Haplogroup J (Y-DNA)
Overview
 
In human genetics
Human genetics
Human genetics describes the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics,...

, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10
Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
Y chromosome haplogroups are a frequent topic of discussion in human population genetics and genetic genealogy. Men in the same Y DNA haplogroup share a set of differences, or markers, on their Y chromosome, which distinguish them from men in other haplogroups. Often these UEPs, or markers used to...

) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is one of the major male lines of all living men. It is divided into two main branches referred to as J1
Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J1, also known as J-M267, is a sub-haplogroup of Y DNA haplogroup J, along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J2. Men with this type of Y DNA share a common paternal ancestry, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to...

 and J2
Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12.-Origins:...

.
Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen roughly 30,000 years ago in Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

 (Arabia Felix) (31,700±12,800 years ago according to Semino et al.. 2004). It is most closely related to Haplogroup I
Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK....

, as both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J have mutations in common deriving from Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22).
Encyclopedia
In human genetics
Human genetics
Human genetics describes the study of inheritance as it occurs in human beings. Human genetics encompasses a variety of overlapping fields including: classical genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, genomics, population genetics, developmental genetics, clinical genetics,...

, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10
Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
Y chromosome haplogroups are a frequent topic of discussion in human population genetics and genetic genealogy. Men in the same Y DNA haplogroup share a set of differences, or markers, on their Y chromosome, which distinguish them from men in other haplogroups. Often these UEPs, or markers used to...

) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is one of the major male lines of all living men. It is divided into two main branches referred to as J1
Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J1, also known as J-M267, is a sub-haplogroup of Y DNA haplogroup J, along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J2. Men with this type of Y DNA share a common paternal ancestry, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to...

 and J2
Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12.-Origins:...

.

Origins

Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen roughly 30,000 years ago in Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwest Asia or Southwestern Asia are terms that describe the westernmost portion of Asia. The terms are partly coterminous with the Middle East, which describes a geographical position in relation to Western Europe rather than its location within Asia...

 (Arabia Felix) (31,700±12,800 years ago according to Semino et al.. 2004). It is most closely related to Haplogroup I
Haplogroup I (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup IJ, itself a derivative of Haplogroup IJK....

, as both Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J have mutations in common deriving from Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22). Haplogroup IJ and haplogroup K derive from Haplogroup IJK (L15/S137, L16/S138), and only at this level of classification does haplogroup IJK join with Haplogroup G
Haplogroup G (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup G is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. It is a branch of Haplogroup F . Haplogroup G has an overall low frequency in most populations but is widely distributed within many ethnic groups of the Old World in Europe, northern and western Asia, northern Africa, the Middle East,...

 and Haplogroup H
Haplogroup H (Y-DNA)
In human genetics, Haplogroup H is a Y-chromosome haplogroup.This haplogroup is found at a high frequency in South Asia. It is generally rare outside of the South Asia but is common among the Romani people, particularly the H-M82 subgroup.-Origins:...

 as immediate descendants of Haplogroup F. J is defined by the 12f2.1 genetic marker, or the equivalent M304 marker. The main current subgroups J1 and J2, which now comprise between them almost all of the population of the haplogroup, are both believed to have arisen very early, at least 10,000 years ago.

Distribution

Haplogroup J is found in greatest concentration in Southwestern Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
The Arabian Peninsula is a land mass situated north-east of Africa. Also known as Arabia or the Arabian subcontinent, it is the world's largest peninsula and covers 3,237,500 km2...

. Outside of this region, haplogroup J has a presence in North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

. It also has a moderate presence in Southern Europe (especially in central and southern Italy, Malta, Greece, and Albania), Central Asia
Central Asia
Central Asia is a core region of the Asian continent from the Caspian Sea in the west, China in the east, Afghanistan in the south, and Russia in the north...

, and South Asia
South Asia
South Asia, also known as Southern Asia, is the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan countries and, for some authorities , also includes the adjoining countries to the west and the east...

, particularly in the form of its subclade J2 (J-M172). Haplogroup J is also found in the North East Africa, particularly in the form of its subclade J1 (J-M267). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia, and southern Italy. In Northern India, 28.7% of the Shia Muslim population belongs to haplogroup J.

Haplogroup J* includes all of J except for J1 and J2. J* is rarely found outside of the island of Socotra
Socotra
Socotra , also spelt Soqotra, is a small archipelago of four islands in the Indian Ocean. The largest island, also called Socotra, is about 95% of the landmass of the archipelago. It lies some east of the Horn of Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. The island is very isolated and through...

, where it is quite frequent at 71.4%. Haplogroup J* also has been found with lower frequency in Oman
Oman
Oman , officially called the Sultanate of Oman , is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the...

, Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

, Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , commonly known in British English as Saudi Arabia and in Arabic as as-Sa‘ūdiyyah , is the largest state in Western Asia by land area, constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula, and the second-largest in the Arab World...

, Greece
Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

, the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, and several Turkic peoples
Turkic peoples
The Turkic peoples are peoples residing in northern, central and western Asia, southern Siberia and northwestern China and parts of eastern Europe. They speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family. They share, to varying degrees, certain cultural traits and historical backgrounds...

.

The following gives a summary of most of the studies which specifically tested for J1 and J2, showing its distribution in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.
Country/Region Sampling N J1 J2 Total J Study
Algeria Oran 102 22.5 4.9 27.4 Robino et al. (2008)
Caucasus Chechen 330 20.9 56.7 77.6 Balanovsky et al.(2011)
Caucasus Ingush 143 2.8 88.8 91.6 Balanovsky et al.(2011)
Cyprus 164 9.6 12.9 22.5 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Egypt 124 19.8 7.6 27.4 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Greece Crete/Heraklion 104 1.9 44.2 46.1 Martinez et al. (2007)
Greece Crete 143 3.5 35 38.5 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Greece 154 1.9 18.1 20 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Iran 92 3.2 25 28.2 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Iraq 117 33.1 25.1 58.2 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Israel Akka 101 39.2 18.6 57.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Italy 699 2 20 22 Capelli et al. (2007)
Italy Central Marche 59 5.1 35.6 40.7 Capelli et al. (2007)
Italy West Calabria 57 3.5 35.1 38.6 Capelli et al. (2007)
Italy Sicily 212 5.2 22.6 27.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Italy Sardinia 81 4.9 9.9 14.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Jordan 273 35.5 14.6 50.1 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Kuwait 42 33.3 9.5 42.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Lebanon 951 18.9 29.4 48.3 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Malta 90 7.8 21.1 28.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Morocco 316 1 0.2 1.2 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Morocco Residents in Italy 51 19.6 0 19.6 Onofri et al. (2008)
Portugal Portugal 303 4.3 6.9 11.2 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Qatar Qatar 72 58.3 8.3 66.6 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Cadiz 28 3.6 14.3 17.9 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Cantabria 70 2.9 2.9 5.8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Castille 21 0 9.5 9.5 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Cordoba 27 0 14.7 14.7 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Galicia 19 5.3 0 5.3 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Huelva 22 0 13.7 13.7 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Ibiza 54 0 3.7 3.7 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Leon 60 1.7 5 6.7 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Malaga 26 0 15.4 15.4 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Mallorca 62 1.6 8 9.7 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Sevilla 155 3.2 7.8 11 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Spain Valencia 31 2.7 5.5 8.2 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Syria 554 33.6 20.8 54.4 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Tunisia 62 0 8 8 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Tunisia 52 34.6 3.8 38.4 Onofri et al. (2008)
Tunisia Tunis 148 32.4 3.4 35.8 Arredi et al. (2004)
Turkey 523 9.1 24.2 33.3 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
UAE 164 34.7 10.3 45 El-Sibai et al. (2009)
Yemen 62 72.5 9.6 82.1 El-Sibai et al. (2009)

J1

ISOGG states that J1 originated in the Middle East. It is found in parts of the Near East, and North Africa, with a sparse distribution in the southern Mediterranean flank of Europe, and in Ethiopia.
But not all studies agree on the point of origin. The Levant has been proposed but a 2010 study concluded that the haplogroup had a more Northern origin. The origin of J1c3 is likely in the more northerly populations and then spreads southward into the Arabian Peninsula. The high YSTR variance of J1c3 in Turks and Syrians supports the inference of an origin of J1c3 in nearby eastern Anatolia. Moreover, the network analysis of J1c3 haplotypes shows that some of the populations with low diversity, such as Bedouin
Bedouin
The Bedouin are a part of a predominantly desert-dwelling Arab ethnic group traditionally divided into tribes or clans, known in Arabic as ..-Etymology:...

s from Israel, Qatar, Sudan and UAE, are tightly clustered near high-frequency haplotypes suggesting founder effects with star burst expansion in the Arabian Desert. "
Haplogroup J1, defined by the 267 marker is most frequent in the Arabian Peninsula Yemen
Yemen
The Republic of Yemen , commonly known as Yemen , is a country located in the Middle East, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, and Oman to the east....

(76%), Saudi (64%),
Qatar
Qatar
Qatar , also known as the State of Qatar or locally Dawlat Qaṭar, is a sovereign Arab state, located in the Middle East, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeasterly coast of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its...

 (58%), and Dagestan
Dagestan
The Republic of Dagestan is a federal subject of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region. Its capital and the largest city is Makhachkala, located at the center of Dagestan on the Caspian Sea...

 (56%). J1 is generally frequent amongst Arab Bedouins (62%. , Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

 (14-20%), North Sudan
Sudan
Sudan , officially the Republic of the Sudan , is a country in North Africa, sometimes considered part of the Middle East politically. It is bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea to the northeast, Eritrea and Ethiopia to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the...

 (45%, Khartoum 74%), Algeria
Algeria
Algeria , officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria , also formally referred to as the Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwest Africa with Algiers as its capital.In terms of land area, it is the largest country in Africa and the Arab...

 (35%), Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

 (33%), Tunisia
Tunisia
Tunisia , officially the Tunisian RepublicThe long name of Tunisia in other languages used in the country is: , is the northernmost country in Africa. It is a Maghreb country and is bordered by Algeria to the west, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Its area...

 (31%), Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

 (30%),
Egypt
Egypt
Egypt , officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, Arabic: , is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. Egypt is thus a transcontinental country, and a major power in Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East and the Muslim world...

 (20%), and the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai is a triangular peninsula in Egypt about in area. It is situated between the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and the Red Sea to the south, and is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia as opposed to Africa, effectively serving as a land bridge between two...

. The frequency of Haplogroup J1 collapses suddenly at the borders of Arabic speaking countries with mainly non-Arabic speaking countries, such as Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 (9%), Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

 (11%). It is also highly frequent among Jews
Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...

, especially the Kohanim
Kohen
A Kohen is the Hebrew word for priest. Jewish Kohens are traditionally believed and halachically required to be of direct patrilineal descent from the Biblical Aaron....

 line (46%) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B8JDD-4R29JBW-M-M&_cdi=43612&_user=1464331&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2001&_sk=%23TOC%2343612%232001%23999309994%23673102%23FLA%23display%23Volume_69,_Issue_5,_Pages_i-ii,_923-1160_(November_2001)%23tagged%23Volume%23first%3D69%23Issue%23first%3D5%23date%23(November_2001)%23&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkWA&md5=0d7ca8f01e76959310fd630f4ee8b621&ie=/sdarticle.pdf]
.

J2

Haplogroup J2 is found in the highest concentrations in the Caucasus and the Fertile Crescent
Fertile Crescent
The Fertile Crescent, nicknamed "The Cradle of Civilization" for the fact the first civilizations started there, is a crescent-shaped region containing the comparatively moist and fertile land of otherwise arid and semi-arid Western Asia. The term was first used by University of Chicago...

 and is found throughout the Mediterranean (including the Italian, Balkan, Anatolian and Iberian peninsulas and North Africa
North Africa
North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

).

The highest ever reported concentration of J2 was 72% in Northeastern Georgia. Other high reports include Ingush
Ingush people
The Ingush are a native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia. They refer to themselves as Ghalghai . The Ingush are predominantly Sunni Muslims and speak the Ingush language...

 32%, Cypriots
Cyprus
Cyprus , officially the Republic of Cyprus , is a Eurasian island country, member of the European Union, in the Eastern Mediterranean, east of Greece, south of Turkey, west of Syria and north of Egypt. It is the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.The earliest known human activity on the...

 30-37% (Capelli 2005), Lebanese
Lebanese people
The Lebanese people are a nation and ethnic group of Levantine people originating in what is today the country of Lebanon, including those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state....

 30% (Wells et al. 2001), Iraqis 29.7% (Sanchez et al. 2005), Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

ns 22.5%, Kurds 24%-28%, Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

ians 23%, Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim , are the Jews descended from the medieval Jewish communities along the Rhine in Germany from Alsace in the south to the Rhineland in the north. Ashkenaz is the medieval Hebrew name for this region and thus for Germany...

 24%, Palestinian Arabs 16.8%-25%, Sephardic Jews 29%http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=MImg&_imagekey=B8JDD-4R29JBW-M-M&_cdi=43612&_user=1464331&_coverDate=11%2F30%2F2001&_sk=%23TOC%2343612%232001%23999309994%23673102%23FLA%23display%23Volume_69,_Issue_5,_Pages_i-ii,_923-1160_(November_2001)%23tagged%23Volume%23first%3D69%23Issue%23first%3D5%23date%23(November_2001)%23&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLzVlz-zSkWA&md5=0d7ca8f01e76959310fd630f4ee8b621&ie=/sdarticle.pdf]and North Indian Shia Muslims 18%, Chechens 26%, Balkars 24%, Yaghnobis 32%, Armenians 21-24%, and Azerbaijanis 24%-48%.

Consistent with its Middle Eastern extent, J2 also includes the Cohen Modal Haplotype
Y-chromosomal Aaron
Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim . In the Torah, this ancestor is identified as Aaron, the brother of Moses...

.

Tree

Below are the subclade
Subclade
In genetics, subclade is a term used to describe a subgroup of a subgenus or haplogroup. It is commonly used today in describing genealogical DNA tests of human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups....

s of Haplogroup J with their defining mutation, according to the ISOGG tree (as of March 2010). Note that the descent-based identifiers may be subject to change, as new SNPs are discovered that augment and further refine the tree.

J 12f2.1, M304, P209, S6, S34, S35
  • J* -
  • J1 M267
    Haplogroup J1 (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Y DNA haplogroup J1, also known as J-M267, is a sub-haplogroup of Y DNA haplogroup J, along with its sibling clade Y DNA haplogroup J2. Men with this type of Y DNA share a common paternal ancestry, which is demonstrated and defined by the presence of the SNP mutation referred to...

    • J1* -
    • J1a M62
    • J1b M365
    • J1c L136
      • J1c1 M390
      • J1c2 P56
      • J1c3 P58
        • J1c3* -
        • J1c3a M367, M368
        • J1c3b M369
        • J1c3c L92, L93
        • J1c3d  L147
          • J1c3d* -
          • J1c3d1 L222
            • J1c3d1* -
              • J1c3d1a L65.2/S159.2
  • J2 M172
    Haplogroup J2 (Y-DNA)
    In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J. It is further divided into two complementary clades, J2a-M410 and J2b-M12.-Origins:...

  • J2* -
    • J2a M410
      • J2a* -
      • J2a1 (not currently in use by ISOGG)
      • J2a2 M340
      • J2a3 P279
      • J2a4 DYS413≤18, L26/S57, L27
        • J2a4* -
        • J2a4a M47, M322
        • J2a4b M67/S51
          • J2a4b* -
          • J2a4b1 M92, M260
            • J2a4b1* -
            • J2a4b1a M327
          • J2a4b2 M163, M166
        • J2a4c M68
        • J2a4d M319
        • J2a4e M339
        • J2a4f M419
        • J2a4g P81
        • J2a4h L24
          • J2a4h* -
          • J2a4h1 L25
            • J2a4h1* -
            • J2a4h1a DYS445≤7
              • J2a4h1a* -
              • J2a4h1a1 L70
                • J2a4h1a1 -
                • J2a4h1a1a M137
                • J2a4h1a1b M289 (location under DYS445≤7 uncertain)
                • J2a4h1a1c M318
          • J2a4h2 M158 (location under L24 uncertain)
    • J2b M12, M102, M221, M314
      • J2b* -
      • J2b1 M205
      • J2b2 M241
        • J2b2* -
        • J2b2a M99
        • J2b2b M280
        • J2b2c M321
        • J2b2d P84
        • J2b2e DYS455≤9

See also

  • Mediterranean race
    Mediterranean race
    The Mediterranean race was one of the three sub-categories into which the Caucasian race and the people of Europe were divided by anthropologists in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, following the publication of William Z. Ripley's book The Races of Europe...

  • Genetic genealogy
    Genetic genealogy
    Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. Genetic genealogy involves the use of genealogical DNA testing to determine the level of genetic relationship between individuals.-History:...

  • Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of Near East and North Africa
    Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of Near East and North Africa
    Listed here are notable ethnic groups and populations from Western Asia, North Africa and South Caucasus by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies...

  • Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of the Caucasus
    Y-DNA haplogroups by populations of the Caucasus
    Listed here are notable groups and ethnic groups from Caucasus by human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups based on relevant studies. The samples are taken from individuals identified with the ethnic and linguistic designations in the first two columns, the third column gives the amount of total Sample...

  • Y-chromosomal Aaron
    Y-chromosomal Aaron
    Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim . In the Torah, this ancestor is identified as Aaron, the brother of Moses...

  • Archaeogenetics of the Near East
    Archaeogenetics of the Near East
    The archaeogenetics of the Near East involves the study of aDNA or ancient DNA, identifying haplogroups and haplotypes of ancient skeletal remains from both YDNA and mtDNA for populations of the Ancient Near East The archaeogenetics of the Near East involves the study of aDNA or ancient DNA,...

  • Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
    Conversion table for Y chromosome haplogroups
    Y chromosome haplogroups are a frequent topic of discussion in human population genetics and genetic genealogy. Men in the same Y DNA haplogroup share a set of differences, or markers, on their Y chromosome, which distinguish them from men in other haplogroups. Often these UEPs, or markers used to...


Phylogenetic tree and Distribution Maps of Y-DNA haplogroup J


Other

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