International Organization for Standardization
Overview
 
The International Organization for Standardization , widely known as ISO, is an international standard
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

. It has its headquarters in Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

.
The organization's logo
Logo
A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition...

s in two of its official languages, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, include the word ISO, and it is usually referred to by this short-form name.
Encyclopedia
The International Organization for Standardization , widely known as ISO, is an international standard
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Founded on February 23, 1947, the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary, industrial and commercial standards
International standard
International standards are standards developed by international standards organizations. International standards are available for consideration and use, worldwide...

. It has its headquarters in Geneva
Geneva
Geneva In the national languages of Switzerland the city is known as Genf , Ginevra and Genevra is the second-most-populous city in Switzerland and is the most populous city of Romandie, the French-speaking part of Switzerland...

, Switzerland
Switzerland
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

.

Name and abbreviation

The organization's logo
Logo
A logo is a graphic mark or emblem commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition...

s in two of its official languages, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 and French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, include the word ISO, and it is usually referred to by this short-form name. The organization says that ISO is not an acronym or initialism
Acronym and initialism
Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word. These components may be individual letters or parts of words . There is no universal agreement on the precise definition of the various terms , nor on written usage...

 for the organization's full name in either official language; rather, recognizing that its initials would be different in different languages, it adopted ISO, based on the Greek word isos , as the universal short form of its name. However, one of the founding delegates, Willy Kuert, recollected the original naming question with the comment "I recently read that the name ISO was chosen because 'iso' is a Greek term meaning 'equal'. There was no mention of that in London!"

History

The organization which today is known as ISO began in 1926 as the International Federation of the National Standardizing Associations (ISA). This organization focused heavily on mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the...

. It was disbanded in 1942 during the second World War but was re-organized under the current name, ISO, in 1946.

ISO is a voluntary organization whose members are recognized standard authorities, each one representing one country. The bulk of the work of ISO is done by the 2700 technical committees, subcommittees and working groups. Each committee and subcommittee is headed by a Secretariat from one of the member organizations.

Financing

ISO is funded by a combination of:
  • Organizations that manage the specific projects or loan experts to participate in the technical work.
  • Subscriptions from member bodies ("the national body most representative of standardization in its country"). These subscriptions are in proportion to each country's gross national product and trade figures.
  • Sale of standards.

International Standards and other publications

ISO's main products are the International Standards. ISO also publishes Technical Reports, Technical Specifications, Publicly Available Specifications, Technical Corrigenda, and Guides.*


International Standards are designated with the format ISO[/IEC] [/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[-p]:[yyyy] Title, where nnnnn is the number of the standard, p is an optional part number, yyyy is the year published, and Title describes the subject. IEC for International Electrotechnical Commission
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"...

is included if the standard results from the work of ISO/IEC JTC1 (the ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee). ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) is used for standards developed in cooperation with ASTM International
ASTM International
ASTM International, known until 2001 as the American Society for Testing and Materials , is an international standards organization that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services...

. The date and IS are not used for an incomplete or unpublished standard, and may under some circumstances be left off the title of a published work.

Technical Reports are issued when "a technical committee or subcommittee has collected data of a different kind from that which is normally published as an International Standard". such as references and explanations. The naming conventions for these are the same as for standards, except TR prepended instead of IS in the report's name. Examples:
  • ISO/IEC TR 17799:2000 Code of Practice for Information Security Management
  • ISO/TR 19033:2000 Technical product documentation — Metadata for construction documentation


Technical Specifications can be produced when "the subject in question is still under development or where for any other reason there is the future but not immediate possibility of an agreement to publish an International Standard". Publicly Available Specifications may be "an intermediate specification, published prior to the development of a full International Standard, or, in IEC may be a 'dual logo' publication published in collaboration with an external organization". Both are named by convention similar to Technical Reports, for example:
  • ISO/TS 16952-1:2006 Technical product documentation — Reference designation system — Part 1: General application rules
  • ISO/PAS 11154:2006 Road vehicles — Roof load carriers


ISO sometimes issues a Technical Corrigendum. These are amendments to existing standards because of minor technical flaws, usability improvements, or to extend applicability in a limited way. Generally, these are issued with the expectation that the affected standard will be updated or withdrawn at its next scheduled review.

ISO Guides are meta-standards covering "matters related to international standardization". They are named in the format "ISO[/IEC] Guide N:yyyy: Title", for example:
  • ISO/IEC Guide 2:2004 Standardization and related activities — General vocabulary
  • ISO/IEC Guide 65:1996 General requirements for bodies operating product certification

Standardization process

A standard published by ISO/IEC is the last stage of a long process that commonly starts with the proposal of new work within a committee. Here are some abbreviations used for marking a standard with its status:
  • PWI - Preliminary Work Item
  • NP or NWIP - New Proposal / New Work Item Proposal (e.g., ISO/IEC NP 23007)
  • AWI - Approved new Work Item (e.g., ISO/IEC AWI 15444-14)
  • WD - Working Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC WD 27032)
  • CD - Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC CD 23000-5)
  • FCD - Final Committee Draft (e.g., ISO/IEC FCD 23000-12)
  • DIS - Draft International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC DIS 14297)
  • FDIS - Final Draft International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC FDIS 27003)
  • PRF - Proof of a new International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC PRF 18018)
  • IS - International Standard (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007)


Abbreviations used for amendments:
  • NP Amd - New Proposal Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 15444-2:2004/NP Amd 3)
  • AWI Amd - Approved new Work Item Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14492:2001/AWI Amd 4)
  • WD Amd - Working Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO 11092:1993/WD Amd 1)
  • CD Amd / PDAmd - Committee Draft Amendment / Proposed Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/CD Amd 6)
  • FPDAmd / DAM (DAmd) - Final Proposed Draft Amendment / Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 14496-14:2003/FPDAmd 1)
  • FDAM (FDAmd) - Final Draft Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/FDAmd 4)
  • PRF Amd - (e.g., ISO 12639:2004/PRF Amd 1)
  • Amd - Amendment (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Amd 1:2007


Other abbreviations:
  • TR - Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC TR 19791:2006)
  • DTR - Draft Technical Report (e.g., ISO/IEC DTR 19791)
  • TS - Technical Specification (e.g., ISO/TS 16949:2009)
  • DTS - Draft Technical Specification (e.g., ISO/DTS 11602-1)
  • PAS - Publicly Available Specification
  • TTA - Technology Trends Assessment (e.g., ISO/TTA 1:1994)
  • IWA - International Workshop Agreement (e.g., IWA 1:2005)
  • Cor - Technical Corrigendum (e.g., ISO/IEC 13818-1:2007/Cor 1:2008)
  • Guide - a guidance to technical committees for the preparation of standards

International Standards are developed by ISO technical committees (TC) and subcommittees (SC) by a process with six steps:
  • Stage 1: Proposal stage
  • Stage 2: Preparatory stage
  • Stage 3: Committee stage
  • Stage 4: Enquiry stage
  • Stage 5: Approval stage
  • Stage 6: Publication stage


The TC/SC may set up working group
Working group
A working group is an interdisciplinary collaboration of researchers working on new research activities that would be difficult to develop under traditional funding mechanisms . The lifespan of the WG can last anywhere between a few months and several years...

s (WG) of experts for the preparation of a Working Drafts. Subcommittees may have several working groups, which can have several Sub Groups (SG).
Stages in the development process of an ISO standard
Stage code Stage Associated document name Abbreviations Description
00 Preliminary stage Preliminary work item PWI
10 Proposal stage New work item proposal NP or NWIP, NP Amd/TR/TS/IWA
20 Preparatory stage Working draft(s) AWI, AWI Amd/TR/TS, WD, WD Amd/TR/TS
30 Committee stage Committee draft(s) CD, CD Amd/Cor/TR/TS, PDAmd (PDAM), PDTR, PDTS
40 Enquiry stage Enquiry draft DIS, FCD, FPDAmd, DAmd (DAM), FPDISP, DTR, DTS (CDV in IEC)
50 Approval stage Final draft International Standard FDIS, FDAmd (FDAM), PRF, PRF Amd/TTA/TR/TS/Suppl, FDTR
60 Publication stage International Standard ISO TR, TS, IWA, Amd, Cor
90 Review stage ISO TR, TS, IWA, Amd, Cor
95 Withdrawal stage


It is possible to omit certain stages, if there is a document with a certain degree of maturity at the start of a standardization project - for example a standard developed by another organization. ISO/IEC Directives allow also the so-called "Fast-track procedure". In this procedure a document is submitted directly for approval as a draft International Standard (DIS) to the ISO member bodies or as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if the document was developed by an international standardizing body recognized by the ISO Council.

The first step - a proposal of work (New Proposal) is approved at the relevant subcommittee or technical committee (e.g., SC29 and JTC1 respectively in the case of Moving Picture Experts Group
Moving Picture Experts Group
The Moving Picture Experts Group is a working group of experts that was formed by ISO and IEC to set standards for audio and video compression and transmission. It was established in 1988 by the initiative of Hiroshi Yasuda and Leonardo Chiariglione, who has been from the beginning the Chairman...

 - ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11). A working group (WG) of experts is set up by the TC/SC for the preparation of a Working Draft. When the scope of a new work is sufficiently clarified, some of the working groups (e.g., MPEG) usually make open request for proposals - known as "Call for proposals". The first document that is produced for example for audio and video coding standards is called a Verification Model (VM) (previously also called a Simulation and Test Model). When a sufficient confidence in the stability of the standard under development is reached, a Working Draft (WD) is produced. This is in the form of a standard but is kept internal to working group for revision. When a Working Draft is sufficiently solid and the working group is satisfied that it has developed the best technical solution to the problem being addressed, it becomes Committee Draft (CD). If it is required, it is then sent to the P-members of the TC/SC (National Bodies) for ballot.

The CD becomes Final Committee Draft (FCD) if the number of positive votes is above the quorum. Successive committee drafts may be considered until consensus is reached on the technical content. When it is reached, the text is finalized for submission as a draft International Standard (DIS). The text is then submitted to National Bodies for voting and comment within a period of five months. It is approved for submission as a final draft International Standard (FDIS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC are in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. ISO will then hold a ballot with National Bodies where no technical changes are allowed (yes/no ballot), within a period of two months. It is approved as an International Standard (IS) if a two-thirds majority of the P-members of the TC/SC is in favour and not more than one-quarter of the total number of votes cast are negative. After approval, only minor editorial changes are introduced into the final text. The final text is sent to the ISO Central Secretariat which publishes it as the International Standard.

ISO document copyright

ISO documents are copyrighted and ISO charges for copies of most. ISO does not, however, charge for most draft copies of documents in electronic format. Although useful, care must be taken using these drafts as there is the possibility of substantial change before it becomes finalized as a standard. Some standards by ISO and its official U.S. representative (and the International Electrotechnical Commission
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"...

's via the U.S. National Committee) are made freely available.

Members

ISO has 162 national members
Countries in International Organization for Standardization
Countries in International Organization for Standardization is a list and map of the 162 members in the International Organization for Standardization and their membership status within the organization.-List:-Map:-Notes:...

, out of the 204 total countries in the world.

ISO has three membership categories:
  • Member bodies are national bodies that are considered to be the most representative standards body in each country. These are the only members of ISO that have voting rights.
  • Correspondent members are countries that do not have their own standards organization. These members are informed about ISO's work, but do not participate in standards promulgation.
  • Subscriber members are countries with small economies. They pay reduced membership fees, but can follow the development of standards.


Participating members are called "P" members as opposed to observing members which are called "O" members.

Products named after ISO

The fact that many of the ISO-created standards are ubiquitous has led, on occasion, to common use of "ISO" to describe the actual product that conforms to a standard. Some examples of this are:
  • Many CD images end in the file extension "ISO
    ISO image
    An ISO image is an archive file of an optical disc, composed of the data contents of every written sector of an optical disc, including the optical disc file system...

    " to signify that they are using the ISO 9660
    ISO 9660
    ISO 9660, also referred to as CDFS by some hardware and software providers, is a file system standard published by the International Organization for Standardization for optical disc media....

     standard file system as opposed to another file system - hence CD images are commonly referred to as "ISOs". Virtually all computers with CD-ROM
    CD-ROM
    A CD-ROM is a pre-pressed compact disc that contains data accessible to, but not writable by, a computer for data storage and music playback. The 1985 “Yellow Book” standard developed by Sony and Philips adapted the format to hold any form of binary data....

     drives can read CDs that use this standard. Some DVD-ROMs also use ISO 9660 file systems.
  • Photographic film's sensitivity to light, its "film speed
    Film speed
    Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system....

    ", is described by ISO 6, ISO 2240 and ISO 5800. Hence, the film's speed is often referred to as its "ISO number".
  • Often, the flash hot shoe
    Hot shoe
    A hot shoe is a mounting point on the top of a camera to attach a flash unit.- Design :The hot shoe is shaped somewhat like an inverted, squared-off "U" of metal. The matching adapter on the bottom of the flash unit slides in from the back of the camera and is sometimes secured by a clamping screw...

     found on cameras is called "ISO shoe", as it was originally defined in ISO 518.

ISO/IEC Joint Technical Committee 1

To deal with the consequences of substantial overlap in areas of standardization and work related to information technology, ISO and IEC
International Electrotechnical Commission
The International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"...

 formed a Joint Technical Committee known as the ISO/IEC JTC1. It was the first such joint committee. The second joint committee was created in 2009 - Joint Project Committee - Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources - Common terminology (ISO/IEC/JTC 2).

Criticism

With the exception of a small number of isolated standards, ISO standards are normally not available free of charge, but for a purchase fee, which has been seen by some as too expensive for small open source
Open source
The term open source describes practices in production and development that promote access to the end product's source materials. Some consider open source a philosophy, others consider it a pragmatic methodology...

 projects.

The ISO/IEC JTC1
ISO/IEC JTC1
ISO/IEC JTC 1 is Joint Technical Committee 1 of the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission . It deals with all matters of information technology....

 fast-track procedures ("Fast-track" as used by OOXML and "PAS" as used by OpenDocument
OpenDocument
The Open Document Format for Office Applications is an XML-based file format for representing electronic documents such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents....

) have garnered criticism in relation to the standardization of Office Open XML
Standardization of Office Open XML
The Office Open XML file formats were standardised between December 2006 and November 2008, first by the Ecma International consortium , and subsequently, after a contentious standardization process, by the ISO/IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 .- Standardization within Ecma International :More...

 (ISO/IEC 29500). Martin Bryan, outgoing Convenor of ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC34
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 34 titled as Document description and processing languages is a subcommittee of the ISO/IEC JTC1 joint technical committee, which is a collaborative effort of both the International Organization for Standardization and the International Electrotechnical Commission.-Scope and Terms...

 WG1, is quoted as saying:


I would recommend my successor that it is perhaps time to pass WG1’s outstanding standards over to OASIS, where they can get approval in less than a year and then do a PAS submission to ISO, which will get a lot more attention and be approved much faster than standards currently can be within WG1.


The disparity of rules for PAS, Fast-Track and ISO committee generated standards is fast making ISO a laughing stock in IT circles. The days of open standards development are fast disappearing. Instead we are getting 'standardization by corporation'.


Computer security entrepreneur and Ubuntu
Ubuntu (operating system)
Ubuntu is a computer operating system based on the Debian Linux distribution and distributed as free and open source software. It is named after the Southern African philosophy of Ubuntu...

 investor, Mark Shuttleworth
Mark Shuttleworth
Mark Richard Shuttleworth is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist. Shuttleworth founded Canonical Ltd. and as of 2010, provides leadership for the Ubuntu operating system...

, commented on the Standardization of Office Open XML
Standardization of Office Open XML
The Office Open XML file formats were standardised between December 2006 and November 2008, first by the Ecma International consortium , and subsequently, after a contentious standardization process, by the ISO/IEC's Joint Technical Committee 1 .- Standardization within Ecma International :More...

 process by saying

I think it de-values the confidence people have in the standards setting process,


and Shuttleworth alleged that ISO did not carry out its responsibility. He also noted that Microsoft
Microsoft
Microsoft Corporation is an American public multinational corporation headquartered in Redmond, Washington, USA that develops, manufactures, licenses, and supports a wide range of products and services predominantly related to computing through its various product divisions...

 had intensely lobbied many countries that traditionally had not participated in ISO and stacked technical committees with Microsoft employees, solution providers and resellers sympathetic to Office Open XML.


When you have a process built on trust and when that trust is abused, ISO should halt the process ... ISO is an engineering old boys club and these things are boring so you have to have a lot of passion … then suddenly you have an investment of a lot of money and lobbying and you get artificial results. The process is not set up to deal with intensive corporate lobbying and so you end up with something being a standard that is not clear.

See also

  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
    American National Standards Institute
    The American National Standards Institute is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States. The organization also coordinates U.S. standards with international...

  • Deutsches Institut für Normung
    Deutsches Institut für Normung
    is the German national organization for standardization and is that country's ISO member body. DIN is a Registered German Association headquartered in Berlin...

    , German Institute for Standardization (DIN)
  • British Standards Institution
    BSI Group
    BSI Group, also known in its home market as the British Standards Institution , is a multinational business services provider whose principal activity is the production of standards and the supply of standards-related services.- History :...

     (BSI)
  • Countries in International Organization for Standardization
    Countries in International Organization for Standardization
    Countries in International Organization for Standardization is a list and map of the 162 members in the International Organization for Standardization and their membership status within the organization.-List:-Map:-Notes:...

  • Canadian Standards Association
    Canadian Standards Association
    The Canadian Standards Association, also known as the CSA, is a not-for-profit Standards organization with the stated aim of developing standards for use in 57 different areas of specialisation...

  • European Committee for Standardization
    European Committee for Standardization
    The European Committee for Standardization or Comité Européen de Normalisation , is a non-profit organisation whose mission is to foster the European economy in global trading, the welfare of European citizens and the environment by providing an efficient infrastructure to interested parties for...

     (CEN)
  • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) set of standards (GOST)
    GOST
    GOST refers to a set of technical standards maintained by the Euro-Asian Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification , a regional standards organization operating under the auspices of the Commonwealth of Independent States .All sorts of regulated standards are included, with examples...

  • International Classification for Standards
    International Classification for Standards
    International Classification for Standards is an international classification system for technical standards. It is designed to cover every economic sector and virtually every activity of the humankind where technical standards may be used....

  • International Electrotechnical Commission
    International Electrotechnical Commission
    The International Electrotechnical Commission is a non-profit, non-governmental international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology"...

     (IEC) and ISO/IEC standards
  • International healthcare accreditation
    International healthcare accreditation
    Due to the near-universal desire for quality healthcare, there is a growing interest in international healthcare accreditation. Providing healthcare, especially of an adequate standard, is a complex and challenging process...

  • International Telecommunication Union
    International Telecommunication Union
    The International Telecommunication Union is the specialized agency of the United Nations which is responsible for information and communication technologies...

     (ITU)
  • Institute of Environmental Sciences and Technology (IEST)
  • ISO A4
  • ISO country code
  • List of International Organization for Standardization standards

  • ISO divisions
    • ISO/TC 37
      ISO/TC 37
      ISO/TC 37 is a technical committee within the International Organization for Standardization that prepares standards and other documents concerning methodology and principles for terminology and language resources....

    • ISO/TC 68
      ISO/TC 68
      ISO/TC 68 is a technical committee formed within the International Organization for Standardization , of Geneva, Switzerland, tasked with developing and maintaining international standards covering the areas of banking, securities, and other financial services...

    • TC 46/SC 9
      TC 46/SC 9
      ISO TC 46/SC 9 is the ninth subcommittee of ISO technical committee 46, and is responsible for identification and description of information resources.-ISO standards overseen:Note: All names are in the format of International Standard...

    • ISO/TC 211
      ISO/TC 211
      ISO/TC 211 is a standard technical committee formed within ISO, tasked with covering the areas of digital geographic information and geomatics. It is responsible for preparation of a series of International Standards and Technical Specifications numbered in the range starting at 19101...

    • ISO/TC 215
      ISO/TC 215
      The ISO/TC 215 is the International Organization for Standardization's Technical Committee on health informatics. TC 215 works on the standardization of Health Information and Communications Technology , to allow for compatibility and interoperability between independent systems.-Working...

    • ISO/TC 223
      ISO/TC 223
      ISO/TC 223 is a technical committee of the International Standards Organization formed to develop standards in the area of societal security: increasing crisis and continuity management and capabilities through technical, human, organization, operational, and management approaches as well as...

  • Standardization
    Standardization
    Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards.The goals of standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers , compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality....

  • Standards Australia
    Standards Australia
    Standards Australia was established in 1922 and is recognised through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Australian government as the peak non-government standards development body in Australia. It is a company limited by guarantee, with 72 members representing groups interested in the...

  • Standards organization
    Standards organization
    A standards organization, standards body, standards developing organization , or standards setting organization is any organization whose primary activities are developing, coordinating, promulgating, revising, amending, reissuing, interpreting, or otherwise producing technical standards that are...

  • Terminology planning policy
    Terminology planning policy
    Terminology planning is a planning activity for developing domain communication largely according to the needs and requirements of knowledge representation...

  • The International Customer Service Institute
    The International Customer Service Institute
    The International Customer Service Institute is an international organisation enabling the recognition and sharing of global best practice in customer service...

     (TICSI)
  • AP Stylebook
    AP Stylebook
    The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law, usually called the AP Stylebook, is a style and usage guide used by newspapers and in the news industry in the United States...

     (Associated Press Style)
  • Interface 2010 (Interface Marketing Supplier Integration Institute)

Further reading



External links

(free access to the catalogue of standards only, not to the contents)
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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