Harbin
Overview
 
Harbin; Manchu language
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

: , Harbin; Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

 Province in Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River
Songhua River
The Songhua or Sunggari River is a river in Northeast China, and is the largest tributary of the Heilong River , flowing about from Changbai Mountains through Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of .As the Second Songhua River, it joins the...

. With a population of 9.87 million, it is the tenth largest city in China, serving as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural and communications hub in the Northeast.

Harbin is originally a Manchu
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

 word meaning "a place for drying fishing nets".
Encyclopedia
Harbin; Manchu language
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

: , Harbin; Russian
Russian language
Russian is a Slavic language used primarily in Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Ukraine, Moldova, Latvia, Turkmenistan and Estonia and, to a lesser extent, the other countries that were once constituent republics...

: Харби́н Kharbin ), is the capital and largest city of Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

 Province in Northeast China
Northeast China
Northeast China, historically known in English as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China, consisting of the three provinces of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang. The region is sometimes called the Three Northeast Provinces...

, lying on the southern bank of the Songhua River
Songhua River
The Songhua or Sunggari River is a river in Northeast China, and is the largest tributary of the Heilong River , flowing about from Changbai Mountains through Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of .As the Second Songhua River, it joins the...

. With a population of 9.87 million, it is the tenth largest city in China, serving as a key political, economic, scientific, cultural and communications hub in the Northeast.

Harbin is originally a Manchu
Manchu language
Manchu is a Tungusic endangered language spoken in Northeast China; it used to be the language of the Manchu, though now most Manchus speak Mandarin Chinese and there are fewer than 70 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus...

 word meaning "a place for drying fishing nets". It is known for its bitterly cold winters and is often called the "Ice City". Harbin is well known for its beautiful ice sculptures in winter and its Russian leagacy, and still plays an important part in Sino-Russian trade today. In the 1920s, the city was considered China's fashion capital as new designs from Paris and Moscow reached there first before arriving in Shanghai.

History

Human settlement in the Harbin area dates from at least 2200 BC (late Stone Age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

). It was formerly called Pokai.

The modern city of Harbin originated in 1898 from a small village. The city was established by a Polish
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 engineer Adam Szydłowski following the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
The Chinese Eastern Railway or was a railway in northeastern China . It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. English-speakers have sometimes referred to this line as the Manchurian Railway...

 (KVZhD) financed by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

. Chinese Eastern Railway is an extension of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

, shortcutting substantially the distance to Vladivostok and creating a link to the port city of Dalny (Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

) and the Russian Naval Base Port Arthur
Lüshunkou
Lüshunkou is a district in the municipality of Dalian, Liaoning province, China. Also called Lüshun City or Lüshun Port, it was formerly known as both Port Arthur and Ryojun....

.

Following the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 (1904-5), Russia's influence declined, and several thousand nationals from 33 countries including the United States, Germany, and France moved to Harbin. Sixteen countries established consulates and set up several hundred industrial, commercial and banking companies in Harbin. The Chinese also established their own businesses in brewing, food and the textile industry. Harbin had established its status as the center of northeastern China and as an international metropolis.

National census carried out in 1913 by the Chinese Eastern Railway
Chinese Eastern Railway
The Chinese Eastern Railway or was a railway in northeastern China . It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. English-speakers have sometimes referred to this line as the Manchurian Railway...

 revealed the following ethnic breakdown of the city's population: Russians
Russians
The Russian people are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, speaking the Russian language and primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries....

 - 34313, Chinese (中國人, that is Hans
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, Manchus etc.) - 23537, Jews - 5032, Poles
Poles
thumb|right|180px|The state flag of [[Poland]] as used by Polish government and diplomatic authoritiesThe Polish people, or Poles , are a nation indigenous to Poland. They are united by the Polish language, which belongs to the historical Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages of Central Europe...

 - 2556, Japanese - 696, Germans
Germans
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 - 564, Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

 - 234, Latvians
Latvians
Latvians or Letts are the indigenous Baltic people of Latvia.-History:Latvians occasionally refer to themselves by the ancient name of Latvji, which may have originated from the word Latve which is a name of the river that presumably flowed through what is now eastern Latvia...

 - 218, Georgians
Georgians
The Georgians are an ethnic group that have originated in Georgia, where they constitute a majority of the population. Large Georgian communities are also present throughout Russia, European Union, United States, and South America....

 - 183, Estonians
Estonians
Estonians are a Finnic people closely related to the Finns and inhabiting, primarily, the country of Estonia. They speak a Finnic language known as Estonian...

 - 172, Lithuanians
Lithuanians
Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,765,600 people. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom and Ireland. Their native language...

 - 142, Armenians
Armenians
Armenian people or Armenians are a nation and ethnic group native to the Armenian Highland.The largest concentration is in Armenia having a nearly-homogeneous population with 97.9% or 3,145,354 being ethnic Armenian....

 - 124; there were also Karaims, Ukrainians
Ukrainians
Ukrainians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is the sixth-largest nation in Europe. The Constitution of Ukraine applies the term 'Ukrainians' to all its citizens...

, Bashkirs
Bashkirs
The Bashkirs are a Turkic people indigenous to Bashkortostan extending on both parts of the Ural mountains, on the place where Europe meets Asia. Groups of Bashkirs also live in the republic of Tatarstan, Perm Krai, Chelyabinsk, Orenburg, Tyumen, Sverdlovsk, Kurgan, Samara and Saratov Oblasts of...

, and some Western Europeans. In total, 68549 citizens of 53 nationalities, speaking 45 languages.

In December 1918, during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

, defeated Russian White Guards and refugees retreated to the city: it then became a major centre of White Russian
White movement
The White movement and its military arm the White Army - known as the White Guard or the Whites - was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces.The movement comprised one of the politico-military Russian forces who fought...

 émigré
Émigré
Émigré is a French term that literally refers to a person who has "migrated out", but often carries a connotation of politico-social self-exile....

s. The city became the largest Russian enclave outside Russia. The Jewish community was formed by Russian Jews and included a group of German Jews, who fled Nazi Germany in the late 1930s. Under the pro bono efforts by Japanese government officials, they later emigrated to several cities in western Japan, notably Kobe
Kobe
, pronounced , is the fifth-largest city in Japan and is the capital city of Hyōgo Prefecture on the southern side of the main island of Honshū, approximately west of Osaka...

, to ensure their safety and prosperity and established the largest synagogue in Japan. The Russians established the Russian school system and published Russian language newspapers and journals.

With the establishment of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
Manchukuo or Manshū-koku was a puppet state in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia, governed under a form of constitutional monarchy. The region was the historical homeland of the Manchus, who founded the Qing Empire in China...

, Japanese troops occupied Harbin on 4 February 1932. The city became main base of operations of the infamous Unit 731
Unit 731
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese...

 which was responsible for some of the most grisly war atrocities in human history. In 1935 the Soviet Union sold the railway (KVZhD) to the Japanese, which resulted in the first exodus of Russian emigres from Manchuria and Harbin in particular. The bulk of the departing Russians went back to the Soviet Union, while a substantial number moved south to Shanghai or emigrated to the United States and Australia.

The Soviet Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 took the city on 20 August 1945 and Harbin never came under the control of the Kuomintang, whose troops stopped 60 km short of the city. The city's administration was transferred by the departing Soviet Army to the Chinese People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
The People's Liberation Army is the unified military organization of all land, sea, strategic missile and air forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLA was established on August 1, 1927 — celebrated annually as "PLA Day" — as the military arm of the Communist Party of China...

 in April 1946.

During the short occupation of Harbin by the Soviet Army (August 1945 to April 1946), thousands of Russian emigres who fled communism after the revolution, were forcibly moved to the Soviet Union. The rest of the European community (Russians, Germans, Poles, Greeks etc.) emigrated during the years 1950-54 to Australia, Brazil and the USA, or were repatriated to their home countries. By 1988 the original Russian community numbered just thirty, all of them elderly.

During the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 many foreign and Christian things were uprooted, such as the St. Nicholas church which was destroyed by Red Guards in 1966.

The eight Harbin counties originally formed part of Songhuajiang Prefecture , and became incorporated into Harbin on 11 August 1999, making Harbin a sub-provincial city
Sub-provincial city
A sub-provincial divisions in the People's Republic of China, is like a prefecture-level city that is ruled by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law....

.

Harbin once housed one of the largest Jewish communities in the Far East. It reached its peak in the mid 1920s when 20,000 European Jews lived in the city. Among them were the parents of Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert
Ehud Olmert is an Israeli politician and lawyer. He served as Prime Minister of Israel from 2006 to 2009, as a Cabinet Minister from 1988 to 1992 and from 2003 to 2006, and as Mayor of Jerusalem from 1993 to 2003....

, the former Prime Minister of Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

. In 2004 Ehud Olmert came to Harbin with an Israeli trade delegation to visit the grave of his grandfather.

A benzene
Benzene
Benzene is an organic chemical compound. It is composed of 6 carbon atoms in a ring, with 1 hydrogen atom attached to each carbon atom, with the molecular formula C6H6....

 plant situated upstream in the city of Jilin along the Songhua River
Songhua River
The Songhua or Sunggari River is a river in Northeast China, and is the largest tributary of the Heilong River , flowing about from Changbai Mountains through Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of .As the Second Songhua River, it joins the...

 exploded
2005 Jilin chemical plant explosions
The Jilin chemical plant explosions were a series of explosions which occurred on November 13, 2005, in the No.101 Petrochemical Plant in Jilin City, Jilin Province, China, over the period of an hour...

 on 13 November 2005. Benzene levels reached more than 100 times normal levels, which led authorities in Harbin to shut off the water supply, and some residents left the city while others rushed to buy bottled water. After a few days the water supply was restored. The Harbin government originally declared to the public that the water supply was temporarily off while the supply system was checked. They also denied reports of a chemical leak, claiming that it was "just a rumour."

The municipality had 10,635,971 inhabitants at the 2010 census and its built up area covers now 7 districts of Harbin municipality : all urban districts plus Hulan county who is merging with Songbei districts. The built up area is now home to 5,282,083 inhabitants spread out on 4275 km² (1,651 sq mi).

Administrative divisions

The sub-provincial city of Harbin has direct jurisdiction over 8 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities
County-level city
A county-level city is a county-level administrative division of mainland China. County-level cities are usually governed by prefecture-level divisions, but a few are governed directly by province-level divisions....

 (市 shi) and 7 Counties (县 xian). On August 15, 2006, Dongli District (动力区) merged with Xiangfang District (香坊区).

# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010-11-01)
Area (km²) Density (/km²)
City proper
1 Daoli District
Daoli District
Daoli District is one of the oldest districts in the city of Harbin in the Heilongjiang Province in Northeast China. It is located on the Songhua River....

道里区 Dàolǐ Qū 923,762 479 1,929
2 Nangang District 南岗区 Nángǎng Qū 1,343,857 183 7,343
3 Daowai District
Daowai District
Daowai District is a district of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.- External links : -...

道外区 Dàowài Qū 906,421 257 3,527
4 Xiangfang District
Xiangfang District
Xiangfang District is a district of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China.- External links : -...

香坊区 Xiāngfáng Qū 916,408 340 2,695
5 Pingfang District 平房区 Píngfáng Qū 190,253 94 2,024
6 Songbei District
Songbei District
Songbei is a district of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. Its name literally means "north of Song", referring to its position north of the Songhua River which runs through the city.- External links : -...

松北区 Sōngběi Qū 236,848 736 322
Suburbs
7 Hulan District
Hulan District
Hulan District is a district of Harbin, the capital of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China....

呼兰区 Hūlán Qū 764,534 2,186 350
8 Acheng District 阿城区 Àchéng Qū 596,856 2,770 215
Satellite cities
9 Shuangcheng
Shuangcheng
Shuangcheng is the south of Heilongjiang province in Northeast China and is administratively a county-level city under the administration of Harbin. It sits approximately south-southwest of downtown Harbin....

双城市 Shuāngchéng Shì 825,634 3,112 265
10 Shangzhi
Shangzhi
Shangzhi is a county-level city located in the southeast of Heilongjiang province, China. It is 127 kilometres away from the provincial capital Harbin and has an area of approximately 9,000 square kilometres. The town has a population of around 120,000 and the whole county has approximately...

尚志市 Shàngzhì Shì 585,386 8,895 66
11 Wuchang
Wuchang, Heilongjiang
Wuchang is a city in the Harbin metropolitan area in Heilongjiang province of the People's Republic of China.The name "Wuchang" has been in use since 1855. At that time people began to reclaim wasteland, and built five noble lodges. It was changed to Wuchang Bureau in 1882, and changed to Wuchang...

五常市 Wǔcháng Shì 881,224 7,512 117
Rural
12 Yilan County
Yilan County, Heilongjiang
Yilan County is a county of central Heilongjiang province in Northeast China. It administratively belonging to Harbin, the provincial capital, more than to the west...

依兰县 Yīlán Xiàn 388,319 4,672 83
13 Fangzheng County
Fangzheng County
Fangzheng County is a county of southern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of the provincial capital of Harbin.- External links :...

方正县 Fāngzhèng Xiàn 203,853 2,993 68
14 Bin County
Bin County, Heilongjiang
The county of Bin is an administrative subdivision of the province of Heilongjiang, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Harbin.- Notes and references :...

宾县 Bīn Xiàn 551,271 3,846 143
15 Bayan County
Bayan County
Bayan County is a county of south-central Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of the provincial capital of Harbin....

巴彦县 Bāyàn Xiàn 590,555 3,138 188
16 Mulan County
Mulan County
Mulan County is a county of southern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of the provincial capital, Harbin. The county is not related to the legendary person Hua Mulan.-External links: -...

木兰县 Mùlán Xiàn 277,685 3,602 77
17 Tonghe County
Tonghe County
The County of Tonghe is an administrative subdivision of the province of Heilongjiang, in Manchuria, China. It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city of Harbin.-External links: -...

通河县 Tōnghé Xiàn 210,650 5,755 37
18 Yanshou County
Yanshou County
Yanshou County is a county of southern Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China, under the jurisdiction of the provincial capital, Harbin.-External links: -...

延寿县 Yánshòu Xiàn 242,455 3,226 75

Geography

Harbin is located in southern Heilongjiang, on the southeastern edge of the Songnen Plain (松嫩平原). The city centre also sits on the southern bank of the middle Songhua River. As the prefecture is rather large, its latitude ranges from 44° 04′ - 46° 40′ N, and the longitude 125° 42′ - 130° 10' E. Neighbouring prefectures are Yichun
Yichun, Heilongjiang
Yichun is a prefecture-level city on the Songhua river north of Tieli in Heilongjiang province in northeast China. The city is separated from Russia by the Heilongjiang River and sharing a boundary of 246 kilometers with the country. At the 2010 cencus, Yichun has a total population of 1,148,126...

 to the north, Jiamusi
Jiamusi
Jiamusi is a prefecture-level city in the province of Heilongjiang, in the People's Republic of China. Located on the riverside of the middle and lower reaches of the Songhua River, It faces Russia across the Ussuri River and the Heilongjiang River...

 and Qitaihe
Qitaihe
Qitaihe is a prefecture-level city in Heilongjiang province. Lying in the eastern part of Heilongjiang Province in Northeast Chinaand covering an area 6,223 square kilometers, Qitaihe is the smallest city among 13 prefecture and prefecture-level cities in this province. Qitaihe also has the second...

 to the northeast, Mudanjiang to the southeast, Daqing
Daqing
Daqing is a prefecture-level city in the west of Heilongjiang province of Northeast China. The name literally means "Great Celebration".Its population is 2,904,532 at the 2010 census whom 1,042,902 in the built up area made of 4 out of 5 urban districts It was founded in 1959 to house workers...

 to the west, and Suihua
Suihua
Suihua is a prefecture-level city in west-central Heilongjiang province of Northeast China, adjacent to Yichun to the east, Harbin, the provincial capital, to the south, Daqing to the west and Heihe to the north...

 to the northwest. In the southwest is Jilin Province. The terrain of the city is generally flat, with an average elevation of around 150 metres (492.1 ft).

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

, Harbin features a monsoon
Monsoon
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea...

-influenced, humid continental climate
Humid continental climate
A humid continental climate is a climatic region typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters....

 (Dwa) with hot, humid summers and very cold winters. Its "Ice City" nickname is well-earned, as its winters are dry and bitterly cold, with a 24-hour average in January of only −18.4 °C. Yet the city sees little precipitation during the winter and is often sunny. Summers can be hot, with a July mean temperature of 23 °C (73.4 °F). Summer is also when most of the year's rainfall occurs. Spring and autumn constitute brief transition periods with variable wind directions. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −41.4 °C to 39.2 °C (103 °F).

Economy

While Dalian
Dalian
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

 is considered the region’s shipping center and Shenyang
Shenyang
Shenyang , or Mukden , is the capital and largest city of Liaoning Province in Northeast China. Currently holding sub-provincial administrative status, the city was once known as Shengjing or Fengtianfu...

 its financial hub, Harbin is striving hard towards becoming the key trade and shopping center of the region. The city is located in one of the fastest growing regions in the world and can boast a number of advantages such as an abundance of natural resources, good transport system and plenty of human resources.
In 2008, Harbin's GDP reached RMB286.82 billion, an increase of 13.2 percent over the previous year. Tertiary industry output remained the largest component of GDP reaching RMB140.04 billion, an increase of 13.9 percent from the previous year. The total value for imports and exports by the end of 2008 was US$3.64 billion.

The soil in Harbin, called “black earth
Chernozem
Chernozem , also known as "black land" or "black earth", is a black-coloured soil containing a high percentage of humus 7% to 15%, and high percentages of phosphoric acids, phosphorus and ammonia...

” is one of the most nutrient rich in all of China, making it valuable for cultivating food and textile-related crops. As a result, Harbin is China’s base for the production of commodity grain and an ideal location for setting up agricultural businesses. Harbin also has industries such as light industry, textile, medicine, foodstuff, automobile, metallurgy, electronics, building materials, and chemicals which help to form a fairly comprehensive industrial system. Harbin Power Equipment Group Company and Northeast Light Alloy Processing Factory are two key enterprises. Harbin is also known as the capital of “power manufacturing”; hydro and thermal power equipment manufactured here makes up one-third of the total installed capacity in China.

Foreign investors seem upbeat about the city. The Harbin Trade and Economic fair, has been held for 17 years annually, cumulatively attracting more than 1.3 million exhibitors and visitors and resulting in contracts of over US$90 billion. Japanese, Russian and Eastern European nations are increasingly looking to North China and Harbin for investment. Foreign direct investment remains low, but is growing as a result of government efforts, with utilized FDI totaling US$570 million, up 28.1 percent, in 2008.

Harbin is also home to Harbin Institute of Technology
Harbin Institute of Technology
The Harbin Institute of Technology , or HIT, is colloquially known as Hagongda . It is a research university in the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China....

, one of China’s better known universities. Founded in 1920, the university has developed into an important research university focusing on engineering, with supporting faculties in the sciences, management, humanities and social sciences. The institute's faculty and students contributed to and invented China's first analog computer
Analog computer
An analog computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously-changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved...

, the first intelligent chess computer, and the first arc-welding robot. Last year, research funding from the government, industry, and business sectors surpassed RMB1.13 billion, the second highest of any university in China.

Economic Development Zones and Ports
  • Harbin Development Zone
    • Harbin Economic and Technological Development Zone
    • Harbin High and New Technological Development Zone

Harbin High-tech Zone was set up in 1988 and was approved by the State Council as a national development zone in 1991. It has a total area of 34 sqkm in the centralized parks, subdivided into Nangang, Haping Road and Yingbin Road Centralized Parks. The Nangang Centralized Park is designated for the incubation of high-tech projects and research and development base of enterprises as well as tertiary industries such as finance, insurance, services, catering, tourism, culture, recreation and entertainment, where the headquarters of large famous companies and their branches in Harbin are located; the Haping Road Centralized Park is a comprehensive industrial basis for the investment projects of automobile and automobile parts manufacturing, medicines, foodstuffs, electronics, textile; the Yingbin Road Centralized Park is mainly for high-tech incubation projects, high-tech industrial development.
  • Harbin Port
  • Daqing High-tech Industrial Development Zone

Infrastructure

Harbin is one of the largest railway hubs in Northeast China. Five major railways (Jingha, Binsui, Binzhou, Binbei and Labin) meet here. Currently 138 trains terminate in or pass through Harbin daily, with trains available to Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin, Guangzhou, Jinan and many other major cities in China.

The Harbin Taiping International Airport
Harbin Taiping International Airport
Harbin Taiping International Airport is an international airport in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.-History:Harbin Taiping Airport, formerly known as Yanjiagang Airport, is located about southwest of the city of Harbin and was constructed in 1979 with further expansion between 1994 and 1997 at a...

 is the second largest international airport in Northeast China. There are flights to/from more than 30 large and medium-sized cities, including Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Hong Kong.

There are more than 1,900 rivers in Heilongjiang, including the Songhua River
Songhua River
The Songhua or Sunggari River is a river in Northeast China, and is the largest tributary of the Heilong River , flowing about from Changbai Mountains through Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of .As the Second Songhua River, it joins the...

, Heilongjiang River and Wusulijiang River, creating a convenient system of waterway transportation. Harbin harbor is one of eight inland ports in China and the largest of its type in Northeast China. Available from mid-April until the beginning of November, passenger ships sail from Harbin up the Songhua River to Qiqihar
Qiqihar
- Subdivisions :Qiqihar is divided into 16 divisions: 7 districts , 8 counties and 1 county-level city .-Economy:...

, or downstream to Jiamusi
Jiamusi
Jiamusi is a prefecture-level city in the province of Heilongjiang, in the People's Republic of China. Located on the riverside of the middle and lower reaches of the Songhua River, It faces Russia across the Ussuri River and the Heilongjiang River...

, Tongjiang, and Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located some from the Chinese border. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, after Vladivostok. The city became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia...

 in Russia.

Architecture

As the major refugee center for the East European Jewish, the architecture style of Harbin shows a unique combination of oriental and European architecture styles. The city is well known for its unique, Russian and other European-influenced architecture.

Zhong Yang Street (Central Street, also known, using the Russian word for Chinese, as Kitaiskaya Street), one of the main business streets in Harbin, is a perfect remnant of the bustling international business activities at the turn of the 20th century. The 1.4-km long street is a veritable museum of European architectural styles: Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 and Byzantine
Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. The empire gradually emerged as a distinct artistic and cultural entity from what is today referred to as the Roman Empire after AD 330, when the Roman Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire east from Rome to...

 façades, little Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n bakeries and French fashion houses, as well as non European architectural styles: American eateries, and Japanese restaurants.

The Russian Orthodox church, Saint Sophia Cathedral
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin
The Cathedral of the Holy Wisdom of God or Saint Sophia Cathedral in Harbin is a former Russian Orthodox church located in the central district of Daoli, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China.-History:...

, is also located in this central district of Daoli. St. Sophia took nine years to build and was completed in 1932. It has now been made into a museum as a showcase of the diverse architecture of Harbin.

Many citizens believe that the Orthodox church damaged the local feng shui
Feng shui
Feng shui ' is a Chinese system of geomancy believed to use the laws of both Heaven and Earth to help one improve life by receiving positive qi. The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu ....

, so they donated money to build a Chinese monastery in 1921, the Ji Le Temple
Ji Le Temple
Ji Le Temple located at No.5, Dong-Dazhi Street, Nangang Dist, Harbin, is the biggest Buddhist building group in the Heilongjiang province,. It was constructed between 1921 and 1924. The grounds cover 27 570 square meters and the buildings 5 186 square meters....

. There were more than 15 Russian Orthodox churches and two cemeteries in Harbin until 1949. Mao's Communist Revolution
Communist revolution
A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage...

, and the subsequent Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

, saw many of them destroyed. Now, about 10 churches remain, while services are held only in the Church of the Intercession in Harbin
Church of the Intercession in Harbin
The Church of the Protection of the Mother of God in Harbin is an Eastern Orthodox church in Harbin, China, built in 1930. It is also called the Ukrainian Church in Harbin.-General:...

.

Culture

The Harbin local culture is based on Han culture
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, combined with Manchu culture and Russian culture. This combination of cultures influences the local architecture style, food, music, and customs. The city of Harbin was appointed a UNESCO City of Music on 22 June 2010 as part of the Creative Cities Network
Creative Cities Network
Not to be confused with:*Creative Cities, an international European project designed and managed by the British Council.*Creative city, an urban planning concept.*Creative City, an urban development project in Fujairah, United Arab Emirates....

.

Russian influence

Harbin today is still very much influenced by its Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n past. A city once under Russian rule, it is now a center of trade with that country.

The influence of Russia came with the construction of the China Far East Railway
China Far East Railway
The Chinese Eastern Railway or was a railway in northeastern China . It connected Chita and the Russian Far East. English-speakers have sometimes referred to this line as the Manchurian Railway...

, an extension of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East and the Sea of Japan. It is the longest railway in the world...

, and Harbin, known formerly as a fishing village, began to prosper as the largest commercial center of North Eastern Asia.

Tsarist Russia encouraged Russian settlement in their important Trans-Siberian-Railway outpost by waiving the then 25-year long military service obligation. For Jews who settled there, the restrictions applying in Russia were also waived.

The local cuisine in Harbin is also Russian-influenced. Harbin's bakeries are famous for their bread (lie-ba in local dialect, derived from the Russian word khleb for "bread"). Harbin's sausages (qiu-lin hong-chang) are another notable product, in that they tend to be of a much more European flavour than other Chinese sausages.

Many Jews came to Harbin during World War II, some of whom died in Harbin and were buried there. There is at least one cemetery with some tombstones bearing the Star of David
Star of David
The Star of David, known in Hebrew as the Shield of David or Magen David is a generally recognized symbol of Jewish identity and Judaism.Its shape is that of a hexagram, the compound of two equilateral triangles...

. It is on a little hill (or cliff) overlooking a busy railway in Nan Gang district.

Winter culture

Harbin is located in Northeast China under the direct influence of the cold winter wind from Siberia
Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

. The average temperature in summer is 21.2 °C (70.2 °F) and −16.8 C in winter.

The annual Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival
Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival
The annual Harbin International Ice and Snow Sculpture Festival has been held since 1963. It had been interrupted for a number of years during the Cultural Revolution until it was resumed in 1985....

  has been held since 1985. Although the official start date is January 5 each year, in practice, many of the sculptures can be seen before. While there are ice sculptures throughout the city, there are two main exhibition areas: Enormous snow sculptures at Sun Island (a recreational area on the opposite side of the Songhua River from the city) and the separate "Ice and Snow World" that operates each night. Ice and Snow World features illuminated full size buildings made from blocks of 2–3 feet thick crystal clear ice directly taken from Songhua River which passes through the city. Winter activities in the festival include Yabuli Alpine Skiing
Skiing
Skiing is a recreational activity using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding....

, winter-swimming in Songhua River
Songhua River
The Songhua or Sunggari River is a river in Northeast China, and is the largest tributary of the Heilong River , flowing about from Changbai Mountains through Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of .As the Second Songhua River, it joins the...

, and the ice-lantern exhibition in Zhaolin Garden. Snow carving and ice and snow recreations are world famous.

The "Harbin International Ice and Snow Festival" is one of the four largest ice and snow festivals in the world, along with Japan's Sapporo Snow Festival
Sapporo Snow Festival
The is a famous festival held annually in Sapporo, Japan over seven days in February. Currently, Odori Park, Susukino, and Tsudome are the main sites of the festival. The 2012 Yuki-matsuri dates are February 6 to 12.-Overview:...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

's Quebec City Winter Carnival
Quebec City Winter Carnival
The Quebec Winter Carnaval Festival events include a winter amusement park, with attractions such as skiing, snow rafting, ice sculptures, snow sled-slides and outdoor shows and is usually held in February....

, and Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

's Ski Festival.

Every November, the city of Harbin sends teams of ice artisans to the United States to promote their unique art form. It takes more than 100 artisans to create ICE!, the annual display of indoor Christmas-themed ice carvings in National Harbor, Maryland; Nashville, Tennessee; Kissimmee, Florida; and Grapevine, Texas.

Winter sports

The third Winter Asian Games
Asian Games
The Asian Games, officially known as Asiad, is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation from the first Games in New Delhi, India, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games they have been organised by the...

 took place in Harbin in 1996. The city of Harbin bid for hosting the 2010 Winter Olympics
2010 Winter Olympics
The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially the XXI Olympic Winter Games or the 21st Winter Olympics, were a major international multi-sport event held from February 12–28, 2010, in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, with some events held in the suburbs of Richmond, West Vancouver and the University...

. The Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing is the sport of sliding down snow-covered hills on skis with fixed-heel bindings. Alpine skiing can be contrasted with skiing using free-heel bindings: Ski mountaineering and nordic skiing – such as cross-country; ski jumping; and Telemark. In competitive alpine skiing races four...

 events would have taken place in the Yabuli ski resort. In the frame of this campaign to assert its role on the world scene, Harbin was the host city of the 2009 Winter Universiade
2009 Winter Universiade
The 2009 Winter Universiade, the XXIV Winter Universiade took place in Harbin, China. Student athletes from 44 countries took part in the games.-Selection:Harbin was selected by FISU on January 10, 2005 over future 2011 Winter Universiade host city Erzurum...

. Harbin planned to spend US$ 1.5 billion in construction and renovation of its sport infrastructure for this Universiade. Harbin also bid for the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics
2012 Winter Youth Olympics
The 2012 Winter Youth Olympic Games, officially known as the I Winter Youth Olympic Games , will be an international multi-sport event for youths that will take place in Innsbruck from 13 to 22 January 2012. They will become the inaugural Winter Youth Olympics, a major sports and cultural festival...

, but was passed over so still has its sights on the Olympics, perhaps in 2022.

Harbin has produced many world-class winter sports champions, including short track
Short track speed skating
Short track speed skating is a form of competitive ice speed skating. In competitions, multiple skaters skate on an oval ice track with a circumference of 111.12 m...

 star and six-time Olympic medalist Wang Meng, 2006 pairs figure skating
Figure skating
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

 silver medalists Zhang Dan
Zhang Dan
Zhang Dan is a Chinese pair skater. With her partner Zhang Hao, she is the 2006 Olympic silver medalist, 2005 & 2010 Four Continents champion, and three time World silver medalist.-Biography:...

 and Zhang Hao
Zhang Hao
Zhang Hao is a Chinese figure skater. With partner Zhang Dan, he is the 2006 Olympic silver medalist, 2005 & 2010 Four Continents champion, and three time World silver medalist.-Biography:...

 and 2010 Vancouver Olympics figure skating
Figure skating
Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

 gold medalists Shen Xue
Shen Xue
Shen Xue is a female Chinese pair skater. With her partner and husband Zhao Hongbo, Shen is the 2010 Olympic champion, the 2002 & 2006 Olympic bronze medalist, a three-time World champion, a three-time Four Continents Champion and a six-time Grand Prix Final champion.Shen and Zhao were the first...

 and Zhao Hongbo
Zhao Hongbo
Zhao Hongbo is a male Chinese pair skater. With his partner and wife Shen Xue, Zhao is the 2010 Olympic champion, the 2002 & 2006 Olympic bronze medalist, a three-time World champion, a three-time Four Continents Champion and a six-time Grand Prix Final champion.Shen and Zhao were the first...

.

Harbin Summer Music Concert

Harbin Summer Music Concert ('Concert' for short) is a national concert festival, which is held on August 6 every two years for a period of 10~11 days. During the concert, multiple evenings, concert, race and activities are held. The artists come from all over the world.
The 'Harbin Summer Music Month', which was then renamed as 'Harbin Summer Music Concert', was held in August 1958. The first formal Concert was held on August 5, 1961 in Harbin Youth Palace, and kept on every year until 1966 when the Cultural Revolution
Cultural Revolution
The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, commonly known as the Cultural Revolution , was a socio-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 through 1976...

 started in China. In 1979, the Concert was recovered and from 1994, it has been held every two years.
In 2008, the 29th Harbin Summer Music Concert was held on August 6.

Media

The Heilongjiang Television and Harbin Economy Radio
Harbin Economy Radio
Long Guang , which stands for Dragon Broadcast, is the radio station group that was once the Harbin Ren Min Guangbo Dian Tai , translated as Harbin People's Broadcasting Station, which consists of several radio stations broadcasting from Harbin and the greater...

 both serve as the media outlets of this region.

Transportation

Railway

Harbin Railway-Bureau is the first one in Chinese History, of which the railway density is the highest in China. Harbin Railway Station is one of the three modernized railway-networks.

Highway

Harbin has an advanced system of highways. Food and other products are shipped on these roads. The highways in Harbin have a big impact on the way of life, despite the fact that most are tolled.

There are seven important highways which pass through or terminate in Harbin, including the Beijing-Harbin, the Heihe-Dalian, the Harbin–Tong River, Changchun-Harbin, and the Manzhouli–Suifen River highways.
  • China National Highway 221
    China National Highway 221
    China National Highway 221 runs from Harbin to Tongjiang, in Heilongjiang Province. It is 668 kilometres in length and runs northeast from Harbin towards Tongjiang.-Route and distance:-External links:*...


Airport

Harbin Taiping International Airport
Harbin Taiping International Airport
Harbin Taiping International Airport is an international airport in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.-History:Harbin Taiping Airport, formerly known as Yanjiagang Airport, is located about southwest of the city of Harbin and was constructed in 1979 with further expansion between 1994 and 1997 at a...

 serves Harbin and is an important transportation hub for northeastern China. It is the largest northernmost airport of China and its terminal building (along with Shenyang-Taoxian Airport) is currently one of the largest in northeastern China. The technical level of flight district is 4E, which allows all kinds of large and medium civil aircraft. There are flights to over thirty cities including Beijing, Tianjing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Qingdao, Wenzhou, Xiamen, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Shenyang, Dalian, Xi'an and Hong Kong. In addition there are also scheduled flights between Harbin and Hong Kong, Russia and South Korea.

Subway

Construction of Harbin Subway
Harbin Subway
Harbin Metro is a metro system under construction since 2003, to serve the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang. The first line began construction in 2003. Part of the route follows the original “7381” civil air-defense project, otherwise known as the air defense evacuation tunnel constructed during World...

 started on 5 December 2006. The total investment for the first phase is RMB5.89 billion. Twenty stations will be set on this 17.73 km long line starting from Harbin East Railway Station to the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University in the west of the city. A subway depot, a command center and two transformer substations will be built along the line. Most of the subway's route follow the air defence evacuation tunnel left from the "7381" Project which started in 1973 and ended in 1979. The "7381" Project was launched intended to protect Harbin from former Soviet Union's possible invasion or nuclear attack.

Picture Reference:
"7381" Project, a Civil Defense System in Harbin

Ports and Waterways

There are more than 1,900 rivers in Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
For the river known in Mandarin as Heilong Jiang, see Amur River' is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. "Heilongjiang" literally means Black Dragon River, which is the Chinese name for the Amur. The one-character abbreviation is 黑...

, including the Songhua River
Songhua River
The Songhua or Sunggari River is a river in Northeast China, and is the largest tributary of the Heilong River , flowing about from Changbai Mountains through Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces. The river drains of land, and has an annual discharge of .As the Second Songhua River, it joins the...

, Heilongjiang River and Wusulijiang River, creating a convenient system of waterway transportation.

Harbin harbor is one of eight inland ports in China and the largest of its type in Northeast China. Available from mid-April until the beginning of November, passenger ships sail from Harbin up the Songhua River to Qiqihar
Qiqihar
- Subdivisions :Qiqihar is divided into 16 divisions: 7 districts , 8 counties and 1 county-level city .-Economy:...

 or downstream to Jiamusi
Jiamusi
Jiamusi is a prefecture-level city in the province of Heilongjiang, in the People's Republic of China. Located on the riverside of the middle and lower reaches of the Songhua River, It faces Russia across the Ussuri River and the Heilongjiang River...

, Tongjiang and Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located some from the Chinese border. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, after Vladivostok. The city became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia...

 (Russia).

Colleges and universities

  • Northeast Forestry University
    Northeast Forestry University
    Northeast Forestry University , located in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, is an institution of higher education and research under jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, serve as the largest forestry university in China and a key university within the scope of...

  • Harbin Institute of Technology
    Harbin Institute of Technology
    The Harbin Institute of Technology , or HIT, is colloquially known as Hagongda . It is a research university in the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China....

  • Harbin Engineering University
    Harbin Engineering University
    Harbin Engineering University was founded in 1953, in Harbin, China. It used to host the PLA Military Engineering Institute, China's foremost institute in that field. Following the deterioration of China's relations with the USSR after the Sino-Soviet border conflict, it divided into six...

     (former Harbin Shipbuilding Engineering Institute)
  • Heilongjiang University
    Heilongjiang University
    Heilongjiang University is a multi-disciplinary university in the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.Heilongjiang University was founded in March 1941, in the base of China's communist revolution, Yan'an...

  • Harbin Jewish Research Center
    Harbin Jewish Research Center
    The Harbin Jewish Research Center is located in Harbin and was founded in April 2000 by the Heilongjiang Academy of Social Sciences.In 2003, the history and culture of the Jews of Harbin was approved as a new branch of science study at a provincial level...

  • Harbin Medical University
    Harbin Medical University
    Harbin Medical University is a public university located in Harbin, Heilongjiang, China.It was established in 1926 as Harbin Medical College. It was renamed to University in 1958.-External links:http://www.hrbmu.edu.cn/english/index.htm...

  • Harbin Normal University
    Harbin Normal University
    Harbin Normal University is a university located in Harbin, Heilongjiang, P.R. China.HNU has 16 colleges and offers 46 academic majors. It offers undergraduate, graduate, and doctorate degrees...

  • Harbin University of Science and Technology
    Harbin University of Science and Technology
    Harbin University of Science and Technology is a university in Harbin, China. Previously known as Harbin University of Science...

  • Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine
    Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine
    Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine is a medical university in Harbin, China. It was founded in 1959.-External links:**http://www.at0086.com/HLJUCM/...

  • Heilongjiang Institute of Technology
  • Heilongjiang East College
  • Northeast Agricultural University
    Northeast Agricultural University
    Northeast Agricultural University was established in 1948 in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.-History:It was first called Northeast Agricultural College and in 1994 it was renamed NEAU...

  • Harbin Advance Technical College
  • Harbin University of Commerce
    Harbin University of Commerce
    Harbin Commercial University , also known as Harbin University of Commerce, is a university in Harbin, China. It was the first multidisciplinary commercial university in China.-Journals published:*Commercial Research...


Domestic

  • Chengdu
    Chengdu
    Chengdu , formerly transliterated Chengtu, is the capital of Sichuan province in Southwest China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status...

    , Sichuan
    Sichuan
    ' , known formerly in the West by its postal map spellings of Szechwan or Szechuan is a province in Southwest China with its capital in Chengdu...

  • Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

    , Liaoning
    Liaoning
    ' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northeast of the country. Its one-character abbreviation is "辽" , a name taken from the Liao River that flows through the province. "Níng" means "peace"...

  • Guangzhou
    Guangzhou
    Guangzhou , known historically as Canton or Kwangchow, is the capital and largest city of the Guangdong province in the People's Republic of China. Located in southern China on the Pearl River, about north-northwest of Hong Kong, Guangzhou is a key national transportation hub and trading port...

    , Guangdong
    Guangdong
    Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China. The province was previously often written with the alternative English name Kwangtung Province...

  • Hangzhou
    Hangzhou
    Hangzhou , formerly transliterated as Hangchow, is the capital and largest city of Zhejiang Province in Eastern China. Governed as a sub-provincial city, and as of 2010, its entire administrative division or prefecture had a registered population of 8.7 million people...

    , Zhejiang
    Zhejiang
    Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

  • Wenzhou
    Wenzhou
    Wenzhou is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Zhejiang province, People's Republic of China. The area under its jurisdiction, which includes two satellite cities and six counties, had a population of 9,122,100 as of 2010....

    , Zhejiang
    Zhejiang
    Zhejiang is an eastern coastal province of the People's Republic of China. The word Zhejiang was the old name of the Qiantang River, which passes through Hangzhou, the provincial capital...

  • Xiamen
    Xiamen
    Xiamen , also known as Amoy , is a major city on the southeast coast of the People's Republic of China. It is administered as a sub-provincial city of Fujian province with an area of and population of 3.53 million...

    , Fujian
    Fujian
    ' , formerly romanised as Fukien or Huguing or Foukien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China. Fujian is bordered by Zhejiang to the north, Jiangxi to the west, and Guangdong to the south. Taiwan lies to the east, across the Taiwan Strait...

  • Xining
    Xining
    Xining is the capital of Qinghai province, People's Republic of China, and the largest city on the Tibetan Plateau. It has 2,208,708 inhabitants at the 2010 census whom 1,198,304 live in the built up area made of 4 urban districts.-History:...

    , Qinghai
    Qinghai
    Qinghai ; Oirat Mongolian: ; ; Salar:) is a province of the People's Republic of China, named after Qinghai Lake...

  • Nanjing
    Nanjing
    ' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

    , Jiangsu
    Jiangsu
    ' is a province of the People's Republic of China, located along the east coast of the country. The name comes from jiang, short for the city of Jiangning , and su, for the city of Suzhou. The abbreviation for this province is "苏" , the second character of its name...


International

Niigata
Niigata, Niigata
is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. It lies on the northwest coast of Honshu, the largest island of Japan, and faces the Sea of Japan and Sado Island....

, Japan, since 1979 Aarhus
Aarhus
Aarhus or Århus is the second-largest city in Denmark. The principal port of Denmark, Aarhus is on the east side of the peninsula of Jutland in the geographical center of Denmark...

, Denmark, since 1984 Edmonton
Edmonton
Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta and is the province's second-largest city. Edmonton is located on the North Saskatchewan River and is the centre of the Edmonton Capital Region, which is surrounded by the central region of the province.The city and its census...

, Canada, since 1985 Sverdlovsk Oblast
Sverdlovsk Oblast
Sverdlovsk Oblast is a federal subject of Russia located in the Urals Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Yekaterinburg formerly known as Sverdlovsk. Population: -Geography:...

, Russia, since 1991 Minneapolis, United States, since 1992 Anchorage, United States Ekhuruleni, South Africa Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

, Poland, since 1993 Daugavpils
Daugavpils
Daugavpils is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name. Daugavpils literally means "Daugava Castle". With a population of over 100,000, it is the second largest city in the country after the capital Riga, which is located some...

, Latvia Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk
Khabarovsk is the largest city and the administrative center of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located some from the Chinese border. It is the second largest city in the Russian Far East, after Vladivostok. The city became the administrative center of the Far Eastern Federal District of Russia...

, Russia Ploieşti
Ploiesti
Ploiești is the county seat of Prahova County and lies in the historical region of Wallachia in Romania. The city is located north of Bucharest....

, Romania Asahikawa
Asahikawa, Hokkaido
is a city in Kamikawa Subprefecture, Hokkaido, Japan. It is the capital of the subprefecture and the second-largest city in Hokkaido, after Sapporo. It has been a Core city since April 1, 2000...

, Japan Bucheon
Bucheon
Bucheon is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. It is sandwiched between Incheon and Seoul. Manufacturing operations are located in the city.Bucheon promotes itself as the cultural centre of the Seoul Metropolitan Area...

, South Korea Salvador, Brazil Giv'atayim
Giv'atayim
Giv'atayim is a city in Israel east of Tel Aviv. It is part of the metropolitan area known as Gush Dan. Givatayim was established in 1922 by pioneers of the Second Aliyah. It has a population of 53,000....

, Israel Griffith, New South Wales
Griffith, New South Wales
Griffith is a city in south-western New South Wales, Australia. It is also the seat of the City of Griffith local government area. Like the Australian capital, Canberra and the nearby town of Leeton, Griffith was designed by Walter Burley Griffin. Griffith was named after Sir Arthur Griffith the...

, Australia Krasnodar
Krasnodar
Krasnodar is a city in Southern Russia, located on the Kuban River about northeast of the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk. It is the administrative center of Krasnodar Krai . Population: -Name:...

, Russia Cagayan de Oro, Philippines, since 2007 Rovaniemi
Rovaniemi
Rovaniemi is a city and municipality of Finland. It is the administrative capital and commercial centre of Finland's northernmost province, Lapland. It is situated close to the Arctic Circle and is between the hills of Ounasvaara and Korkalovaara, at the confluence of the Kemijoki River and its...

, Finland Magdeburg
Magdeburg
Magdeburg , is the largest city and the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe....

, Germany, since 2008 Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk
Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third largest city in Siberia, with the population of 973,891. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of...

, Russia, since 2008 Wiener Neustadt
Wiener Neustadt
-Main sights:* The Late-Romanesque Dom, consecrated in 1279 and cathedral from 1469 to 1785. The choir and transept, in Gothic style, are from the 14th century. In the late 15th century 12 statues of the Apostles were added in the apse, while the bust of Cardinal Melchior Klesl is attributed to...

, Austria Yakutsk
Yakutsk
With a subarctic climate , Yakutsk is the coldest city, though not the coldest inhabited place, on Earth. Average monthly temperatures range from in July to in January. The coldest temperatures ever recorded on the planet outside Antarctica occurred in the basin of the Yana River to the northeast...

, Russia, since 2008 Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom (2009) Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County, Virginia
Fairfax County is a county in Virginia, in the United States. Per the 2010 Census, the population of the county is 1,081,726, making it the most populous jurisdiction in the Commonwealth of Virginia, with 13.5% of Virginia's population...

, United States (2010)

See also


Further reading

  • Meyer, Mike, "Manchuria Under Ice", Departures Magazine, Nov/Dec 2006, 292–297.
  • Nikos Kavvadias
    Nikos Kavvadias
    Nikos Kavvadias was a Greek poet and writer; currently one of the most popular poets in Greece, who used his travels around the world as a sailor, and life at sea and its adventures, as powerful metaphors for the escape of ordinary people outside the boundaries of reality.- Early life and...

    , a popular Greek poet born in Harbin by Greek parents from Kefalonia
    Kefalonia
    The island of Cephalonia, also known as Kefalonia, Cephallenia, Cephallonia, Kefallinia, or Kefallonia , is the largest of the Ionian Islands in western Greece, with an area of . It is also a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, and the only municipality of the regional unit...

    , Greece
    Greece
    Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

  • Jan, Michel, "Cruelle est la terre des frontières", Payot, Paris, 2006 (in French).

External links

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