Ilocos Sur
Overview
 
Ilocos Sur is a province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 located in the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
The Ilocos region or Region I is a Region of the Philippines and is located in the northwest of Luzon. It borders to the east the regions of the Cordillera Administrative Region and Cagayan Valley and to the south the region of Central Luzon...

 in Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. Vigan City
Vigan City
The City of Vigan is a 5th class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. It is the capital of the Province of Ilocos Sur...

, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital. Ilocos Sur is bordered by Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

 and Abra to the north, Mountain Province
Mountain Province
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some...

 to the east, La Union
La Unión
La Union or La Unión may refer to:-Colombia:*La Unión, Antioquia*La Unión, Nariño*La Unión, Sucre*La Unión, Valle del Cauca-Peru:*La Unión Province, Peru...

 and Benguet
Benguet
Benguet is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, La Union, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya....

 to the south, and the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

 to the west.
The historic city of Vigan, which was inscribed in UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

’s World Heritage List in November 1999, is found in this province.
Encyclopedia
Ilocos Sur is a province
Provinces of the Philippines
The Provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 80 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities. The National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are autonomous from any provincial...

 of the Philippines
Philippines
The Philippines , officially known as the Republic of the Philippines , is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam...

 located in the Ilocos Region
Ilocos Region
The Ilocos region or Region I is a Region of the Philippines and is located in the northwest of Luzon. It borders to the east the regions of the Cordillera Administrative Region and Cagayan Valley and to the south the region of Central Luzon...

 in Luzon
Luzon
Luzon is the largest island in the Philippines. It is located in the northernmost region of the archipelago, and is also the name for one of the three primary island groups in the country centered on the Island of Luzon...

. Vigan City
Vigan City
The City of Vigan is a 5th class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. It is the capital of the Province of Ilocos Sur...

, located on the mouth of the Mestizo River is the provincial capital. Ilocos Sur is bordered by Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

 and Abra to the north, Mountain Province
Mountain Province
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some...

 to the east, La Union
La Unión
La Union or La Unión may refer to:-Colombia:*La Unión, Antioquia*La Unión, Nariño*La Unión, Sucre*La Unión, Valle del Cauca-Peru:*La Unión Province, Peru...

 and Benguet
Benguet
Benguet is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is La Trinidad and borders, clockwise from the south, Pangasinan, La Union, Ilocos Sur, Mountain Province, Ifugao, and Nueva Vizcaya....

 to the south, and the South China Sea
South China Sea
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around...

 to the west.

Heritage Village of the Philippines

The historic city of Vigan, which was inscribed in UNESCO
UNESCO
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

’s World Heritage List in November 1999, is found in this province. Established in the 16th century, Vigan is the best preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. Its architecture combines cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines and from China with those from Europe to create a unique culture and townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia. Its Kamestizoan District has examples of typical houses with tiled roofs, hardwood floors, balustrades and azoteas in varying Spanish-Mexican-Chinese architectural styles.

Centuries-old Santa Maria Church, declared a National Landmark, was used as a fortress during the Philippine Revolution of 1896. Tirad Pass, declared a National Shrine, held the last stand of the Filipino Revolutionary Forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo of that same period. Bessang Pass served as the backdoor to General Yamashita’s last ditch defense during the last stage of World War II.

Political

Ilocos Sur is subdivided into 32 municipalities
Municipalities of the Philippines
A municipality is a local government unit in the Philippines. Municipalities are also called towns . They are distinct from cities, which are a different category of local government unit...

 and 2 cities
Cities of the Philippines
A city is a tier of local government in the Philippines. All Philippine cities are chartered cities, whose existence as corporate and administrative entities is governed by their own specific charters in addition to the Local Government Code of 1991, which specifies the administrative structure...

.

Municipalities



  • Alilem
    Alilem, Ilocos Sur
    Alilem is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 6,217 people in 1,168 households.-Barangays:Alilem is politically subdivided into 9 barangays.* Alilem Daya...

  • Banayoyo
    Banayoyo, Ilocos Sur
    Banayoyo is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 7,149 people in 1,364 households.-Etymology:The municipality of Banayoyo was originally called “Bacsayan”...

  • Bantay
    Bantay, Ilocos Sur
    Bantay is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census , it has a population of 35,439 people in 6,001 households.-Barangays:...

  • Burgos
    Burgos, Ilocos Sur
    Burgos is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 11,459 people in 2,174 households.-Barangays:Burgos is politically subdivided into 26 barangays.-History:...

  • Cabugao
    Cabugao, Ilocos Sur
    Cabugao is a 1st class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 33,847 people in 6,268 households.-Political subdivisions:...

  • Caoayan
    Caoayan, Ilocos Sur
    Caoayan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 18,914 people in 3,533 households.-Barangays:Caoayan is politically subdivided into 17 barangays....

  • Cervantes
    Cervantes, Ilocos Sur
    Cervantes is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the 2007 census, it has a population of 14,116 people in 2,673 households.The municipality is officially the Summer Capital of Ilocos Sur...

  • Galimuyod
    Galimuyod, Ilocos Sur
    Galimuyod is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 10,310 people in 1,792 households.-Barangays:Galimuyod is politically subdivided into 24 barangays.* Abaya...

  • Gregorio del Pilar
    Gregorio del Pilar, Ilocos Sur
    Gregorio Del Pilar is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the 2000 census, it has a population of 4,134 people in 811 households....

     (Concepcion)
  • Lidlidda
    Lidlidda, Ilocos Sur
    Lidlidda is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 3,798 people in 785 households.-Barangays:Lidlidda is politically subdivided into 11 barangays.* Banucal* Bequi-Walin...

  • Magsingal
    Magsingal, Ilocos Sur
    Magsingal is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 27,615 people in 5,311 households.-Barangays:Magsingal is politically subdivided into 30 barangays.* Alangan...

  • Nagbukel
    Nagbukel, Ilocos Sur
    Nagbukel is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 4,764 people in 910 households.-Barangays:Nagbukel is politically subdivided into 12 barangays.* Balaweg* Bandril...

  • Narvacan
    Narvacan, Ilocos Sur
    Narvacan is a 1st class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 41,578 people in 7,803 households.-Barangays:Narvacan is politically subdivided into 34 barangays.*Abuor*Ambulogan...

  • Quirino
    Quirino, Ilocos Sur
    Quirino is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 7,866 people in 1348 households....

     (Angaki)
  • Salcedo
    Salcedo, Ilocos Sur
    Salcedo is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 10,704 people in 2,111 households....

     (Baugen)
  • San Emilio
    San Emilio, Ilocos Sur
    San Emilio is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 6,920 people in 1,276 households.-Barangays:San Emilio is politically subdivided into 8 barangays.* Cabaroan...




  • San Esteban
    San Esteban, Ilocos Sur
    San Esteban is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 7,779 people in 1,482 households.-Barangays:San Esteban is politically subdivided into 10 barangays.*Ansad*Apatot...

  • San Ildefonso
    San Ildefonso, Ilocos Sur
    San Ildefonso is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 6,670 people in 1,127 households....

  • San Juan
    San Juan, Ilocos Sur
    San Juan, formerly Lapog, is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 23,808 people in 4,866 households....

     (Lapog)
  • San Vicente
    San Vicente, Ilocos Sur
    San Vicente is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 11,907 people in 2,248 households....

  • Santa
    Santa, Ilocos Sur
    Santa is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 14,059 people in 2,811 households.-Barangays:Santa is politically subdivided into 26 barangays.* Ampandula* Banaoang...

  • Santa Catalina
    Santa Catalina, Ilocos Sur
    Santa Catalina is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 13,284 people in 2,404 households....

  • Santa Cruz
    Santa Cruz, Ilocos Sur
    Santa Cruz is a 1st class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 35,906 people in 6,727 households.-Barangays:Santa Cruz is politically subdivided into 49 barangays.* Amarao...

  • Santa Lucia
    Santa Lucia, Ilocos Sur
    Santa Lucia is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 23,872 people in 4,512 households.-Barangays:Santa Lucia is politically subdivided into 36 barangays.* Alincaoeg...

  • Santa Maria
    Santa Maria, Ilocos Sur
    Santa Maria is a 3rd class partially urban municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 28,002 people in 6,817 households.-Barangays:...

  • Santiago
    Santiago, Ilocos Sur
    Santiago is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 16,806 people in 3,233 households.Santiago Cove is dubbed as the "Boracay of Ilocos Sur" because of its white sands....

  • Santo Domingo
    Santo Domingo, Ilocos Sur
    Santo Domingo is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 25,888 people in 4,871 households.-Barangays:Santo Domingo is politically subdivided into 36 barangays....

  • Sigay
    Sigay, Ilocos Sur
    Sigay is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 2,453 people in 408 households....

  • Sinait
    Sinait, Ilocos Sur
    Sinait is a 3rd class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 24,896 people in 5,131 households....

  • Sugpon
    Sugpon, Ilocos Sur
    Sugpon is a 5th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 3,936 people in 632 households.-Barangays:Sugpon is politically subdivided into 6 barangays.* Balbalayang/Poblacion...

  • Suyo
    Suyo, Ilocos Sur
    Suyo is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 10,943 people in 1,859 households.-Barangays:Suyo is politically subdivided into 8 barangays.* Baringcucurong* Cabugao...

  • Tagudin
    Tagudin, Ilocos Sur
    Tagudin is a first class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 38,123 people in 6,603 households.-Barangays:Tagudin is politically subdivided into 43 barangays....




Physical

Ilocos Sur is located along the western coast of Northern Luzon. It is bordered by Ilocos Norte to the north, Abra to the northeast, Mountain Province to the east, Benguet to the southeast, La Union to the south, and the China Sea to the west. Its area of 2,579.58 square kilometers occupies about 20.11% of the total land area of Region 1.

The topography of Ilocos Sur is undulating to rolling with elevations ranging from 10 to 1,700 meters above sea level.

Climate

The climate is generally dry as defined by the Hernandez climate classification—the dry months are from October to May. However, the southernmost portion, Cervantes, is humid and rain is evenly distributed throughout the year while the eastern part of Sugpon is drier. August has the most rainfall while January and February have the least. The mean temperature in the province is 27 degrees C. January is the coldest.

Population

In the 2007 census, the population of Ilocos Sur was 632,255. Vigan City
Vigan City
The City of Vigan is a 5th class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. It is the capital of the Province of Ilocos Sur...

, the capital of Ilocos Sur, has a population of 47,246. The most populous city is Candon City
Candon City
Candon City is a 4th class city in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 56,270 people in 10,257 households. Dubbed as the "Tobacco Capital of the Philippines" the city is the country's largest producer of Virginia-type tobacco...

 with a population of 56,270.

Cities and Municipalities Population Table
City/Municipality Population (2007) Land Area (In Hectares)
Alilem 6,217 11,933
Banayoyo 7,149 2,463
Bantay 33,174 10,485
Burgos 7,724 4,438
Cabugao 33,847 9,556
Candon City 56,270 10,328
Caoayan 18,914 1,742
Cervantes 14,116 23,470
Galimuyod 10,310 3,440
Gregorio del Pilar 4,308 4,166
Lidlidda 3,798 3,384
Magsingal 27,615 8,498
Nagbukel 4,764 4,312
Narvacan 41,578 12,221
Quirino 7,866 24,010
Salcedo 10,704 10,344
San Emilio 6,920 14,144
San Esteban 7,779 1,962
San Ildefonso 6,670 1,135
San Juan 23,808 6,437
San Vicente 11,907 1,260
Santa 14,059 10,910
Santa Catalina 13,284 968
Santa Cruz 35,906 8,878
Santa Lucia 23,872 4,972
Santa Maria 28,002 6,331
Santiago 16,806 4,636
Santo Domingo 25,888 5,549
Sigay 2,453 8,155
Sinait 24,896 6,556
Sugpon 3,936 5,711
Suyo 10,943 12,400
Tagudin 35,791 15,119
Vigan City 47,246 2,512

Major Industries

The people are engaged in farming, producing food crops, mostly rice, corn, vegetable, root crops, and fruits. Non-food crops include tobacco, cotton, and tigergrass. Cottage industries include loom weaving, furniture making, jewelry making, ceramics, blacksmithing, and food processing.

History

Before the coming of the Spaniards, the coastal plains in northwestern Luzon, stretching from Bangui (Ilocos Norte) in the north to Namacpacan (Luna, La Union) in the south, were a region called the Ylokos. This region lies in between the China Sea in the west and Northern Cordilleras on the east. The inhabitants built their villages near the small bays on coves called “looc” in the dialect. These coastal inhabitants were referred to as “Ylocos” which literally meant “from the lowlands”. The entire region was then called by the ancient name “Samtoy” from “sao ditoy” which in Ilokano mean “our dialect”. The region was later called by the Spaniards as “Ylocos” or “Ilocos” and its people “Ilocanos”.

The Ilocos Region was already a thriving, fairly advanced cluster of towns and settlements familiar to Chinese, Japanese and Malay traders when the Spaniard explorer Don Juan de Salcedo and members of his expedition arrived in Vigan on June 13, 1572. Forthwith, they made Cabigbigaan (Bigan), the heart of the Ylokos settlement their headquarters which Salcedo called “Villa Fernandina” and which eventually gained fame as the “Intramuros of Ilocandia”. Salcedo declared the whole Northern Luzon as an "encomienda", or a land grant. Subsequently, he became the encomendero of Vigan and Lieutenant Governor of the Ylokos until his death in July 1574.

Augustinian missionaries came to conquer the region through evangelization. They established parishes and built churches that still stand today. Three centuries later, Vigan became the seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia.

A royal decree of February 2, 1818 separated Ilocos Norte from Ilocos Sur, the latter to include the northern part of La Union (as far as Namacpacan, now Luna) and all of what is now the province of Abra. The sub-province of Lepanto and Amburayan in Mt. Province were annexed to Ilocos Sur.

The passage of Act 2683 by the Philippine Legislature in March 1917 defined the present geographical boundary of the province.

There are many writers and statesmen throughout the history of the Philippines. Pedro Bukaneg is the father of Iluko Literature. Isabelo de los Reyes
Isabelo de los Reyes
Isabelo Florentino De Los Reyes, Sr., also known as Don Belong , was a prominent Filipino politician, writer and labor activist in the 19th and 20th centuries. He was the founder of the Aglipayan Church, an independent Philippine national church...

 will always be remembered as the Father of the Filipino Labor Movement. His mother, Leona Florentino
Leona Florentino
Leona Florentino was a Filipino poet in the Spanish and Ilocano languages. She is considered as the "mother of Philippine women's literature" and the "bridge from oral to literary tradition"....

 was the most outstanding Filipino woman writer of the Spanish era. Vicente Singson Encarnacion, an exemplary statesman, was also a noted authority on business and industry.

From the ranks of the barrio schoolteachers, Elpidio Quirino rose to become President of the Republic of the Philippines which is the town's most illustrious and native son of Caoayan, Ilocos Sur
Caoayan, Ilocos Sur
Caoayan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ilocos Sur, Philippines. According to the latest census, it has a population of 18,914 people in 3,533 households.-Barangays:Caoayan is politically subdivided into 17 barangays....

. Col. Salvador F. Reyes, a graduate of the Westpoint Military Academy, USA, led an untarnished and brilliant military career.

The Ilocos Sur Story

Ilocos Sur's history reflects that of the Philippine history in its entirety. In Vigan, the Villa Fernandina founded in 1574 by Juan de Salcedo, grandson of the Adelantado Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, markers and inscriptions can be found throughout the city.

Following the exploration and conquest of the Ilocos by the Castillan sword, the evangelization of the inhabitants was pursued with the characteristic zeal of the Augustinian missionaries. The stone churches built over the centuries reflect Spanish power that held sway in union with the Church. It is thus interesting to read the marker found near the door of the Vigan Cathedral, placed there by the Philippine Historical Committee.

Heart of Ilocandia

The Ancient Land of Samtoy

On the northwestern part of Luzon, the Ilocos range restricts a narrow stretch coastal plain throughout its entire length as the home of one of the tribes of the Malay race, the Ilocanos.

Gleanings from ancient chronicles such as that of Fray Andres Carro say that the word “Samtoy” was applied to ancient Ylokos or to the most important town of the region, where the most important dialect was spoken.

The ancient land of Ylokos or Samtoy extended from Bangui in the north to Aringay in the south. Hemmed in between the reefy coast of the China Sea and the rugged mountain ranges of the Cordillera is a long narrow strip of coastal plain. On the western China Sea side, the land is sandy. On the eastern side, near the slopes of the mountains that separates the region from the Mountain Province, the land is rocky, leaving just a narrow strip of plain here and there for cultivation. In places, the mountains come so close to the sea that the public highway has to wind along the steep mountain and sea. The pressure of increasing population and consequent land hunger has made the people of this region thrifty.

Exploration

The coast of Samtoy, already familiar to Chinese and Japanese traders before Magellan’s time, was known to the Spanish colonizers in 1572 when Juan de Salcedo traveled along Samtoy or what is now known as the Ilocos Provinces. Sent by the “Adelantado”, Miguel Lopez d Legaspi to explore the whole island of Luzon, Salcedo founded Ciudad Fernandina in 1574 in the heart of Yloko settlement in Bigan, in what is now Ilocos Sur. It became the center of Spanish rule and influence, and the evangelization and pacification movements.

The Spaniards, after Salcedo’s exploration, created Samtoy, the whole northwestern region of Luzon into an ‘encomienda” with Villa Fernadina at Tamag (Bigan), as the capital.

Salcedo was made Lieutenant Governor of Ylokos and the “encomendero” of Bigan where he died on March 11, 1576. It was due to his efforts that the settlements in Tagurin, Santa Lucia, Nalbacan, Bantay, Candon and Sinayt were pacified and made to pay tribute to the King of Spain.

Conversion of the Natives

To implement Spain’s policy, missionaries came over to convert the natives to Christianity. A Spanish chronicler wrote: “The Ilocos are all Christians and are the humblest and most tractable.’

The evangelization of Ilocos Sur was allotted to the Augustinians who established parishes in Santa in 1576, Tagurin in 1586, Sta. Lucia in 1586, Nalbacan in 1587, Candon 1591, and Bantay in 1590. In 1641 they built a church in Bigan, which 117 years later, was to become the cathedral of the Episcopal See of Nueva Segovia.

Dismemberment of Ylokos

The Ylokos comprised the present provinces of Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

, Ilocos Sur, La Union
La Unión
La Union or La Unión may refer to:-Colombia:*La Unión, Antioquia*La Unión, Nariño*La Unión, Sucre*La Unión, Valle del Cauca-Peru:*La Unión Province, Peru...

, Abra
Abra
- Places :* Abra, Burkina Faso* Abra, Côte d'Ivoire* Abra , a province of the Philippines* Abra River, in the Philippines* El Abra, an archaeological excavation site in Colombia* Abra, Lebanon, a municipality of Lebanon- Other uses :...

, and a part of Mountain Province
Mountain Province
Mountain Province is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. Its capital is Bontoc and borders, clockwise from the south, Ifugao, Benguet, Ilocos Sur, Abra, Kalinga, and Isabela.Mountain Province is sometimes incorrectly named Mountain in some...

. When Pangasinan
Pangasinan
Pangasinan is a province of the Republic of the Philippines. The provincial capital is Lingayen. Pangasinan is located on the west central and peripheral area of the island of Luzon along the Lingayen Gulf, with the total land area being 5,368.82 square kilometers . According to the latest census,...

 was made a province in 1611, a part of La Union was taken from Ylokos and annexed to Pangasinan.

A royal decree dated February 2, 1818 separated the northern part of Ylokos which became the province of Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

. The southern part called Ilocos Sur, included the northern part of La Union and all of what is now the province of Abra. In 1854, the province of La Union
La Unión
La Union or La Unión may refer to:-Colombia:*La Unión, Antioquia*La Unión, Nariño*La Unión, Sucre*La Unión, Valle del Cauca-Peru:*La Unión Province, Peru...

 was created out of the towns that had heretofore belonged to Ilocos Sur and Pangasinan. Ilocos Sur previously extended as far south as Namacpacan (Luna), and the territory south of this belonged to Pangasinan. It was the union of portions of Ilocos Sur from the Amburayan were taken from the Mountain Province and incorporated with Ilocos Sur.

Abra
Abra
- Places :* Abra, Burkina Faso* Abra, Côte d'Ivoire* Abra , a province of the Philippines* Abra River, in the Philippines* El Abra, an archaeological excavation site in Colombia* Abra, Lebanon, a municipality of Lebanon- Other uses :...

 which was one a part of Ilocos Sur, was created in 1864 with Lepanto as a sub-province to Ilocos Sur, and remained as such until March, 1971 when the passage of Act made it again a separate province.

Vigan, Capital of Ylocos

Vigan is almost four centuries old, and was once known as “Kabigbigaan” from “biga” (Alocasia Indica), a coarse erect and araceous plant with large and ornate leaves with grows on the banks of the rivers. Its name “Bigan” was later changed to Vigan. To the Spaniards it was Villa Fernandina in honor of King Ferdinand, the Spanish ruler then.=

Founded in 1574 by Juan de Salcedo as capital of ancient Ylocos, Vigan vied in importance and gentility with the city of Intramuros. Even before Salcedo came to Bigan, the town was already a center of Malayan civilization with a population of 8,000, a population greater than that of Manila then. It was already enjoying some prosperity, trading with the Chinese and Japanese who brought fine jars, silk and crockery through the nearby port of Pandan, Caoayan.

In the 19th century, Vigan also traded with Europe. Ships loaded indigo in its port for the textile mills in the Continent. The invention of chemical dyes in Germany ruined this industry. By then, the affluent citizens of Vigan had stocked their homes with statuettes of brass and iron, dinner wares, other artifacts of European civilization, fine ivory and inlaid furniture and China wares.

The People - Theirs is a Granite that Makes the Ilocano Nation

Ilocos Sur is inhabited mostly by Ilocanos belonging to the third largest ethnic group of Malay origin. A Spanish chronicler wrote that “the people are very simple, domestic and peaceful, large of body and very strong. “They are highly civilized, superior to the most of the tribes in other parts of Luzon. They are a most clean race, especially the women in their homes which they keep very neat and clean.”

Miguel de Loarca records around 1582 that the Ilocanos “are more intelligent than the Zambaleños for they are traders and they traffic with the Chinese, Japanese and Borneans. The main occupation of the people is commerce, but they are also good farmers and sell their articles of good farmers and sell their articles of food and clothing to the Igorots.”

Father Juan de Medina noted in 1630 that the natives are ‘the humblest and most tractable known and lived in nest and large settlements’

Social Institutions

Before Salcedo died in 1576, be bequeathed his encomienda to a selected group who perpetuated the tenancy system from which developed the practice of caciquism and landlordism, and consequently, usury. The aristocracy of the “babaknangs” against whom the “kaillanes” rose in revolt in 1762 is apparent. The two sections of the town – one for the “meztizos” and the other for the “naturales” are still distinct. These practices became prominent during the indigo boom at the middle of the 19th century. Caciquism, together with landlordism and usury, was the greatest obstacle to the progress of the province. Ilocos underwent the throes of these practices to be what it is today.

Agrarian Economy

Ilocos Sur’s economy is agrarian, but its 2,647 square kilometers of unfertile land is not enough to support a population of 338,579.

Such agricultural crops as rice, corn tobacco and fruit trees dominate their farm industries.

Secondary crops are camote and cassava, sugar cane and onions. Gov. Eliseo Quirino in 1952 bolstered the economy of Ilocos Sur by encouraging the planting of coconut trees and citrus.

The rapidly growing population, the decreasing fertility of the soil, and the long period between the planting and harvesting season, have forced the people to turn to manufacture and trade. Many Ilocanos go to the Cagayan valley, Central Plains and Mindanao to sell Ilocano woven cloth.

Weaving is the most extensive handicraft. This is bolstered by the installation of the NDC Textile Mills in Narvacan which supplies the weavers with yarn. Another factor that favors the industry is the deep-seated conservatism of many Ilocanos who attach a great sentiment and fondness for the durable striped cloth in woven the native hand loom. Furthermore, Ex-Gov. Carmeling P. Crisologo encouraged the weaving of native cloth ,for which there is a market in the U.S.

Other industries are burnay and slipper making in Vigan, furniture and statue making in San Vicente, mortar and pestle making in San Esteban, and bolo making in Santa.

Migration

In the development of Ilocos Sur, the colonizers utilized free labor. Resentment to free labor brought about sporadic revolts, and those who refused to be slaves and tenants left the region and went to Abra and Cagayan Valley. From 1898 to the first decade of the 20th century, covered ox carts moved to the rich plains of Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija and Tarlac.

In these travels, the children were amused by the tales of Lamang, Angalo and Aran, Juan Sadot and other legendary Ilocano characters. Folk songs like “Pamulinawen”, “Manang Biday”, Dungdungwen Kanto Unay, Unay”, and the Iloko “dal-lot”, to the accompaniment of the “kutibeng” were popularized.

The second phase of Ilocano migration was from 1908 to 1946 when surplus labor hands migrated to the plantations of Hawaii and the American West Coast. At the height of this migration, the average density of population in Ilocos Sur was 492 inhabitants per square mile, the most dense in the Philippines then, excluding Manila. The last batch of labor migration of Hawaii was in 1946 when 7,365 men were recruited by the Department of Labor. Vigan was the recruiting center. At present, more than seventy percent of the 63,500 Filipinos in Hawaii are Ilocanos.

A contemporary scholar, commenting on the Ilocano migration wrote: “The Ilocano movement has shown the way to people those vast lands. Without plan, without system, without leadership, without funds, following only the natural law of expansion, the ilocanos have spread over a considerable portion of the Northern Luzon, Central Plain and Mindanao. This is the most important contribution of the Ilocanos to the social and economic development of the Philippines.’

Uneasy peace

The history of Ilocos Sur, from the beginning of the Spanish rule to the first decade of the nineteenth century was characterized by revolts in protest against tributes and forced labor, as well as the monopolies of some industries.

The best known of these revolts was the Ilocos revolt (1762–1763), better known as Silang’s Revolt. This was principally a revolt of the masses aimed at the “Babaknangs” and the “alcalde-mayor” of Vigan. After Silang’s assassination on May 28, 1763, his wife, Josefa Gabriela, continued the fight until she was captured and hanged publicly on September 20, 1763.

On September 16, 1817, another revolt resulted in protest against the government’s monopoly in the manufacture of “basi” the native wine. The rebels under the command of Ambaristo were defeated by a contingent of regular troops and recruits.

On March 25, 1898, Isabelo Abaya started a revolt in Candon and raised a red flag in the town plaza. The historic "Ikkis ti Candon" was the start of the several revolutions in the Ilocos Region.

Ilocos Sur in the Philippine Revolution, Filipino-American War and World War II

Ilocos Sur, like other provinces in the Philippines, was quick to rally behind Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in the Philippine Revolution in 1896. Upon the capture of Vigan, the revolutionists made the Bishop’s Palace, their headquarters. On March 21, 1898, Don Mariano Acosta of Candon established the provincial revolutionary government in that town.

When General Aguinaldo returned from his exile in Hong Kong to begin the Filipino-American War, he sent General Manuel Tinio to carry on the guerilla warfare against the Americans. Vigan served as Tinio’s headquarters until its occupation by the U.S. 45th Infantry under Lt. Col. Parker on Dec. 4, 1899.
On the Tirad Pass in Concepcion, east of Candon, General Gregorio del Pilar, covering the retreat of General Aguinaldo to the Cordilleras and ultimate to Palawan, died a heroic death on December 2, 1899 in a battle against the American Forces under Major C. March.
With the smoldering embers of the Filipino-American War already dying out, and with the gradual return of peace and order, a civil government under the Americans was established in Ilocos Sur on September 1, 1901 with Don Mena Crisologo, a delegate to the Malolos Congress, as the first provincial governor.

About forty years later, another bloody skirmish took place in Vigan, On December 10, 1941, a contingent of Japanese Imperial Forces landed in Mindoro, Vigan, Santa, and Pandan, Caoayan.

Four years later, the Battle of Bessang Pass in Cervantes, fought between General Yamashita’s forces and the U.S. 21st Infantry was the climax in the fight for liberation. On April 18, 1945, Ilocos Sur was declared liberated from the Japanese.

Economic Prosperity

The first half of the 19th century was a economic boom for Ilocos Sur and other Ilocano provinces. It was during this period when the cotton, tobacco and indigo industries were encouraged by the government. With the operations of the Real Comapaña de Filipinas, the textile industry was developed on a large scale, and the abolition of the tobacco monopoly accelerated economic progress. But the invention of chemical dyes put the indigo industry out of the business scene.

Today, the premier money crop is Virginia leaf tobacco. The windfall was brought about by the Tobacco Subsidy Law which was authored by the late Congressman Floro Crisologo.

Cultural Heritage

The Ilocos Sur Museum, founded on August 22, 1970, has a sizable collection of cultural treasures to be proud of. Here, Ilocos Sur art include paintings, centuries-old sculptures and pieces of carved furniture. Here, too, are found relics of Spanish European and Chinese cultures that had influenced Ilocano life for centuries. These relics show Ilocos arts not only for their intrinsic and artistic worth, but also as part of a culture influenced by foreigners, and in turn influencing other regions of the Philippines.

Chapters of Philippine history and religion are found in the Crisologo collections which includes family heirlooms, centuries –old “santos”, statuettes, ivory images, Vienna furniture, marble-topped tables, ancient-carved beds, rare Chinese porcelains, jars and jarlettes, lamps, Muslim brass wares, and Spanish and Mexican coins.

The Syquia collections, including the late President Quirino’s memorabilla, vies in quality with the Crisologo collections. But in the midst of the fire scare in Vigan last year, the relics in the Syquia Mansion were transferred to Manila for safekeeping.

Recent Trends

Some illustrious Filipino and Ilocanos among whom were Pedro Bukaneg, the Father of Ilocano literature; Diego Silang, the first Filipino emancipator; Josefa Gabriela Silang, the Filipino Joan of Arc; Dr. Jose Burgos, the Father of Filipino nationalism; Leona Florentino
Leona Florentino
Leona Florentino was a Filipino poet in the Spanish and Ilocano languages. She is considered as the "mother of Philippine women's literature" and the "bridge from oral to literary tradition"....

, the Ilocano poetess; Ventura de los Reyes, the first Filipino delegate to the Spanish Cortez; Mena Crisologo, the Ilocano Shakespeare; Isabelo de los Reyes
Isabelo de los Reyes
Isabelo Florentino De Los Reyes, Sr., also known as Don Belong , was a prominent Filipino politician, writer and labor activist in the 19th and 20th centuries. He was the founder of the Aglipayan Church, an independent Philippine national church...

, the Father of Filipino socialism and unionism; Msgr. Pedro Brilliantes, the first Bishop of the Filipino Independent Church; Vicente Singson Encarnacion, Ilocano millionaire and industrialist, and one of the “seven wise men” of the first constitutional convention; Benito Soliven, great Ilocano patriot and parliamentarian and Virginia tobacco booster.

The 1960 census list 338,058 people; 64,446 dwelling units of which 2,974 are lighted with electricity; 3227 provided with radio; 7379 served with pipe water; 25,137 served with artesian and pumped water; and 310 using electricity, kerosene and gas for cooking Ilocos Sur has 547 public schools including five general high schools, one university, one agricultural college and 56 private schools, 16 of which are Catholic.

The Provincial Economic Development Council (PEDCO), organized by the first elected lady governor, Hon. Carmeling P. Crisologo, was a step forward in the economic development of the province. Among the projects undertaken were on increasing production of corn, rice, vegetables, meat, poultry and fish; improving health and sanitation through the construction of water-sealed toilets, blind drainage and compost pits; beautifying public plazas and highways; assisting cottage industries; and constructing and/or repairing roads, brides buildings and irrigation systems.

Provincial Milestones

Ilocos Sur was founded by the Spanish
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 conquistador
Conquistador
Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th to 16th centuries, following Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492...

, Juan de Salcedo
Juan de Salcedo
Juan de Salcedo was a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Mexico in 1549 and he was the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi and brother of Felipe de Salcedo. Salcedo was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in 1565...

 in 1572. It was formed when the north (now Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Norte is a province of the Philippines located in the Ilocos Region in Luzon. Its capital is Laoag City and is located at the northwest corner of Luzon Island, bordering Cagayan and Apayao to the east, and Abra and Ilocos Sur to the south...

) split from the south (Ilocos Sur). At that time it included parts of Abra and the upper half of present-day La Union
La Unión
La Union or La Unión may refer to:-Colombia:*La Unión, Antioquia*La Unión, Nariño*La Unión, Sucre*La Unión, Valle del Cauca-Peru:*La Unión Province, Peru...

. The current boundary of the province was permanently defined by virtue of RA 2973, which was signed in March 1917.

In 1763, during the British occupation of the Philippines
British occupation of the Philippines
The British occupation of Manila occurred between 1762 and 1764, when a British force occupied Manila, the Spanish colonial capital of the Philippines, and the nearby principal port, Cavite, both on Manila Bay....

, Ilocos Sur was ruled by the British appointed governor, Ilocano freedom fighter Diego Silang
Diego Silang
Diego Silang y Andaya was a revolutionary leader who conspired with British forces to overthrow Spanish rule in the northern Philippines and establish an independent Ilocano nation...

, until he was shot in the back by Miguel Vicos in Vigan.

On December 2, 1899, the Battle of Tirad Pass
Battle of Tirad Pass
The Battle of Tirad Pass, sometimes referred to as the "Philippine Thermopylae", was a battle in the Philippine-American War fought on December 2, 1899, in northern Luzon in the Philippines, in which a 60-man Filipino rearguard commanded by Brigadier General Gregorio del Pilar succumbed to 500...

 happened, where the gallant General Gregorio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar y Sempio was one of the youngest generals in the Philippine Revolutionary Forces during the Philippine Revolution and the Philippine-American War. He is most known for his role and death at the Battle of Tirad Pass...

 and 60 brave Filipino defenders died covering the escape of General Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy was a Filipino general, politician, and independence leader. He played an instrumental role during the Philippines' revolution against Spain, and the subsequent Philippine-American War or War of Philippine Independence that resisted American occupation...

 from the Americans.

In 1942, the Japanese Imperial forces occupied the province.

In 1945, the province was liberated from the Japanese with the joint efforts of Filipino & American soldiers including Ilocano guerrillas. When the Filipino soldiers of the 1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the 15th, 66th and 121st Infantry Regiment of the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines - Northern Luzon or USAFIP-NL was beginning the Battle of Bessang Pass and attacking Japanese forces. It included the bloody Battle of Bessang Pass on June 14, 1945.

The 1970s were dark periods for the province as armed men known as the "saka-saka" (Ilocano
Ilokano language
Ilokano or Ilocano is the third most-spoken language of the Republic of the Philippines....

, literally "bare-footed") terrorized the province; and this reign of terror resulted in the famous burning of the barangays of Ora East and Ora Centro in the municipality of Bantay. This era ended with the rise of Luis "Chavit" Singson to the governor's seat.

People and culture

In the 330 pages of “The Ilocos
Ilocos
Ilocos collectively refers to two provinces in the Philippines: Ilocos Norte and Ilocos Sur. Inhabitants are called Ilocanos and they speak the language Iloko, also called Ilocano.The Ilocos Region, containing four provinces, is named after Ilocos...

 Heritage” (the 27th book written by Visitacion de la Torre), the Ilocano legacy and the life of the Ilocano – are described as - "the browbeaten, industrious, cheerful, simple soul who has shown a remarkable strain of bravery and a bit of wanderlust." The Ilocano history reveals his struggles and victories – in battles for colonial independence from Spain and America, to Philippine leadership. The new Ilocano searched for greener pastures towards new lands local and foreign - Palawan
Palawan
Palawan is an island province of the Philippines located in the MIMAROPA region or Region 4. Its capital is Puerto Princesa City, and it is the largest province in the country in terms of total area of jurisdiction. The islands of Palawan stretch from Mindoro in the northeast to Borneo in the...

, Mindanao
Mindanao
Mindanao is the second largest and easternmost island in the Philippines. It is also the name of one of the three island groups in the country, which consists of the island of Mindanao and smaller surrounding islands. The other two are Luzon and the Visayas. The island of Mindanao is called The...

, Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

. The Ilocano material culture and spirituality can be seen in the past - images of Spanish santo (saints), antique but intricate wooden furniture and quality local fiber. The native Ilocano is a weaver, wood carver and pottery
Pottery
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery . Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery...

 expert. The Ilocano cuisine
Cuisine
Cuisine is a characteristic style of cooking practices and traditions, often associated with a specific culture. Cuisines are often named after the geographic areas or regions that they originate from...

 ranges from the exotic "abu-os" (ant
Ant
Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

 eggs
Egg (food)
Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen , and vitellus , contained within various thin membranes...

) to vegetable broth "dinengdeng," the sticky "tinubong" to the "poqui-poqui" (eggplant salad). Ilocos Sur, like other provinces in Ilocandia, is filled with colonial churches, a legacy of Spanish Catholicism
Catholicism
Catholicism is a broad term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole....

.

Tourist Spots

  • Heritage City of Vigan - inscribed in the UNESCO
    UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

     World Heritage List, because it houses the most intact example of a Spanish colonial town in Asia. Other spots include pottery making and other forms of cottage industries. It also has hotels built in the "bahay na bato" ("stone house") style. Also located in the city is the residence of Father Jose Burgos
    José Burgos
    José Apolonio Burgos y García was a Filipino mestizo secular priest, accused of mutiny by the Spanish colonial authorities in the Philippines in the 19th century...

    , which is open to the public; and the Syquia Mansion, which is the Vigan residence of former President Elpidio Quirino
    Elpidio Quirino
    Elpidio Rivera Quirino was a Filipino politician, and the sixth President of the Philippines.A lawyer by profession, Quirino entered politics when he became a representative of Ilocos Sur from 1919 to 1925. He was then elected as senator from 1925–1931...

    .

  • Beaches - most notable Ilocos Sur beaches include those in Cabangtalan (in Sinait, also known as Imelda's Cove), Pug-os (in Cabugao); and the towns of Santa, Santa Maria, Santiago, San Esteban, and Candon.

  • Churches - most notable of these churches include the Vigan Cathedral (which is the seat of the Archdiocese of Nueva Segovia, and where the remains of the Ilocano poet Leona Florentino
    Leona Florentino
    Leona Florentino was a Filipino poet in the Spanish and Ilocano languages. She is considered as the "mother of Philippine women's literature" and the "bridge from oral to literary tradition"....

    is interred), Santa Maria Church (which is inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list), Candon Church (has a grand facade and is famous for its tall bell tower and the longest painting in the Philippines) and Sinait Church (which houses the miraculous Statue of the Black Nazarene).

  • Nature Spots - Scenic spots include the Banaoang River in Bantay (an extension of the Abra River), Pinsal Falls in Santa Maria, and Pikkang Falls in San Juan.

  • Tirad Pass


Declared as a National Shrine, the pass located in the municipality of Gregorio del Pilar was the last stand of the Filipino Revolutionary Forces under General Emilio Aguinaldo.
  • Bessang Pass


A monument stands on this strategic gap west of Cervantes, which served as the backdoor to General Yamashita's last ditch defense during the last stage of World War II.
  • Pagburnayan (Jar)


The Ilocano jar called “burnay,” used for storing the local vinegar, local wine “basi,” and “bagoong” and as a decorative ware, is produced in factories using the pre-historic method in the southwestern end of Liberation Avenue in Vigan.
  • Loom Weaving


Among the Ilocanos’ main cottage industries, it produces quality towels, blankets, table runners, and clothing materials with ethnic Ilocano designs.
  • Santiago Cove


A stretch of golden sand beach in Santiago with amenities for picnics and water sports.
  • Pinsal Falls


A favorite setting of many local films, Pinsal Falls features Angalo’s footprint, the legendary Ilocano giant. The falls is a few kilometers of rough road from the highway. Located at Barangay Babalasiwan, Sta. Maria. Other waterfalls in Ilocos Sur are Caniaw in Bantay, Gambang in Cervantes, Awasen in Sigay and Barasibis in Sinait.
  • Pug-os Beach


Resthouses and picnic sheds are found in this nearly white sand beach in Cabugao.
  • Sulvec Beach


The rocky shore of Sulvec, Narvacan is a favorite stop of commuters and the locals. Nearby is the Narvacan Tourism Lodge.
  • Apatot Beach


This cove in San Esteban is frequented by picnic goers. During the last stage of World War II, US Submarines surfaced in the area to unload arms and supplies for the USAFIP, NL.
  • Candon Beach


The beach features amenities and facilities for visitors.

Festivals

  • Semana Santa


St. Paul’s Metropolitan Cathedral is the venue of religious rites during the Holy Week. The Good Friday procession features decorated carrozas bearing life-size statues of Spanish vintage. On Easter Sunday, the dawn celebration depicting the Resurrection of Christ, called “Sabet,” is a scene to behold.
  • Viva Vigan Arts and Industry Festival


Every first week of May, Vigan plays host to visitors for this festival featuring painting and product exhibits, a Calesa parade, and other cultural activities.
  • Tobacco Festival


Celebrated every last week of March in Candon City, as thanksgiving for the city's bountiful harvest of tobacco.



ILOCOS SUR TOURISM GALLERY
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