Hawaiian sovereignty movement
Overview
 
The Hawaiian sovereignty movement (ke ea Hawai‘i) is a political movement seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawai'i. Generally, the movement's focus is on self-determination
Self-determination
Self-determination is the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference...

 and self-governance
Self-governance
Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization.It may refer to personal conduct or family units but more commonly refers to larger scale activities, i.e., professions, industry bodies, religions and political units , up to and including autonomous regions and...

, either for Hawaiʻi as an independent nation, or for people of whole or part native Hawaiian ancestry, or for "Hawaiian nationals" descended from subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom or declaring themselves as such by choice.
Encyclopedia
The Hawaiian sovereignty movement (ke ea Hawai‘i) is a political movement seeking some form of sovereignty for Hawai'i. Generally, the movement's focus is on self-determination
Self-determination
Self-determination is the principle in international law that nations have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no external compulsion or external interference...

 and self-governance
Self-governance
Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization.It may refer to personal conduct or family units but more commonly refers to larger scale activities, i.e., professions, industry bodies, religions and political units , up to and including autonomous regions and...

, either for Hawaiʻi as an independent nation, or for people of whole or part native Hawaiian ancestry, or for "Hawaiian nationals" descended from subjects of the Hawaiian Kingdom or declaring themselves as such by choice. Some groups advocate redress from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 for the 1893 overthrow of Queen Liliuokalani, and for what is described as a prolonged military occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The territory then becomes occupied territory.-Military occupation and the laws of war:...

 beginning with the 1898 annexation. The movement generally views both the overthrow and annexation as illegal, and holds the U.S. government responsible. The historical and legal basis for these claims is one of considerable dispute. While groups that comprise the movement share common concerns, their views on solutions vary greatly, ranging from establishing of some form of "Nation within a Nation" government (similar to some Native American tribes), to reparations from the US government for historical grievances and an end to American military presence, to outright independence from the US.

Forms

Hawaiian sovereignty efforts vary in both defining the problem and proposing solutions. Among those who advocate for complete independence, proposals range from reinstatement of hereditary monarchy, to constitutional democracies (some with tiered citizenship based on ancestry). The Office of Hawaiian Affairs
Office of Hawaiian Affairs
The Office of Hawaiian Affairs is a semi-autonomous entity of the state of Hawaii charged with the administration of 1.8 million acres of royal land held in trust for the benefit of native Hawaiians...

 (OHA) already exists as a state-sponsored commission but is regarded as ineffective. One controversial "nation-within-a-nation" proposal (similar to the status of Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 tribes) called the Akaka Bill
Akaka Bill
The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 S1011/HR2314 is a bill before the 111th Congress. It is commonly known as the Akaka Bill after Senator Daniel Akaka of Hawaii, who has proposed various forms of this bill since 2000....

 has been repeatedly brought to the U.S. Senate by Daniel Akaka
Daniel Akaka
Daniel Kahikina Akaka is the junior U.S. Senator from Hawaii and a member of the Democratic Party. He is the first U.S. Senator of Native Hawaiian ancestry and is currently the only member of the Senate who has Chinese ancestry....

.

Most, but not all, formal sovereignty proposals focus on short-range, interim governmental structures. Recognizing Hawaii's profound economic and political integration into the United States, some propose solutions developed incrementally with the approval of the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

. Since most groups are focused an international legal
International law
Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states; analogous entities, such as the Holy See; and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals, an impact increasingly evolving beyond...

 solution, many (but not all) proposed structures are based on the kingdom that existed in 1893. The logical basis is that undoing of the 1893 overthrow might legally necessitate a return to the pre-overthrow government. Many groups include some long-range ideas in their proposals, but others focus upon the immediate problem of overcoming what they see as American occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The territory then becomes occupied territory.-Military occupation and the laws of war:...

 or colonization of the islands.

Historical — Royalist Organizations (from 1880s)

Some groups formed following the 1887 enactment of the Bayonet Constitution of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Kingdom of Hawaii
The Kingdom of Hawaii was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of Oahu, Maui, Molokai, Lānai, Kauai and Niihau by the chiefdom of Hawaii into one unified government...

 by King Kalākaua
Kalakaua
Kalākaua, born David Laamea Kamanakapuu Mahinulani Nalaiaehuokalani Lumialani Kalākaua and sometimes called The Merrie Monarch , was the last reigning king of the Kingdom of Hawaii...

 under threat of armed force by mainly white residents against the indigenous government.
Rebel and pro-Hawaiian organizations formed in support of the monarchy and native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians refers to the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants. Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaii.According to the U.S...

 were known as “Royalists”.

Liberal Patriotic Association

The Liberal Patriotic Association was a rebel group formed by Robert William Wilcox
Robert William Wilcox
Robert William Kalanihiapo Wilcox , nicknamed the Iron Duke of Hawaii, was a native Hawaiian revolutionary soldier and politician. He led uprisings against both the government of the Kingdom of Hawaii under King Kalākaua and the Republic of Hawaii under Sanford Dole, what are now known as the...

, to overturn the Bayonet Constitution. The faction was financed by Chinese businessmen who lost rights under the 1887 Constitution. The movement initiated what became known as the Wilcox Rebellion of 1889
Wilcox Rebellion of 1889
The Wilcox Rebellion of 1889 was a revolt led by Robert Wilcox to force King Kalākaua of Hawaii to reenact the Hawaiian Constitution of 1864 from the Constitution of 1887.-Liberal Patriotic Association:...

, ending in failure with seven dead and 70 captured.

Kingdom of Hawaii (in exile, 1893–1895)

Following her 1893 overthrow, Queen Liliuokalani did not formally abdicate the throne, so the Hawaiian Kingdom became a government in exile
Government in exile
A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country. Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their...

. With aid from Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents...

, she lobbied for the restoration of her government and postponed annexation, even threatening military force to return her to power
United States Invasion of Hawaii
Opposition to the overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom took several forms. Following the overthrow of the monarchy on January 17, 1893, Hawaii's provisional government—under the leadership of Sanford B. Dole—attempted to annex the land to the United States under Republican Benjamin Harrison's...

.

Liliuokalani's own response to her overthrow changed over the years. Although at first she worked to effect a counter-revolution, eventually she reconciled herself to the course Hawaii had taken. Opponents of the Hawaiian sovereignty movements see this as ex post facto justification for the overthrow, whereas sovereignty advocates dismiss this as a purely personal position taken by the ex-Queen that does not bear on their legal assertions.
The best thing for [Native Hawaiians] that could have happened was to belong to the United States. - written in the 1903 autobiography of Senator George Hoar (R. Mass.), attributed to Liliuokalani.

Tho' for a moment it cost me a pang of pain for my people it was only momentary, for the present has a hope for the future of my people. - former Queen Liliuokalani in her diary, Sunday, September 2, 1900; from a photostatic copy in the Hawaii State Archives (See DeSoto Brown's article in the Honolulu Weekly, June 4–10, 2003, Page 4)


Although there was some controversy as to the accuracy of the second quote, research done by DeSoto Brown of the Bishop Museum
Bishop Museum
The Bishop Museum , is a museum of history and science in the historic Kalihi district of Honolulu on the Hawaiian island of O'ahu...

, who was originally doubtful, was able to prove its authenticity.

In recognition of the 100th year since the overthrow, sovereignty activist Dallas Kealiihooneiaina Mossman Vogeler directed a three-day re-enactment of the event on the grounds of [[ʻIolani Palace]] in Honolulu. Tens of thousands of people witnessed the play, which was also broadcast on Hawaii Public Radio.

Insurgency

The former head of the royal guard other supporters began an arms build up and training insurgents in 1894 to return Queen Liliuokalani to power. In 1895 the plot was exposed leading to a war between the insurgents and the Republic of Hawaii
Republic of Hawaii
The Republic of Hawaii was the formal name of the government that controlled Hawaii from 1894 to 1898 when it was run as a republic. The republic period occurred between the administration of the Provisional Government of Hawaii which ended on July 4, 1894 and the adoption of the Newlands...

 known as the 1895 counter-revolution
1895 Counter-Revolution in Hawaii
The 1895 Counter-revolution in Hawaii was a brief war from January 6 to January 9, 1895, that consisted of three battles on the island of Oahu, Hawaii...

. The rebels were forced into the mountains where fighting continued for a week.
After being arrested and imprisoned, Liliuokalani formally abdicated the throne to prevent further bloodshed.

Home Rule Party of Hawaii

Following the annexation of Hawaii, Wilcox formed the Home Rule Party of Hawaii
Home Rule Party of Hawaii
As soon as the United States annexed the Hawaiian Islands and established the Territory of Hawaii, native Hawaiians became worried that both the Democratic Party of Hawai‘i and Hawai‘i Republican Party were incapable of representing them...

 on June 6, 1900. The Party was generally more radical than the Democratic Party of Hawaii. They were able to dominate the Territorial Legislature between 1900 and 1902. But due to their radical
Political radicalism
The term political radicalism denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary means and changing value systems in fundamental ways...

 and extreme
Extremism
Extremism is any ideology or political act far outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common moral standards...

 philosophy of Hawaiian nationalism
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

, infighting was prominent in addition to their refusal to work with other parties, they were unable to pass any legislation. Following the election of 1902 they steadily declined until they disbanded in 1912.

Democratic Party of Hawaii

The Democratic Party of Hawaii was established April 30, 1900 by John H. Wilson, John S. McGrew, Charles J. McCarthy
Charles J. McCarthy
Charles James McCarthy was the fifth Territorial Governor of Hawai'i and served from 1918 to 1921.McCarthy was born August 4, 1861 in Boston, Massachusetts, to Charles McCarthy and Joana McCarthy. McCarthy moved with his parents to San Francisco, California in 1866...

, David Kawānanakoa
David Kawananakoa
Prince David Laamea Kahalepouli Kinoiki Kawānanakoa Piikoi , was the patriarch of the House of Kawānanakoa. He was in the line of succession to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii around the time of the kingdom's overthrow.-Life:...

 and Delbert Metzger. The Party was generally more pragmatic than the radical Home Rule Party, which included gaining sponsorship from the American Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

. They attempted to bring representation to Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians
Native Hawaiians refers to the indigenous Polynesian people of the Hawaiian Islands or their descendants. Native Hawaiians trace their ancestry back to the original Polynesian settlers of Hawaii.According to the U.S...

 in the territorial government
Territory of Hawaii
The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 7, 1898, until August 21, 1959, when its territory, with the exception of Johnston Atoll, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.S. state, the State of Hawaii.The U.S...

 and effectively lobbied to set aside 200000 acres (809.4 km²) under the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920
Hawaiian Homelands
Hawaiian Homelands were lands dedicated to Native Hawaiians by legislation known as the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1921.-History:Upon the 1893 Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the idea for "Hawaiian Homelands" was first born...

 for Hawaiians.

Bishop Estate

Following the death of Bernice Pauahi Bishop
Bernice Pauahi Bishop
Bernice Pauahi Bishop , born Bernice Pauahi Pākī, was a Hawaiian princess, philanthropist, alii, and direct descendant of the royal House of Kamehameha. She was the great-granddaughter of King Kamehameha I and last surviving heir...

, her husband, Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop
Charles Reed Bishop was a businessman and philanthropist in Hawaii.Born in Glens Falls, New York, he sailed to Hawaii in 1846 at the age of 24, and made his home there. Bishop was one of the first trustees of and a major donor to the Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii...

, used the estate
Estate (law)
An estate is the net worth of a person at any point in time. It is the sum of a person's assets - legal rights, interests and entitlements to property of any kind - less all liabilities at that time. The issue is of special legal significance on a question of bankruptcy and death of the person...

 for the betterment of the Hawaiian people particularly children and with education, according to the Princess’s dying wishes. He founded Bishop Museum
Bishop Museum
The Bishop Museum , is a museum of history and science in the historic Kalihi district of Honolulu on the Hawaiian island of O'ahu...

 and Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools
Kamehameha Schools , formerly called Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate , is a private co-educational college-preparatory institution that specializes in Native Hawaiian language and cultural education. It is located in Hawaii and operates three campuses: Kapālama , Pukalani , and Keaau...

. He made preparations for the estate to continue after his death which came in 1915. The Bishop Estate continues to be one of the largest land holders in Hawaii.

ALOHA

ALOHA, or Aboriginal Lands of Hawaiian Ancestry, may have been organized in 1969 or 1972. According to Rich Budnick's book Hawaii's Forgotten History, the group was established by Louisa Rice in 1969. Charles Kauluwehi Maxwell claims that it was first organized in the summer of 1972.

On July 27, 1973, Maxwell, then-president of ALOHA, sought reparations from the U.S. government for the government and crown lands claimed by the Republic of Hawaii in 1894, transferred to the U.S. government in 1900, and then transferred back to the State of Hawaii in 1959. He specifically demanded the return of Kahoolawe
Kahoolawe
Kahoolawe is the smallest of the eight main volcanic islands in the Hawaiian Islands. Kahoolawe is located about seven miles southwest of Maui and also southeast of Lanai, and it is long by wide, with a total land area of . The highest point on Kahoolawe is the crater of Lua Makika at the...

, saying, "Our kupuna [elders] saw it first." He informed the Maui County Council in late 1973 that his organization's "primary objective [was] to seek land or money reparations from the United States Congress".

Office of Hawaiian Affairs

Of the groups in the current Hawaiian sovereignty movement, the best funded is the Office of Hawaiian Affairs
Office of Hawaiian Affairs
The Office of Hawaiian Affairs is a semi-autonomous entity of the state of Hawaii charged with the administration of 1.8 million acres of royal land held in trust for the benefit of native Hawaiians...

 (OHA). OHA, a department of The State of Hawaii, was created in 1978 by the State of Hawaii Constitutional Convention. OHA's stated purpose was to represent the interests of Native Hawaiians in the administration of the Hawaiian Homelands
Hawaiian Homelands
Hawaiian Homelands were lands dedicated to Native Hawaiians by legislation known as the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1921.-History:Upon the 1893 Overthrow of the Hawaiian Kingdom, the idea for "Hawaiian Homelands" was first born...

 and the Ceded Lands
Ceded lands
In Hawaii, the term "ceded lands" refers to 1.8 million acres of land that were the crown lands of the Hawaiian monarchy prior to January 17, 1893, lotted out by Kamehameha III during the Great Mahele. On this date, the government of the Hawaiian Kingdom was overthrown by anti-monarchial...

 — land formerly belonging to the Hawaiian government and crown that were ceded to the United States as public lands when the islands were annexed in 1898. When the Territory of Hawaii
Territory of Hawaii
The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 7, 1898, until August 21, 1959, when its territory, with the exception of Johnston Atoll, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.S. state, the State of Hawaii.The U.S...

 became a state in 1959, these lands were passed to the new state. The act transferring them ordered that they be administered for five public purposes:
  1. The support of public education
  2. The betterment of the conditions of native Hawaiians as defined in the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act of 1920
  3. The development of farm and home ownership
  4. The making of public improvements
  5. The provision of lands for public use


Because there was strong sentiment that the second purpose had been largely ignored, part of OHA's charter was to address this issue. Originally, OHA trustees were to be elected only by Native Hawaiians, but in 2000 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Rice v. Cayetano
Rice v. Cayetano
Rice v. Cayetano, 528 U.S. 495 , was a case filed in 1996 by Big Island rancher Harold "Freddy" Rice against the state of Hawaii and argued before the United States Supreme Court...

 that this restriction was unconstitutionally race-based. As a result, OHA trustees are now elected by all registered voters in the state.

The OHA Board of Trustees has historically been known for factional infighting that some believe hamper its mission for helping Native Hawaiians.

Ka Lahui

Ka Lahui Hawaii was formed in 1987 as a grassroots initiative for Hawaiian sovereignty. The Trask sisters, attorney and U.N. Representative Mililani Trask
Mililani Trask
Mililani Trask is a leader of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and a political speaker and attorney. One of Trask's contributions to the Hawaiian sovereignty movement was her founding of Na Koa Ikaika o Ka Lāhui Hawaii, a native Hawaiian non-governmental organization.Outside of Hawaii, Trask has...

 and University of Hawaii professor Haunani-Kay Trask
Haunani-Kay Trask
Haunani-Kay Trask is a Native Hawaiian academic, activist, documentarist and writer. Trask is a professor of Hawaiian Studies with the Kamakakuokalani Center for Hawaiian Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and has represented Native Hawaiians in the United Nations and various other...

, were prominent in the effort. Mililani Trask was elected the first kiaaina (governor) of Ka Lahui. Native Hawaiians, as well as non-Native Hawaiians, may sign up as citizens of Ka Lahui. One of the group's goals is to bargain with the United States government for recognition, land, and restitution, while lobbying at the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 for decolonization
Decolonization
Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the unequal relation of polities whereby one people or nation establishes and maintains dependent Territory over another...

 relief. Their model shares some similarity to certain Indian reservations of the U.S. continent, which have increasingly become self-governing. Many thousands of Native Hawaiians, along with many non-natives, have signed up as members. Ka Lahui has attracted many critics; many of these critics question the degree to which Ka Lahui citizens actually participated in the affairs of the group after signing their name.

Ka Lahui opposes the "Akaka Bill
Akaka Bill
The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 S1011/HR2314 is a bill before the 111th Congress. It is commonly known as the Akaka Bill after Senator Daniel Akaka of Hawaii, who has proposed various forms of this bill since 2000....

" proposed by Senator Daniel Akaka that recognizes Native Hawaiians as a first nation on par with Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

 and Alaskan tribes, as the group (along with most other sovereignty organizations) sees it as a poor compromise, and believes that the ramifications in terms of international law
International law
Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states; analogous entities, such as the Holy See; and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals, an impact increasingly evolving beyond...

 outweigh the bill's benefits. Although Ka Lāhui may oppose the Akaka Bill, its founding member and first governor, Mililani Trask, supported the original Akaka Bill and was a member of a group that crafted the original bill. Trask withdrew her support for the bill later, when changes were made to the Akaka Bill under the Bush Administration.

Ka Pakaukau: Kekuni Blaisdell

Richard Kekuni Akana Blaisdell is a medical doctor and professor of medicine who strongly advocates for the total independence for Hawaii. The position of Blaisdell's group, Ka Pakaukau, is that Hawaii does not need to secede from the U.S., for the U.S. has the moral obligation to "return what it has stolen" and to remove its "occupying forces" (i.e. the U.S. military) from Hawaiian lands. Blaisdell advocates putting continual non-violent pressure on the U.S. military to vacate Hawaii. He also feels that the military has an unmet obligation to clean up the pollution it has left in areas such as Pearl Harbor and Kaho'olawe. Blaisdell has travelled numerous times to the United Nations in Geneva, Switzerland to advocate for international recognition of Hawaii as a rightful independent nation under illegal colonial occupation, and to lobby for international assistance with the process of decolonization.

In 1993, Blaisdell convened Ka Hookolokolonui Kanaka Maoli, the "People's International Tribunal", which brought indigenous leaders from around the world to Hawaii to put the U.S. Government on trial for the theft of Hawaii's sovereignty, and other related violations of international law. The tribunal found the U.S. guilty, and published its findings in a lengthy document filed with the U.N. Committees on Human Rights and Indigenous Affairs.

Poka Laenui (Hayden Burgess)

Hayden Burgess now goes by the Hawaiian name Poka Laenui and heads the Institute for the Advancement of Hawaiian Affairs. A lawyer, Laenui argues that because the "U.S. armed invasion and overthrow" http://www.multiworld.org/m_versity/articles/poka.htm of the Hawaiian monarchy was illegal, the current government of the state is illegal, and that residents owe it no fealty or taxes. He advocates a process of decolonization
Decolonization
Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the unequal relation of polities whereby one people or nation establishes and maintains dependent Territory over another...

, resulting in a totally independent government that would include all non-Hawaiians living in Hawaii. He uses other island nations who are achieving decolonization throughout the Pacific as his primary model.

Laenui has regularly analyzed Hawaii's historical, political, and economic situation on his talk shows, which air on radio and on Public, educational, and government access
Public, educational, and government access
Public, educational, and government access television, refers to three different cable television specialty channels...

 (PEG) cable tv channel Ōlelo TV.

Hawaiian Kingdom: David Keanu Sai

Another leader who seeks to expose what is seen as the prolonged occupation of Hawaii by the United States is David Keanu Sai. Trained as a U.S. military officer, Sai uses the title of Chairman of the Acting Council of Regency of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Sai has done extensive historical research, especially on the treaties between Hawaii and other nations, and military occupation
Military occupation
Military occupation occurs when the control and authority over a territory passes to a hostile army. The territory then becomes occupied territory.-Military occupation and the laws of war:...

 and the laws of war. Sai recently finished his doctoral program in political science at the University of Hawaii, where he founded the Hawaiian Society of Law and Politics, which publishes the Hawaiian Journal of Law and Politics.

Sai co-founded a Hawaiian title company, Perfect Title, which stated that all land transactions since the overthrow of the monarchy were invalid if superseded by legitimate pre-existing claims; some clients refused to make mortgage payments and lost their property. In 1997, the offices of Perfect Title were raided, and the company was barred from filing any documents with the state Bureau of Conveyances for 5 years, effectively shutting the company down. A jury on December 1, 1999, unanimously found Sai guilty of attempted theft of title to a house (value approximately $300,000) for his role as an accessory to a man and woman who used his Perfect Title services to attempt to invalidate a foreclosure on their house. For his felony conviction, David Keanu Sai was sentenced to 5 years probation and a $200 fine on March 7, 2000. His appeal was denied by the Hawaii Supreme Court on July 20, 2004.

Sai claimed to represent the Hawaiian Kingdom in a case brought before the World Court's Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration , is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands.-History:The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference, which makes it the oldest institution for international dispute resolution.The creation of...

 at the Hague, in the Netherlands (Larsen v. Hawaiian KingdomHonolulu Weekly item) in December 2000. Although the arbitration was agreed to by Lance Paul Larsen and David Keanu Sai, with Larsen suing Sai for not protecting his rights as a Hawaiian Kingdom subject, his actual goal was to have U.S. rule in Hawaii declared in breach of mutual treaty obligations and international law. The arbiters of the case affirmed that there was no dispute they could decide upon, because the United States was not a party to the arbitration. As stated in the award from the arbitration panel,in the absence of the United States of America, the Tribunal can neither decide that Hawaii is not part of the USA, nor proceed on the assumption that it is not. To take either course would be to disregard a principle which goes to heart of the arbitral function in international law.
In an arbitration hearing before the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration , is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands.-History:The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference, which makes it the oldest institution for international dispute resolution.The creation of...

 in December 2000, the Hawaiian flag was raised at the same height at and alongside other countries. However, the court accepts arbitration from private entities and a hearing before the court does not equal international recognition. Hawaii has been recognized by other secessionist movements, though, such as the Alaskan Independence Party
Alaskan Independence Party
The Alaskan Independence Party is a political party in the U.S. state of Alaska that advocates an in-state referendum which includes the option of Alaska becoming an independent country...

 and the Second Vermont Republic
Second Vermont Republic
Second Vermont Republic is a secessionist group within the U.S. state of Vermont which seeks to return to the formerly independent status of the Vermont Republic . It describes itself as "a nonviolent citizens' network and think tank opposed to the tyranny of Corporate America and the U.S...

.

Hawaiian Kingdom Government

Since April 30, 2008, members of a group calling themselves the Hawaiian Kingdom Government have regularly protested on the grounds of [[ʻIolani Palace]] in Honolulu. Led by Mahealani Kahau, who has taken the title of "Queen", and Jessica Wright, who has taken the title of "Princess," they have been meeting each day to conduct government business and demand sovereignty for Hawaii and the restoration of the monarchy. They negotiated rights to be on the lawn of the grounds during regular hours normally open to the public by applying for a public-assembly permit.

Kingdom of Hawai`i

The Interim Provisional Government Council and Privy Council assembled pursuant to the Law of Nations and the Constitution and laws of the Kingdom of Hawai`i on April 15, 1994 and signed its position paper on June 20, 1994. Amendments were made on August 23, 1998. The primary mission is to reinstate the Kingdom of Hawai`i, also known as Hawaiian Kingdom, Government of the Hawaiian Islands pursuant to the Law of Nations and Recognition Doctrine by educating qualified men to assembly the legislative body and bring forth the Kingdom of Hawai`i and its Government out of an impaired state and rejoin the Family of Nations.

The Polynesian Kingdom of Atooi

Dayne Aleka Aipoalani of Kekaha
Kekaha, Hawaii
Kekaha is a census-designated place in Kauai County, Hawaii, United States. The population was 3,175 at the 2000 census.-History:...

 on the island of Kauai
Kauai
Kauai or Kauai, known as Tauai in the ancient Kaua'i dialect, is geologically the oldest of the main Hawaiian Islands. With an area of , it is the fourth largest of the main islands in the Hawaiian archipelago, and the 21st largest island in the United States. Known also as the "Garden Isle",...

 founded a group called the Polynesian Kingdom of Atooi. "Atooi" was the spelling of the local pronuciation of Kauai by the first British visitors in 1778.
He contrasts his group to others, saying: "We welcome everyone, including landowners who are already here. Hawaiians and non-Hawaiians."
He established relations with the group Te Moana Nui A Kiva (Royal Union of Pacific Nations), which supports other Polynesia
Polynesia
Polynesia is a subregion of Oceania, made up of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. The indigenous people who inhabit the islands of Polynesia are termed Polynesians and they share many similar traits including language, culture and beliefs...

n indigenous people.
He was arrested (under the name Dayne Gonsalves) in a protest against the Hawaiian Superferry on August 26, 2007.
In September 2010 he hosted a meeting of Polynesian leaders in Hawaii.

Apology

Due to efforts by the various Hawaiian sovereignty movements and other Native-Hawaiian activist groups, the United States government issued an apology. Some with a different perspective of the historical record (see "Opposition" below) sharply disagree with the apology, questioning its accuracy and validity.

On November 15, 1993, President of the United States Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

 signed an Apology Resolution apologizing on behalf of the American people for the U.S. government's role in the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy. In Hawaii v. Office of Hawaiian Affairs (2009), the decision of the U.S. Supreme Court of March 31, 2009, was that the "whereas" clauses of the Apology Resolution have no binding effect, and the resolution does not change or modify the title to the public lands of the State of Hawaii.

Native Hawaiian Study Commission

The Native Hawaiian Study Commission of the United States Congress in its 1983 final report found no historical, legal, or moral obligation for the U.S. government to provide reparations, assistance, or group rights to Native Hawaiians. (pages 27, 333-338)

Opposition

There has also been something of a backlash against the concept of ancestry-based sovereignty, which critics maintain is tantamount to racial exclusion . In 1996, in Rice v. Cayetano
Rice v. Cayetano
Rice v. Cayetano, 528 U.S. 495 , was a case filed in 1996 by Big Island rancher Harold "Freddy" Rice against the state of Hawaii and argued before the United States Supreme Court...

, one Big Island
Hawaii (island)
The Island of Hawaii, also called the Big Island or Hawaii Island , is a volcanic island in the North Pacific Ocean...

 rancher sued to win the right to vote in OHA elections, asserting that every Hawaiian citizen regardless of racial background should be able to vote for a state office, and that limiting the vote to Native Hawaiians only was racist. In 2000, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in his favor and OHA elections are now open to all registered voters. In reaching its decision, the court wrote that "the ancestral inquiry mandated by the State is forbidden by the Fifteenth Amendment for the further reason that the use of racial classifications is corruptive of the whole legal order democratic elections seek to preserve....Distinctions between citizens solely because of their ancestry are by their very nature odious to a free people whose institutions are founded upon the doctrine of equality".

Of further concern is the implication that claims for hereditary political power are connected to land claims. Proponents of sovereignty assume that if they can show that American presence at the time of the 1893 Revolution was unjust then it follows that the United States owes enormous reparations in cash and land to Hawaiians.

There were three kinds of land in 1893: private lands, Crown lands, and government lands. No private lands were seized as a result of the 1893 Revolution.

Crown lands in 1893 belonged not to any individual or to any group of individuals but to the office of the Sovereign. In 1893, The Government of the Republic of Hawai'i provided explicitly that the former Crown lands were Government lands. The Crown lands in 1893 were the remaining lands acquired by Lili'uokalani's royal predecessor Kamehameha I in his conquest of the islands, as well as his kingdoms previous holdings.

The Hawaiian Kingdom Government lands in 1893 were controlled ultimately by the Legislature. Private individuals had no powers, rights or privileges to use government land without Government authorization or to decide how it was to be used. If Hawaiians had any rights or powers regarding Government land, they had only the political right and power to participate in controlling the Government. Most ethnic Hawaiians then had no power to lose; they were a minority in Hawai'i and most of them could not even vote. As the term “sovereignty” suggests, what was at stake in 1893 was political power over the government and hence over the Government Lands and the Crown Lands (which had come under control of a government commission in 1865). Legally, the land belonging to the Hawaiian Government in 1898 has passed to the U.S. Government and back to the State of Hawai'i. People alive now have a democratic right to decide by majority vote how government land should be used now. No one deserves more than equality.

Although the Apology Resolution passed 65 to 34 in the U.S. Senate and by a two-thirds voice vote in the House, and without much public notice outside Hawaii, the Akaka Bill
Akaka Bill
The Native Hawaiian Government Reorganization Act of 2009 S1011/HR2314 is a bill before the 111th Congress. It is commonly known as the Akaka Bill after Senator Daniel Akaka of Hawaii, who has proposed various forms of this bill since 2000....

 has generated a higher profile for the issues involved. An organized opposition now challenges the accuracy of historical claims and constitutionality of legislation they view as racially exclusive.

Opponents have called into question the accuracy of the Apology Resolution in that it is based upon an interpretation of the historical record that opponents reject.

When the Apology Bill was debated on the Senate floor, Senator Slade Gorton
Slade Gorton
Thomas Slade Gorton III is an American politician. A Republican, he was a U.S. senator from Washington state from 1981 to 1987, and from 1989 to 2001. He held both of the state's Senate seats in his career and was narrowly defeated for reelection twice as an incumbent: in 1986 by Brock Adams, and...

 asked Senator Inouye
Daniel Inouye
Daniel Ken "Dan" Inouye is the senior United States Senator from Hawaii, a member of the Democratic Party, and the President pro tempore of the United States Senate making him the highest-ranking Asian American politician in American history. Inouye is the chairman of the United States Senate...

:
“Is this purely a self-executing resolution which has no meaning other than its own passage, or is this, in [the proponent Senators'] minds, some form of claim, some form of different or distinct treatment for those who can trace a single ancestor back to 1778 in Hawai'i which is now to be provided for this group of citizens, separating them from other citizens of the State of Hawai'i or the United States?

What are the appropriate consequences of passing this resolution? Are they any form of special status under which persons of Native Hawaiian descent will be given rights or privileges or reparations or land or money communally that are unavailable to other citizens of Hawai'i?”


Senator Inouye replied:
“As I tried to convince my colleagues, this is a simple resolution of apology, to recognize the facts as they were 100 years ago. As to the matter of the status of Native Hawaiians, as my colleague from Washington knows, from the time of statehood, we have been in this debate. Are Native Hawaiians Native Americans? This resolution has nothing to do with that....I can assure my colleagues of that. It is a simple resolution.”

Hawaiian sovereignty activists and advocates

  • S. Haunani Apoliona
    S. Haunani Apoliona
    S. Haunani Apoliona is a native Hawaiian elder and activist for the Hawaiian sovereignty movement. Held in great esteem among Hawaii residents, Apoliona was elected to the Office of Hawaiian Affairs Board of Trustees and became its chairperson...

     (current chair of OHA)
  • Francis A. Boyle (professor of international law, University of Illinois
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a large public research-intensive university in the state of Illinois, United States. It is the flagship campus of the University of Illinois system...

     http://www.law.uiuc.edu/faculty/DirectoryResult.asp?Name=Boyle,%20Francis)
  • Bu Laia
    Bu Laia
    Bu La'ia is a Hawaiian comedian known for his use of Hawaiian pidgin and for wearing a large "afro style" wig and blacking out one of his front teeth while performing. He starred in a cable television show in the early 1990s and released a comic musical album entitled False Crack???...

    , comedian
  • George Helm
    George Helm
    George Jarrett Helm, Jr. was a Native Hawaiian activist and musician from Kalamaula, Molokai, Hawaii. He graduated from St. Louis High School on Oahu, about which he said, "I came to Oahu to get educated. Instead I lost my innocence." While at St...

     (musician) and Kimo Mitchell (both d. 1977)
  • Israel Kamakawiwoole
    Israel Kamakawiwo'ole
    Israel "IZ" Kaʻanoʻi Kamakawiwoʻole was a Hawaiian musician.He became famous outside Hawaii when his album Facing Future was released in 1993...

     (musician; d. 1997)
  • Lilikala Kameeleihiwa
    Lilikala Kame'eleihiwa
    Lilikala K. Kameeleihiwa is a Hawaiian historian and director and professor at the University of Hawaii's Center for Hawaiian Studies. Her earliest work was published under the name of Lilikala L. Dorton....

  • Dennis "Bumpy" Kanahele
    Bumpy Kanahele
    Dennis "Bumpy" Pu‘uhonua Kanahele is a Hawaiian nationalist leader and titular head of state of the group Nation of Hawai'i. He spearheaded the founding of , a Hawaiian cultural village and traditional lo‘i kalo agricultural restoration project in Waimānalo, Hawai‘i...

     (claims to be a descendant of Kamehameha the Great)
  • Kawaipuna Prejean
    Kawaipuna Prejean
    Gayle Kawaipuna Prejean was a Hawaiian nationalist, activist and advocate for the Hawaiian sovereignty movement...

     (d. 1992)
  • Noenoe K. Silva (political scientist, University of Hawaii at Manoa
    University of Hawaii at Manoa
    The University of Hawaii at Mānoa is a public, co-educational university and is the flagship campus of the greater University of Hawaii system...

     http://www.politicalscience.hawaii.edu/Faculty/silva/nsilva.htm)
  • Haunani-Kay Trask
    Haunani-Kay Trask
    Haunani-Kay Trask is a Native Hawaiian academic, activist, documentarist and writer. Trask is a professor of Hawaiian Studies with the Kamakakuokalani Center for Hawaiian Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa and has represented Native Hawaiians in the United Nations and various other...

  • Mililani Trask
    Mililani Trask
    Mililani Trask is a leader of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and a political speaker and attorney. One of Trask's contributions to the Hawaiian sovereignty movement was her founding of Na Koa Ikaika o Ka Lāhui Hawaii, a native Hawaiian non-governmental organization.Outside of Hawaii, Trask has...

  • Kaiulani Edens-Huff, a KKCR DJ, was suspended for an on-air altercation sparking accusation of racism and protests and an arrest of one of the protestors outside the station.
  • Dallas Keialiihooneiaina Mossman Vogeler (theatre director; d. 1996),

Opponents of Hawaiian sovereignty

  • H. William Burgess
    H. William Burgess
    H. William Burgess is an attorney who lives in Hawaii. He and his wife Sandra Puanani Burgess, who is of Chinese, Filipino and Hawaiian ancestry, are opponents of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and of government programs that benefit Native Hawaiians preferentially...

  • Kenneth R. Conklin
    Kenneth R. Conklin
    Kenneth R. Conklin is a retired schoolteacher who moved to Hawaii from Boston in 1992 and currently lives in Kāneʻohe. He is an opponent of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, accusing those within it of preaching racism and apartheid, and has also sought to overturn existing laws and practices...

  • Bruce Fein
    Bruce Fein
    Bruce Fein is a lawyer in the United States who specializes in constitutional and international law. Fein has written numerous articles on constitutional issues for The Washington Times, Slate.com, The New York Times, Legal Times, and is active on the issues of civil liberties...

  • Rubellite Kawena Kinney Johnson (descendant of Kamehameha I
    Kamehameha I
    Kamehameha I , also known as Kamehameha the Great, conquered the Hawaiian Islands and formally established the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, Kamehameha preserved Hawaii's independence under his rule...

    , named a "Living Treasure of Hawai'i" in 1983 by the Honpa Hongwanji Mission of Hawaii)
  • Grant Jones
  • Thurston Twigg-Smith
    Thurston Twigg-Smith
    -Biography:Twigg-Smith is a fifth generation Hawaii resident. He was born in 1921 in Honolulu, Hawaii. He is the son of William and Margaret Thurston Twigg-Smith , making him the great-great grandson of Asa and Lucy Goodale Thurston as well as Lorrin Andrews — who were pioneer missionaries to the...


In popular culture

  • Crimson Skies franchise
    Crimson Skies
    Crimson Skies is a media franchise and fictional universe created by Jordan Weisman and Dave McCoy. The series' intellectual property is currently owned by Microsoft Game Studios , although Weisman's new company, Smith & Tinker Inc., has announced that it has licensed the electronic entertainment...

    : Is an alternate history franchise created by Jordan Weisman
    Jordan Weisman
    Jordan Weisman is an American game designer, author, and serial entrepreneur who has founded four major game design companies, each in a different game genre and segment of the industry.-Biography:...

     and Dave McCoy. In this alternate history the United States collapses in the 1930s. Subsequently without the support of the US government the Territorial Government
    Territory of Hawaii
    The Territory of Hawaii or Hawaii Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 7, 1898, until August 21, 1959, when its territory, with the exception of Johnston Atoll, was admitted to the Union as the fiftieth U.S. state, the State of Hawaii.The U.S...

     is ousted from power and the kingdom restored with Jonah Kūhiō
    Jonah Kuhio Kalaniana'ole
    Prince Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaole Piikoi was a prince of the reigning House of Kalākaua when the Kingdom of Hawaii was overthrown by international businessmen in 1893...

     becoming king.

  • Days of Infamy series: Days of Infamy and End of the Beginning were two novels by Harry Turtledove
    Harry Turtledove
    Harry Norman Turtledove is an American novelist, who has produced works in several genres including alternate history, historical fiction, fantasy and science fiction.- Life :...

     based on an alternate history where the Attack on Pearl Harbor
    Attack on Pearl Harbor
    The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941...

     is followed by an invasion. The Kingdom of Hawaii is formed as a Japanese puppet state
    Puppet state
    A puppet state is a nominal sovereign of a state who is de facto controlled by a foreign power. The term refers to a government controlled by the government of another country like a puppeteer controls the strings of a marionette...

     with fictional King Stanley Owana Laanui and Queen Cynthia Laanui from the House of Laanui
    House of Laanui
    The House of Laanui is a family of heirs to the throne of the Kingdom of Hawaii collateral to the House of Kamehameha. Both houses are branches of the House of Keōua Nui.- History:...

    .

See also

  • Legal status of Hawaii
    Legal status of Hawaii
    The legal status of Hawaii is the standing of Hawaii as a political entity relative to the United States of America. Locally, nationally and internationally, Hawaii is accepted as a state under the sovereignty of the United States of America...

  • Tribal sovereignty
    Tribal sovereignty
    Tribal sovereignty in the United States refers to the inherent authority of indigenous tribes to govern themselves within the borders of the United States of America. The federal government recognizes tribal nations as "domestic dependent nations" and has established a number of laws attempting to...

  • Alaskan Independence Party
    Alaskan Independence Party
    The Alaskan Independence Party is a political party in the U.S. state of Alaska that advocates an in-state referendum which includes the option of Alaska becoming an independent country...

  • Republic of Texas (group)
    Republic of Texas (group)
    The Republic of Texas is a militia group that claims that the annexation of Texas by the United States was illegal and that Texas remains an independent nation under occupation. The issue of the Legal status of Texas led the group to claim to reinstate a provisional government on December 13, 1995...

  • Second Vermont Republic
    Second Vermont Republic
    Second Vermont Republic is a secessionist group within the U.S. state of Vermont which seeks to return to the formerly independent status of the Vermont Republic . It describes itself as "a nonviolent citizens' network and think tank opposed to the tyranny of Corporate America and the U.S...

  • Puerto Rican independence movement
    Puerto Rican independence movement
    The Puerto Rican independence movement refers to initiatives throughout the history of Puerto Rico aimed at obtaining independence for the Island, first from Spain, and then from the United States...

  • History of Hawaii
    History of Hawaii
    The human history of Hawaii includes phases of early Polynesian settlement, British arrival, unification, Euro-American and Asian immigrators, the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy, a brief period as the Republic of Hawaii, and admission to the United States as Hawaii Territory and then as the...

  • KKCR

Further reading

  • Andrade Jr., Ernest (1996). Unconquerable Rebel: Robert W. Wilcox and Hawaiian Politics, 1880-1903. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-417-6
  • Budnick, Rich (1992). Stolen Kingdom: An American Conspiracy. Honolulu: Aloha Press. ISBN 0-944081-02-9
  • Churchill, Ward. Venne, Sharon H. (2004). Islands in Captivity: The International Tribunal on the Rights of Indigenous Hawaiians. Hawaiian language editor Lilikala Kame‘eleihiwa. Boston: South End Press
    South End Press
    South End Press is a non-profit book publisher run on a model of participatory economics. It was founded in 1977 by Michael Albert, Lydia Sargent, John Schall, Pat Walker, Juliet Schor, Mary Lea, Joe Bowring, and Dave Millikan, among others, in Boston's South End...

    . ISBN 0-89608-738-7
  • Coffman, Tom (2003). Nation Within: The Story of America's Annexation of the Nation of Hawaii. Epicenter. ISBN 1-892122-00-6
  • Coffman, Tom (2003). The Island Edge of America: A Political History of Hawai‘i. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2625-6 / ISBN 0-8248-2662-0
  • Conklin, Kenneth R. Hawaiian Apartheid: Racial Separatism and Ethnic Nationalism in the Aloha State. Print-on-demand from E-Book Time. ISBN 1-59824-461-2
  • Daws, Gavan (1968). Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands. Macmillan, New York, 1968. Paperback edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, 1974.
  • Dougherty, Michael (2000). To Steal a Kingdom. Island Style Press. ISBN 0-9633484-0-X
  • Dudley, Michael K., and Agard, Keoni Kealoha (1993 reprint). A Call for Hawaiian Sovereignty. Nā Kāne O Ka Malo Press. ISBN 1-878751-09-3
  • Kame‘eleihiwa, Lilikala (1992). Native Land and Foreign Desires. Bishop Museum Press. ISBN 0-930897-59-5
  • Liliuokalani (1991 reprint). Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen
    Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen
    Hawaii's Story by Hawaii's Queen is a book written by Queen Liliuokalani, the last monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii. It was published in 1898, five years after the overthrow of the Kingdom...

    . Mutual Publishing. ISBN 0-935180-85-0
  • Osorio, Jonathan Kay Kamakawiwo‘ole (2002). Dismembering Lahui: A History of the Hawaiian Nation to 1887. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2549-7
  • Silva, Noenoe K. (2004). Aloha Betrayed: Native Hawaiian Resistance to American Colonialism. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3349-X
  • Twigg-Smith, Thurston (2000). 'Hawaiian Sovereignty: Do the Facts Matter?. Goodale Publishing. ISBN 0-9662945-1-3

External links


Politics


Media


Opposition

  • Documents and essays opposing sovereignty collected or written by Kenneth R. Conklin
    Kenneth R. Conklin
    Kenneth R. Conklin is a retired schoolteacher who moved to Hawaii from Boston in 1992 and currently lives in Kāneʻohe. He is an opponent of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement, accusing those within it of preaching racism and apartheid, and has also sought to overturn existing laws and practices...

    , Ph.D.
  • Grassroot Institute of Hawaii — co-founded by Richard O. Rowland and Hawaii Reporter publisher Malia Zimmerman
  • Aloha for All — co-founded by H. William Burgess
    H. William Burgess
    H. William Burgess is an attorney who lives in Hawaii. He and his wife Sandra Puanani Burgess, who is of Chinese, Filipino and Hawaiian ancestry, are opponents of the Hawaiian sovereignty movement and of government programs that benefit Native Hawaiians preferentially...

     and Thurston Twigg-Smith
    Thurston Twigg-Smith
    -Biography:Twigg-Smith is a fifth generation Hawaii resident. He was born in 1921 in Honolulu, Hawaii. He is the son of William and Margaret Thurston Twigg-Smith , making him the great-great grandson of Asa and Lucy Goodale Thurston as well as Lorrin Andrews — who were pioneer missionaries to the...

  • A Race to Racism? Ascribe It to Tribe by Paul Sullivan in the Hawaii Reporter
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