" in the Fiji Islands.
On 11 January 1996, Calypso was rammed and sunk in Singapore
harbor by a barge
. The Calypso was refloated and towed home to France.
DeathJacques-Yves Cousteau died on 25 June 1997 in Paris, aged 87. Despite persistent rumors, encouraged by some Islamic publications and websites, Cousteau did not convert to Islam
, and when he died he was buried in a Roman Catholic Christian funeral. He was buried in the family vault at Saint-André-de-Cubzac
in France. An homage was paid to him by the city by the inauguration of a "rue du Commandant Cousteau", a street which runs out to his native house, where a commemorative plaque was affixed.
HonorsDuring his lifetime, Jacques-Yves Cousteau received these distinctions:
- Commandeur de la Légion d'HonneurLégion d'honneurThe Legion of Honour, or in full the National Order of the Legion of Honour is a French order established by Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul of the Consulat which succeeded to the First Republic, on 19 May 1802...
- Grand-Croix de l'Ordre national du MériteOrdre National du MériteThe Ordre national du Mérite is an Order of State awarded by the President of the French Republic. It was founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle...
- Croix de guerre 1939–1945Croix de guerre 1939-1945 (France)The Croix de guerre 1939–1945 is a French military decoration created on September 26, 1939, to honour people who fought with the Allies against the Axis force at any time during World War II.-Recipients:...
- Officier de l'Ordre du Mérite MaritimeOrdre du Mérite MaritimeThe Ordre du Mérite Maritime is a French order established on 9 February 1930 for services rendered by the seafarers to distinguish the risks involved and the services rendered by seamen; stressed over the importance of the economic role of the Merchant Navy to the country...
- Commandeur de l'Ordre des Arts et des LettresOrdre des Arts et des LettresThe Ordre des Arts et des Lettres is an Order of France, established on 2 May 1957 by the Minister of Culture, and confirmed as part of the Ordre national du Mérite by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963...
- Honorary Companion of the Order of AustraliaOrder of AustraliaThe Order of Australia is an order of chivalry established on 14 February 1975 by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, "for the purpose of according recognition to Australian citizens and other persons for achievement or for meritorious service"...
(26 January 1990)
- National Geographic Society's Special Gold Medal in 1961
LegacyCousteau's legacy includes more than 120 television documentaries, more than 50 books, and an environmental protection foundation with 300,000 members.
Cousteau liked to call himself an "oceanographic technician." He was, in reality, a sophisticated showman, teacher, and lover of nature. His work permitted many people to explore the resources of the oceans.
His work also created a new kind of scientific communication, criticised at the time by some academics. The so-called "divulgationism", a simple way of sharing scientific concepts, was soon employed in other disciplines and became one of the most important characteristics of modern television broadcasting.
Cousteau died on 25 June 1997. The Cousteau Society and its French counterpart, l'Équipe Cousteau, both of which Jacques-Yves Cousteau founded, are still active today. The Society is currently attempting to turn the original Calypso into a museum and it is raising funds to build a successor vessel, the Calypso II.
In his last years, after marrying again, Cousteau became involved in a legal battle with his son Jean-Michel
over Jean-Michel licensing the Cousteau name for a South Pacific resort, resulting in Jean-Michel Cousteau being ordered by the court not to encourage confusion between his for-profit business and his father's non-profit endeavours.
In 2007, the International Watch Company
introduced the IWC Aquatimer Chronograph "Cousteau Divers" Special Edition. The timepiece incorporated a sliver of wood from the interior of Cousteau's Calypso research vessel. Having developed the diver's watch, IWC offered support to The Cousteau Society. The proceeds from the timepieces' sales were partially donated to the non-profit organization involved into conservation of marine life and preservation of tropical coral reefs.
In popular culture
- Wu-Tang ClanWu-Tang ClanThe Wu-Tang Clan is a hip-hop group from Staten Island that consists of RZA, GZA, Method Man, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, Inspectah Deck, U-God, Masta Killa, and the late Ol' Dirty Bastard. They are frequently joined by fellow childhood friend Cappadonna, a quasi member of the group...
member Old Dirty Bastard pays homage to Jacques Cousteau in the song "Da Mystery of Chessboxin'" from Wu-Tang ClanWu-Tang ClanThe Wu-Tang Clan is a hip-hop group from Staten Island that consists of RZA, GZA, Method Man, Raekwon, Ghostface Killah, Inspectah Deck, U-God, Masta Killa, and the late Ol' Dirty Bastard. They are frequently joined by fellow childhood friend Cappadonna, a quasi member of the group...
's Enter the 36 Chambers. "Here I go, deep type flow. Jacques Cousteau could never get this low."
- The song "Nice To Know You" from the American alt-rock band, IncubusIncubus (band)Incubus is an American rock band from Calabasas, California. The band was formed in 1991 by vocalist Brandon Boyd, lead guitarist Mike Einziger, and drummer Jose Pasillas while enrolled in high school and later expanded to include bassist Alex "Dirk Lance" Katunich, and Gavin "DJ Lyfe" Koppell;...
, references Cousteau, saying the writer's current feeling is "Deeper than the deepest Cousteau would ever go."
- American rapper CanibusCanibusGermaine Williams , better known by his stage name Canibus, is a Jamaican-born American rapper. He is a part of supergroup The HRSMN. Canibus rose to fame in the mid-nineties...
mentions Cousteau's name in his song "Bis vs R.I.P."
- American rap group Jedi Mind TricksJedi Mind TricksJedi Mind Tricks is a hip hop duo with Vinnie Paz from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Jus Allah from Camden, New Jersey. The group was founded by two high school friends, rapper Vinnie Paz and former producer/DJ Stoupe the Enemy of Mankind...
uses his name as the chorus, saying "I'm a get deep like Jacques Cousteau; Jacques Cousteau could never get this low", from the song Get This Low.
- Belgian singer Plastic BertrandPlastic BertrandPlastic Bertrand is a Belgian musician, songwriter, producer, editor and television presenter, best known for the 1977 international hit single "Ça plane pour moi".-Early life and bands:...
made a song about Jacques Cousteau in 1981, under the title Jacques Cousteau.
- In 1975, American singer John DenverJohn DenverHenry John Deutschendorf, Jr. , known professionally as John Denver, was an American singer/songwriter, activist, and humanitarian. After growing up in numerous locations with his military family, Denver began his music career in folk music groups in the late 1960s. His greatest commercial success...
on his album WindsongWindsongWindsong is the ninth album by American singer-songwriter John Denver released in September 1975. Denver's popularity was at its peak by this time....
, wrote and performed a song called "CalypsoCalypso (song)"Calypso" is a song written by John Denver in 1975 as a tribute to Jacques-Yves Cousteau and his research ship Calypso. The song was featured on Denver's 1975 album Windsong....
" as a tribute to Cousteau, the ship, and her crew. The song reached the number-one position on the Billboard Hot 100Billboard Hot 100The Billboard Hot 100 is the United States music industry standard singles popularity chart issued weekly by Billboard magazine. Chart rankings are based on radio play and sales; the tracking-week for sales begins on Monday and ends on Sunday, while the radio play tracking-week runs from Wednesday...
- Cousteau was an inspiration to Stephen HillenburgStephen HillenburgStephen McDannell Hillenburg is an American animator, writer, producer, actor, voice actor, and director best known for creating the animated series SpongeBob SquarePants. He currently owns his own production company, United Plankton Pictures...
, creator of SpongeBob SquarePantsSpongeBob SquarePantsSpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series, created by marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg. Much of the series centers on the exploits and adventures of the title character and his various friends in the underwater city of "Bikini Bottom"...
, and the French Narrator (played by Tom KennyTom KennyThomas James "Tom" Kenny is an American actor, voice actor and comedian. He is especially known for his long-running-role as SpongeBob SquarePants in the television series of the same name, as well as the live-action character Patchy the Pirate, Gary the Snail and the French narrator based on...
) from the series was made in tribute to him.
- Director Wes AndersonWes AndersonWesley Wales Anderson is an American film director, screenwriter, actor, and producer of features, short films and commercials....
has referenced Cousteau a number of times. In his 1998 film RushmoreRushmore (film)Rushmore is a 1998 comedy-drama film directed by Wes Anderson about an eccentric teenager named Max Fischer , his friendship with rich industrialist Herman Blume , and their mutual love for elementary school teacher Rosemary Cross . The film was co-written by Anderson and Owen Wilson...
, the main character Max Fischer finds a Jacques Cousteau quote handwritten in a library book and begins a search for the last person who checked out the book. The quote was "When one man, for whatever reason, has an opportunity to lead an extraordinary life, he has no right to keep it to himself."
- The 2004 film The Life Aquatic with Steve ZissouThe Life Aquatic with Steve ZissouThe Life Aquatic with Steve Zissou is an American comedy-drama film directed, written, and co-produced by Wes Anderson. It is Anderson's fourth feature length film, released in the U.S. on December 25, 2004...
, also directed by Wes AndersonWes AndersonWesley Wales Anderson is an American film director, screenwriter, actor, and producer of features, short films and commercials....
, is regarded as both a homage to and a send-up of Cousteau's career. It includes an end credit that reads "In memory of Jacques-Yves Cousteau and with gratitude to the Cousteau Society, which was not involved in the making of this film."
- Two New AgeNew Age musicNew Age music is music of various styles intended to create artistic inspiration, relaxation, and optimism. It is used by listeners for yoga, massage, meditation, and reading as a method of stress management or to create a peaceful atmosphere in their home or other environments, and is often...
composers, VangelisVangelisEvangelos Odysseas Papathanassiou is a Greek composer of electronic, progressive, ambient, jazz, pop rock and orchestral music, under the artist name Vangelis...
(who was heavily involved with Cousteau in the 1990s) and Jean Michel JarreJean Michel JarreJean Michel André Jarre is a French composer, performer and music producer. He is a pioneer in the electronic, ambient and New Age genres, and known as an organiser of outdoor spectacles of his music featuring lights, laser displays, and fireworks.Jarre was raised in Lyon by his mother and...
, released albums including original numbers honoring Jacques-Yves Cousteau: Cousteau's Dreams (2000) and Waiting for CousteauWaiting for CousteauWaiting for Cousteau is the seventh overall studio album by Jean Michel Jarre, released on Disques Dreyfus, licensed to Polydor, in 1990. The album was dedicated to Jacques-Yves Cousteau and was released on his 80th birthday 11 June 1990. The title of the album is a reference to Samuel Beckett's...
- The Swedish band Bob HundBob hundbob hund is a seven-piece indie rock band from Sweden. Their music, hard to classify, has been described as "what you might expect if you managed to merge Pere Ubu and Pixies with a touch of Kraftwerk"....
performed a tribute to Jacques Cousteau on their album Ingenting, released in 2002, with songs recorded in 1992–93. They refer to him as being "a brave aquanaut".
- The band The Flight of the Conchords references Jacques Cousteau in their song Foux du Fa Fa, when Bret holds up a fish- referring to Cousteau's study of the ocean.
- Andrew BirdAndrew BirdAndrew Bird is an American musician, songwriter, and multi-instrumentalist.- Early life and the Bowl of Fire :...
's song "LullLull (song)"Lull" is a song by Chicago-based singer, violinist and professional whistler Andrew Bird. It can be found on the Weather Systems album, released 2003, as its 3rd track, 5min09s.- Jacques Cousteau :...
" on his album Weather SystemsWeather SystemsWeather Systems, released in 2003, is Andrew Bird's second solo album and his first after disbanding the Bowl of Fire. Bird has said that the album was simply a side project during his four or five year recording of Andrew Bird & the Mysterious Production of Eggs...
, begins, "Being alone, it can be quite romantic/Like Jacques Cousteau underneath the Atlantic."
- In Star TrekStar TrekStar Trek is an American science fiction entertainment franchise created by Gene Roddenberry. The core of Star Trek is its six television series: The Original Series, The Animated Series, The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, Voyager, and Enterprise...
, the captain's yacht of the USS Enterprise-E is named Cousteau.
- An internet rumour and disinformationDisinformationDisinformation is intentionally false or inaccurate information that is spread deliberately. For this reason, it is synonymous with and sometimes called black propaganda. It is an act of deception and false statements to convince someone of untruth...
which has been running since 1989 says wrongly that Cousteau became a Muslim upon seeing the Koran.
- Around 1980 a scale modelScale modelA scale model is a physical model, a representation or copy of an object that is larger or smaller than the actual size of the object, which seeks to maintain the relative proportions of the physical size of the original object. Very often the scale model is used as a guide to making the object in...
of the Calypso research ship, complete with the marine helicopter was sold to children worldwide, along with leaflets calling for donations to the Cousteau foundation. These models are still being sold as toys.
- "Narrator", an early song by American musical group R.E.M.R.E.M.R.E.M. was an American rock band formed in Athens, Georgia, in 1980 by singer Michael Stipe, guitarist Peter Buck, bassist Mike Mills and drummer Bill Berry. One of the first popular alternative rock bands, R.E.M. gained early attention due to Buck's ringing, arpeggiated guitar style and Stipe's...
is specifically about the Jacques Cousteau Show, and how the singer yearns to be the narrator for the program.
- The futuristic novel The Deep RangeThe Deep RangeThe Deep Range is a 1957 Arthur C. Clarke science fiction novel concerning a future sub-mariner who helps farm the seas. The story includes the capture of a sea monster similar to a kraken....
written by Arthur C. ClarkeArthur C. ClarkeSir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE, FRAS was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, famous for his short stories and novels, among them 2001: A Space Odyssey, and as a host and commentator in the British television series Mysterious World. For many years, Robert A. Heinlein,...
mentions a research submarine named Cousteau.
- GwarGwarGwar is a satirical heavy metal band formed in Richmond, Virginia, United States, in 1984. The band is best known for its elaborate science fiction/horror film inspired costumes, obscene lyrics and graphic stage performances, which feature humorous enactments of politically and morally taboo...
's first album, Hell-O, included a song named "Je M'Appelle J. Cöusteaü".
- The ActionslacksActionslacksActionslacks are an American indie rock band, based primarily in the San Francisco Bay Area, long associated with the region's Noise Pop scene.- History :...
released a song titled "Jacques Cousteau" on their EP "Kids With Guitars".
- The Swedish jazzband Esbjörn Svensson TrioEsbjörn Svensson TrioEsbjörn Svensson Trio was a Swedish jazz piano trio formed in 1993 consisting of Esbjörn Svensson , Dan Berglund and Magnus Öström . Its music has classical, rock, pop, and techno elements. It lists classical composer Béla Bartók and rock band Radiohead as influences...
tributed Cousteau on their album Seven Days of Falling with the track "Did they ever tell Cousteau?". Esbjörn SvenssonEsbjörn SvenssonEsbjörn Svensson was a jazz pianist and founder of the jazz group Esbjörn Svensson Trio, commonly known as E.S.T...
died in a scuba diving accident on 14 June 2008.
- In the FriendsFriendsFriends is an American sitcom created by David Crane and Marta Kauffman, which aired on NBC from September 22, 1994 to May 6, 2004. The series revolves around a group of friends in Manhattan. The series was produced by Bright/Kauffman/Crane Productions, in association with Warner Bros. Television...
episode 'The One Where Ross Gets High', Phoebe mentions that she is 'in love with Jacques Cousteau'.
- The Tragically HipThe Tragically HipThe Tragically Hip, often referred to simply as The Hip, is a Canadian rock band from Kingston, Ontario, consisting of Gordon Downie , Paul Langlois , Rob Baker , Gord Sinclair and Johnny Fay . Since their formation in 1983 they have released 12 studio albums, two live albums, and 46 singles...
, a Canadian rock band, reference Cousteau in their song "Twist My Arm" from their album Road Apples.
- On their album Row Vs. Wade, the parodic bluegrassBluegrass musicBluegrass music is a form of American roots music, and a sub-genre of country music. It has mixed roots in Scottish, English, Welsh and Irish traditional music...
band Run C&WRun C&WRun C&W was an American country music group composed of lead vocalist Russell Smith, formerly of the Amazing Rhythm Aces; banjoist Bernie Leadon, formerly of the Eagles and the Nitty Gritty Dirt Band; along with Nashville songwriters Jim Photoglo and Vince Melamed, both of whom played various...
mention (and do a brief impression of) Cousteau in their cover of Stevie WonderStevie WonderStevland Hardaway Morris , better known by his stage name Stevie Wonder, is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer and activist...
's classic, "Signed, Sealed, Delivered (I'm Yours)".
- In the first episode of Pinky and the BrainPinky and the BrainPinky and the Brain is an American animated television series.The characters Pinky and the Brain first appeared in 1993 as a recurring segment on the show Animaniacs...
, "Das Mouse," the Brain, after stealing a submarineSubmarineA submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation below the surface of the water. It differs from a submersible, which has more limited underwater capability...
, does an impression of Cousteau in an attempt to avoid being sunk by the United States NavyUnited States NavyThe United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...
- In the 30 Rock30 Rock30 Rock is an American television comedy series created by Tina Fey that airs on NBC. The series is loosely based on Fey's experiences as head writer for Saturday Night Live...
episode "TGS Hates WomenTGS Hates Women"TGS Hates Women" is the sixteenth episode of the fifth season of the American television comedy series 30 Rock, and the 96th overall episode of the series. It was written by co-executive producer Ron Weiner and directed by Beth McCarthy-Miller. The episode originally aired on the National...
", Jack DonaghyJack DonaghyJohn Francis "Jack" Donaghy is a fictional character on the NBC sitcom 30 Rock. He is the Vice President of East Coast Television and Microwave Oven Programming for General Electric and later Kabletown....
(Alec BaldwinAlec BaldwinAlexander Rae "Alec" Baldwin III is an American actor who has appeared on film, stage, and television.Baldwin first gained recognition through television for his work in the soap opera Knots Landing in the role of Joshua Rush. He was a cast member for two seasons before his character was killed off...
) said that he idolized Costeau and claimed that he met him when he was young.
- In the Episode 5: OUTATIME of Back to the Future: The GameBack to the Future: The GameBack to the Future: The Game is a graphic adventure video game based on the Back to the Future film franchise. The game was developed by Telltale Games as part of a licensing deal with Universal Pictures. Bob Gale, co-creator, co-writer and co-producer of the film trilogy, assisted Telltale in...
, a diver at the Hill Valley Expo is named Jacques Douteux.
- In the Two and a Half MenTwo and a Half MenTwo and a Half Men is an American television sitcom that premiered on CBS on September 22, 2003. Starring Charlie Sheen, Jon Cryer, and Angus T. Jones, the show was originally about a hedonistic jingle writer, Charlie Harper; his uptight brother, Alan; and Alan's growing son, Jake...
episode Hello, I am Alan Cousteau, AlanAlan Harper (Two and a Half Men)Dr. Alan Jerome Harper, DC, is a fictional character from the CBS situation comedy Two and a Half Men. Jon Cryer has played the role since the series began in 2003; after being nominated for an Emmy Award for his depiction of the character in 2006, 2007, and 2008, Cryer received an Emmy in 2009 for...
sticks his hand in a jug of water and pretends to be the explorer.
- In one of the short filler episodes of The SimpsonsThe SimpsonsThe Simpsons is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its family of the same name, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie...
which featured in The Tracy Ullman Show BartBart SimpsonBartholomew JoJo "Bart" Simpson is a fictional main character in the animated television series The Simpsons and part of the Simpson family. He is voiced by actress Nancy Cartwright and first appeared on television in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987...
dives underwater in his overfilling bath and pretends to be a deep-sea diver, putting on a French accent which is clearly reminiscent of Cousteau.
- Scuba divingScuba divingScuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater....
- Aqua-lungAqua-lungAqua-Lung was the original name of the first open-circuit free-swimming underwater breathing set in reaching worldwide popularity and commercial success...
- HMHS BritannicHMHS BritannicHMHS Britannic was the third and largest of the White Star Line. She was the sister ship of and , and was intended to enter service as a transatlantic passenger liner. She was launched just before the start of the First World War and was laid up at her builders in Belfast for many months before...
- William BeebeWilliam BeebeWilliam Beebe, born Charles William Beebe was an American naturalist, ornithologist, marine biologist, entomologist, explorer, and author...
- PrecontinentPrecontinentPrecontinent is a name of a set of projects to build an underwater "village" carried out by Jacques-Yves Cousteau and his team. The aim of these projects was to show that people could live underwater for prolonged periods of time, while being subjected to the harsh environments of the deep sea...
- Conshelf Two
Jacques-Yves Cousteau's ships
- Calypso (ship)Calypso (ship)RV Calypso is a former British Royal Navy Minesweeper converted into a research vessel for the oceanographic researcher Jacques-Yves Cousteau, equipped with a mobile laboratory for underwater field research. She was severely damaged in 1996, and is undergoing a complete refurbishment in 2009-2011...
- SP-350 Denise ("the Diving saucer")
- Alcyone (ship)Alcyone (ship)The Alcyone is a ship operated by the Cousteau Society. It was created as an expedition ship and to test the operation of a new kind of marine propulsion system, the turbosail. The Alcyone is equipped with two of these unusual sails, which are used to augment its diesel engines...
- Calypso II (planned)
Books by Cousteau
- The Silent WorldThe Silent World: A Story of Undersea Discovery and AdventureThe Silent World is a 1953 book co-authored by Captain Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Frédéric Dumas and edited by James Dugan. Although a French national, Cousteau wrote the book in English...
(1953, with Frédéric DumasFrédéric DumasFrédéric Dumas was part of a team of three, with Jacques-Yves Cousteau and Philippe Tailliez, in which he was nicknamed Didi. They had a passion for diving, and developed the diving regulator with the aid of the engineer Émile Gagnan...
- Captain Cousteaus Underwater Treasury (1959, with James DuganJames DuganJames Dugan was a historian, editor and magazine article writer. Born in Altoona, Pennsylvania he is best known for his collaborations with Jacques Cousteau....
- The Living Sea (1963, with James Dugan)
- World Without Sun (1965)
- The Undersea Discoveries of Jacques-Yves Cousteau (1970–1975, 8-volumes, with Philippe DiolePhilippe DiolePhilippe Victor Diole was a French author and undersea explorer.Diole was born in Saint Maur, France, son of Marcel and Elizabeth Diole. He married Marguerite Monsenergue on July 6, 1953...
- The Shark: Splendid Savage of the Sea (1970)
- Diving for Sunken Treasure (1971)
- Life and Death in a Coral Sea (1971)
- The Whale: Mighty Monarch of the Sea (1972)
- Octopus and Squid: The Soft Intelligence (1973)
- Three Adventures: Galápagos, Titicaca, the Blue Holes (1973)
- Diving Companions: Sea Lion, Elephant Seal, Walrus (1974)
- Dolphins (1975)
- The Ocean World of Jacques CousteauThe Ocean World of Jacques CousteauThe Ocean World of Jacques Cousteau is an encyclopedia in 21 volumes, that forms an encyclopedia of marine life.It was published between 1973 and 1978.- List of books :# Oasis in Space# The Act of Life# Quest for Food...
(1973–78, 21 volumes)
- Oasis in Space (vol 1)
- The Act of Life (vol 2)
- Quest for Food (vol 3)
- Window in the Sea (vol 4)
- The Art of Motion (vol 5)
- Attack and Defense (vol 6)
- Invisible Messages (vol 7)
- Instinct and Intelligence (vol 8)
- Pharaohs of the Sea (vol 9)
- Mammals in the Sea (vol 10)
- Provinces of the Sea (vol 11)
- Man Re-Enters Sea (vol 12)
- A Sea of Legends (vol 13)
- Adventure of Life (vol 14)
- Outer and Inner Space (vol 15)
- The Whitecaps (vol 16)
- Riches of the Sea (vol 17)
- Challenges of the Sea (vol 18)
- The Sea in Danger (vol 19)
- Guide to the Sea and Index (vol 20)
- Calypso (1978, vol 21)
- A Bill of Rights for Future Generations (1979)
- Life at the Bottom of the World (1980)
- The Cousteau United States Almanac of the Environment (1981, aka The Cousteau Almanac of the Environment: An Inventory of Life on a Water Planet)
- Jacques Cousteau's Calypso (1983)
- Marine Life of the Caribbean (1984, with James Cribb and Thomas H. Suchanek)
- Jacques Cousteau's Amazon Journey (1984, with Mose Richards)
- Jacques Cousteau: The Ocean World (1985)
- The Whale (1987, with Philippe Diole)
- Jacques Cousteau: Whales (1988, with Yves Paccalet)
- The Human, The Orchid and The Octopus (and Susan Schiefelbein, coauthor; Bloomsbury 2007]
Books about Cousteau
- Undersea Explorer: The Story of Captain Cousteau (1957) by James DuganJames DuganJames Dugan was a historian, editor and magazine article writer. Born in Altoona, Pennsylvania he is best known for his collaborations with Jacques Cousteau....
- Jacques Cousteau and the Undersea World (2000) by Roger King
- Jacques-Yves Cousteau: His Story Under the Sea (2002) by John Bankston
- Jacques Cousteau: A Life Under the Sea (2008) by Kathleen Olmstead
- The Silent WorldThe Silent WorldThe Silent World is a 1956 French documentary film co-directed by the famed French oceanographer Jacques-Yves Cousteau and a young Louis Malle. The Silent World is noted as one of the first films to use underwater cinematography to show the ocean depths in color...
- World Without SunWorld Without SunWorld Without Sun is a 1964 French documentary film directed by Jacques-Yves Cousteau. The film was Cousteau's second to win an Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature, following The Silent World in 1956.-Plot:...
- Journey to the End of the World (1976)
- Cries from the DeepCries from the DeepCries from the Deep is a 1981 documentary directed by Jacques Gagné about Jacques Cousteau's exploration of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland....
(1981) (Jacques Gagné, director)
- St. Lawrence: Stairway to the Sea (1982) (co-director)
- 1966–68 The World of Jacques-Yves Cousteau
- 1968–76 The Undersea World of Jacques CousteauThe Undersea World of Jacques CousteauThe Undersea World of Jacques Cousteau is a nonfiction documentary television series focusing on marine biodiversity, hosted by French filmmaker, researcher and marine explorer, Jacques Cousteau. New episodes of the series aired from 1968 until 1975....
- 1977–77 Oasis in Space
- 1977–81 Cousteau's Odyssey Series
- 1982–84 Cousteau's Amazon Series
- 1985–91 Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World I
- 1992–94 Cousteau's Rediscovery of the World II
- The Cousteau Society
- About the Cousteau Society (A page by Robert Simms of Clemson University Mathematics Department)
- NOAA summary of Cousteau Society contributions
- Cousteau speaking to young people (.mov QuickTime movie, 1.6Mb)
- Short biography
- Obituary (CNN)
- Find-A-Grave profile for Jacques-Yves Cousteau
- Jacques-Yves Cousteau (A brief biography by British amateur scuba diver Dave "Hooch" Hasney)
- Fact file by NNDB
- Review of latest book, The Human, The Orchid and The Octopus
- Pictures of Jacques-Yves Cousteau and other members of his marine exploration team.
- Jacques Cousteau centennial: 'The sea is everything'