Intentional camera movement
In intentional camera movement (ICM), a camera is moved during the exposure for a creative or artistic effect.

The process involves the selection of an aperture
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels. More specifically, the aperture of an optical system is the opening that determines the cone angle of a bundle of rays that come to a focus in the image plane. The aperture determines how collimated the admitted rays are,...

 and the use of filters to achieve a suitable shutter speed
Shutter speed
In photography, shutter speed is a common term used to discuss exposure time, the effective length of time a camera's shutter is open....

. Proponents experiment both with the duration of the exposure and the direction and amount of camera movement while the shutter is open. Generally exposures of one second or longer give the best results and an optimum seems to be between one and five seconds.

If light levels are high the use of neutral density filter
Neutral density filter
In photography and optics, a neutral density filter or ND filter can be a colorless or grey filter. An ideal neutral density filter reduces and/or modifies intensity of all wavelengths or colors of light equally, giving no changes in hue of color rendition.The purpose of standard photographic...

s will reduce the light entering the lens
-Optics:*Lens , an optical element which converges or diverges light**Lens , a part of the eye**Corrective lens for correction of human vision***Contact lens, placed on the cornea of the eye**Photographic lens, a lens designed for use on a camera...

, thus enabling the exposure to be extended. A polarising filter
Polarizing filter (Photography)
The polarizing filter used with most modern cameras is a circular polarizer. The first stage of the polarizer is a linear filter which filters out light that is linearly polarized in a specific direction...

 can also be fitted to the lens. This has a dual effect of reducing reflections within the image and reducing the light by about two stops. Photographers set the camera's ISO setting
Film speed
Film speed is the measure of a photographic film's sensitivity to light, determined by sensitometry and measured on various numerical scales, the most recent being the ISO system....

 to the lowest available on the camera (commonly 100), as this reduces the camera's sensitivity to light and so gives the slowest possible shutter speed.

The direction of movement of the lens has a dramatic effect on the results. Patience is required along with much experimentation to establish where and how to move the camera to achieve the desired effect. The camera
A camera is a device that records and stores images. These images may be still photographs or moving images such as videos or movies. The term camera comes from the camera obscura , an early mechanism for projecting images...

 can be moved upwards, downwards, to the right or left or away from or towards the subject while being handheld. The advent of digital photography
Digital photography
Digital photography is a form of photography that uses an array of light sensitive sensors to capture the image focused by the lens, as opposed to an exposure on light sensitive film...

 has made such photography cheaper as unsuccessful exposures cost nothing.

Leading proponents of the technique include Ernst Haas
Ernst Haas
Ernst Haas was an Austrian artist and influential photographer noted for his innovations in color photography, experiments in abstract light and form, and as a member of the Magnum Photos agency....

, and Alexey Titarenko
Alexey Titarenko
Alexey Viktorovich Titarenko is a Soviet and Russian photographer and artist.-Biography:At age 15, he became the youngest member of the independent photo club Zerkalo [Mirror]...

. .
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