Hartmann's Solution
Hartmann's solution or compound sodium lactate is a crystalloid solution that is most closely isotonic
Tonicity is a measure of the osmotic pressure gradient of two solutions separated by a semipermeable membrane. It is commonly used when describing the response of cells immersed in an external solution...

 with blood
Blood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....

 and intended for intravenous administration
Intravenous therapy
Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the infusion of liquid substances directly into a vein. The word intravenous simply means "within a vein". Therapies administered intravenously are often called specialty pharmaceuticals...

Hartmann's IV Infusion is used to
replace body fluid and mineral salts
that may be lost for a variety of
medical reasons. Hartmann's IV
Infusion is especially suitable when
the losses result in too much acid
being present in the blood.
Hartmann's solution is abbreviated as "CSL". It is very similar—though not identical to—lactated Ringer's solution
Lactated Ringer's solution
Lactated Ringer's solution is a solution that is isotonic with blood and intended for intravenous administration. It may also be given subcutaneously....

, the ionic concentrations of which differ.


One litre of Hartmann's solution contains:
  • 131 mEq of sodium
    Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

    An ion is an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. The name was given by physicist Michael Faraday for the substances that allow a current to pass between electrodes in a...

     = 131 mmol/L.
  • 111 mEq of chloride
    The chloride ion is formed when the element chlorine, a halogen, picks up one electron to form an anion Cl−. The salts of hydrochloric acid HCl contain chloride ions and can also be called chlorides. The chloride ion, and its salts such as sodium chloride, are very soluble in water...

     ion = 111 mmol/L.
  • 29 mEq of lactate
    Lactic acid
    Lactic acid, also known as milk acid, is a chemical compound that plays a role in various biochemical processes and was first isolated in 1780 by the Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Lactic acid is a carboxylic acid with the chemical formula C3H6O3...

     = 29 mmol/L.
  • 5 mEq of potassium
    Potassium is the chemical element with the symbol K and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.Potassium and sodium are...

     ion = 5 mmol/L.
  • 4 mEq of calcium
    Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

     ion = 2 mmol/L .

Generally, the sodium, chloride, potassium and lactate come from NaCl (sodium chloride
Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, common salt, table salt or halite, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaCl. Sodium chloride is the salt most responsible for the salinity of the ocean and of the extracellular fluid of many multicellular organisms...

), NaC3H5O3 (sodium lactate
Sodium lactate
Sodium lactate is the sodium salt of lactic acid produced by fermentation of a sugar source, such as corn or beets, and then neutralizing the resulting lactic acid to create a compound having the formula NaC3H5O3. As a food additive, sodium lactate has the E number E325 and naturally is a liquid...

), CaCl2 (calcium chloride
Calcium chloride
Calcium chloride, CaCl2, is a salt of calcium and chlorine. It behaves as a typical ionic halide, and is solid at room temperature. Common applications include brine for refrigeration plants, ice and dust control on roads, and desiccation...

), and KCl (potassium chloride
Potassium chloride
The chemical compound potassium chloride is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. In its pure state, it is odorless and has a white or colorless vitreous crystal appearance, with a crystal structure that cleaves easily in three directions. Potassium chloride crystals are...


Hartmann's IV infusion is given at a slow rate of injection (drip).


Hartmann's solution may be relatively contraindicated in patients with diabetes mellitus, as one of the isomers of lactate is gluconeogenic.
Hartmann solution should not be given if the patient has congestive heart
failure (constant wheezing, shortness of breath), ischaemic stroke (have had a stroke), liver disease as a consequence of alcoholism, or severe reduction in kidney function.

Side effects

As with any medicines, some side effects may occur. Some swelling of the hands, ankles and feet may be experienced due to fluid retention in the body. In rare circumstances, this may also involve the lungs, which may cause some breathing difficulty. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, drowsiness or confusion. Inflammation at the site of injection,
or swelling of the veins near the site of injection is also possible.
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