Intravenous sugar solution
An intravenous sugar solution is a solution
In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture composed of only one phase. In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. The solvent does the dissolving.- Types of solutions :...

 with a sugar
Sugar is a class of edible crystalline carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, lactose, and fructose, characterized by a sweet flavor.Sucrose in its refined form primarily comes from sugar cane and sugar beet...

 (usually glucose
Glucose is a simple sugar and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate...

 or dextrose, with water as the solvent) used for intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein". Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals...

, where it may function both as a volume expander
Volume expander
A volume expander is a type of intravenous therapy that has the function of providing volume for the circulatory system. It may be used for fluid replacement.-Physiology:...

 and a means of parenteral nutrition.


Types of glucose/dextrose include:
  • D5W (5% dextrose in water), which consists of 278 mmol/L dextrose
  • D5NS (5% dextrose in normal saline), which, in addition, contains normal saline (0.90% w/v
    Percentage solution
    "Percentage solution" is an ambiguous term which is used to describe a solution with the unit "%". It may refer to:* Mass fraction if mass/mass is meant...

     of NaCl
    Sodium chloride
    Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms...

    • D5 1/2NS (5% dextrose in half amount of normal saline (0.45% w/v of NaCl).

The percentage is a mass percentage, so a 5% glucose/dextrose solution contains 50 mg/ml of glucose/dextrose.

Glucose provides energy 4 kcal/gram, so a 5% glucose solution provides 0.2 kcal/ml. Dextrose, on the other hand, is usually given as dextrose monohydrate, which yields 3.4 kcal/gram, corresponding to 0.17 kcal/ml for a 5% dextrose monohydrate solution.


Administering a 5% sugar solution peri- and postoperatively usually achieves a good balance between starvation reactions and hyperglycemia caused by sympathetic activation
Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is one of the three parts of the autonomic nervous system, along with the enteric and parasympathetic systems. Its general action is to mobilize the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response...

. A 10% solution may be more appropriate when the stress response from the reaction has decreased, after approximately one day after surgery. After more than approximately 2 days, a more complete regimen of total parenteral nutrition
Total parenteral nutrition
Parenteral nutrition is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals...

is indicated.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.