Hamm
Overview
 
Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

 (NRW), Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It is located in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area
Ruhr Area
The Ruhr, by German-speaking geographers and historians more accurately called Ruhr district or Ruhr region , is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With 4435 km² and a population of some 5.2 million , it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany...

. As of December 2003 its population was 180,849. The city is situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway. Hamm railway station
Hamm (Westfalen) railway station
Hamm is a railway station situated in the city of Hamm in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia....

 is an important hub for rail transport and renowned for its distinctive station building.
The coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years.
Encyclopedia
Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

 (NRW), Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It is located in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area
Ruhr Area
The Ruhr, by German-speaking geographers and historians more accurately called Ruhr district or Ruhr region , is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With 4435 km² and a population of some 5.2 million , it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany...

. As of December 2003 its population was 180,849. The city is situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway. Hamm railway station
Hamm (Westfalen) railway station
Hamm is a railway station situated in the city of Hamm in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia....

 is an important hub for rail transport and renowned for its distinctive station building.

Coat of arms

The coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years. It shows the markish chessboard ("märkischen Schachbalken") in red and silver on a golden field. Originally it was the founders' coat of arms, i. e. the Counts of Mark. The chessboard and the colours are often displayed in the coats of arms of further towns founded by that family line. Similarly, the colours of the city are red and white.

Overview

The name Ham means "corner" in the old Low German
Low German
Low German or Low Saxon is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands...

 dialect spoken at that time. In the old times the name thom Hamme would be used, which evolved slowly into its modern form Hamm. The name derives from the description of the Hamm's location in the corner of the Lippe river and the narrow Ahse affluent, where it was founded on Ash Wednesday in March 1226 by Count Adolf I of the Mark
Mark (county)
The County of Mark was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Lower Rhenish-Westphalian Circle. It lay on both sides of the Ruhr River along the Volme and Lenne Rivers....

.
  • 1350 The Black death
    Black Death
    The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

     killed nearly all of the citizens. Only seven families survived.
  • 1469 Hamm became a member of the Hanseatic League
    Hanseatic League
    The Hanseatic League was an economic alliance of trading cities and their merchant guilds that dominated trade along the coast of Northern Europe...

    . It was one of the most powerful towns in the region, while the large cities of the today's Ruhr area still were only tiny villages.
  • 1614 The Treaty of Xanten ends the conflict about the heritage of Cleve-Mark, the Electorate
    Prince-elector
    The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

     Brandenburg (later Prussia
    Prussia
    Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

    ) inherited the Ducal Cleve and the counties Ravensburg and Mark (with Hamm)
  • 1618-1648 Thirty Years' War
    Thirty Years' War
    The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

    , Hamm was taken several times by different armed forces and had to endure changing garrisons. Almost all buildings were destroyed, except for the main church St. Georg (today: Pauluskirche) and St. Agnes church.
  • 1657 Establishment of the Gynasium illustre (later named Gymnasium Hammonense) with three faculties (theology
    Theology
    Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

    , jurisprudence
    Jurisprudence
    Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal theorists , hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions...

     and philosophy
    Philosophy
    Philosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...

    ).
  • 1753 Establishment of the regional court (Landgericht)
  • 1767 "Märkische Kammerdeputation" established
  • 1769 Brewery Isenbeck founded
  • 1787 Changing of the "Märkische Kammerdeputation" into the "Märkische Kriegs- und Domänenkammer" by the Prussian "Generaldirektorium".
  • 1818 Hamm has 4,688 inhabitants.
  • 1820 The regional appeal court moves from Cleve to Hamm.
  • 1847 First train stops at the main station Hamm
  • 1853 Westfälische Union (later Thyssen Draht AG) was founded
  • 1856 Westfälische Draht Industrie was founded (later Klöckner Draht GmbH, today Westfälische Draht Industrie (WDI))
  • 1901 30,000 inhabitants, the district Hamm is split up into the urban district of Hamm (City) and the district of Unna.
  • 1901 Coal-mine de Wendel in Herringen starts mining (later Heinrich-Robert, now Bergwerk Ost) (first coal output 1904)
  • 1902 Coal-mine Maximilian in Werries/Ostwennemar starts mining (first coal output 1907)
  • 1905 Coal-mine Radbod in Bockum-Hövel starts mining (first coal output 1905)
  • 1912 Coal-mine Sachsen in Heessen starts mining (first coal output 1914)
  • 1914 Datteln-Hamm-Canal is completed including the new city port
  • 1938 The A2(motorway)reaches Hamm
  • 1939-1945 55 air raids destroy nearly 60% of the old city and leave only a few historical buildings.
  • 1944 Coal-mine Maximillian closes after several problems with water drainage of the hole mine (completely flooded in 1914).
  • 1945 First meeting of the city council after the war
  • 1946 Establishment of the industrial court and the industrial court of appeal by the Allied Control Council.
  • 1956 Sport airfield founded in the Lippe meadows.
  • 1965 A1(motorway)reaches Hamm.
  • 1976 Coal-mine Sachsen closes

  • 1984 First Landesgartenschau (horticultural show of the federal state) of North Rhine-Westphalia is held in Hamm. The old area of the coal-mine Maximillian was used for this purpose. The world greatest Glasselefant is built as main attraction and until today is one of the major landmarks of the city.
  • 1990 Coal-mine Radbod closes.
  • 2002 Consecration of the Sri Kamadchi Ampal-Temple
  • 2005 Establishment of the university of applied sciences "SRH Fachhochschule Hamm"

Population development

Until 1833 any population is an approximation, in later times the population was counted or updated by the local government or other institutions of the government.
class="wikitable"> year population
1618 1,000
1719 3,250
1798 3,065
1818 4,680
1832 6,272
3 December 1861 ¹ 11,600
3 December 1867 ¹ 16,000
1 December 1871 ¹ 16,924
1 December 1875 ¹ 18,877
1 December 1880 ¹ 20,800
1 December 1885 ¹ 22,523
1 December 1890 ¹ 24,969
2 December 1895 ¹ 28,589
class="wikitable"> year population 1 December 1900 ¹ 31,371 1 December 1905 ¹ 38,429 1 December 1910 ¹ 43,663 1 December 1916 ¹ 40,776 5 December 1917 ¹ 40,516 8 October 1919 ¹ 45,756 16 June 1925 ¹ 49,777 16 June 1933 ¹ 53,532 17 May 1939 ¹ 59,035 31 December 1945 50,971 29 October 1946 ¹ 49,751 13 September 1950 ¹ 59,866 25 September 1956 ¹ 66,327 class="wikitable"> year population 6 June 1961 ¹ 70,641 31 December 1965 73,520 27 May 1970 ¹ 84,942 31 December 1975 172,210 31 December 1980 171,869 31 December 1985 166,379 25 May 1987 ¹ 171,170 31 December 1990 179,639 31 December 1995 183,408 31 December 2000 181,197 31 December 2005 180,849
¹ "Volkszählungsergebnis" counted population

City council

The city council has 58 members, since 2004 the seating is the following:
CDU  SPD  GRÜNE  FDP  BG Hamm  REP  Independent Total
2004 28 20 3 2 1 1 3 58

Head of the city Council is the "Oberbürgermeister" (Lord mayor
Lord Mayor
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.-Commonwealth of Nations:* In Australia it is a political position. Australian cities with Lord Mayors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Parramatta, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong...

) the chief executive (since 1999) of the administration. The "Oberbürgermeister" is elected diretctly for a five years term, together with the city council.
The "Oberstadtdirektor" was the non-elected chief executive before the reform of the Northrhine-Westphalian local administration in 1999, the "Oberbürgermeister" in the period before 1999 was only the elected representative of a larger town or city.

Incorporations

In 1939, 1968 and 1975 Hamm incorporated several towns and municipalities: in 1939 the village Mark (which the Counts and the county took the name of) and in 1968 the villages of Berge and Westtünnen. In the reorganisation of 1975, the following towns and municipalities were incorporated into the City of Hamm:
  1. The town of Bockum-Hövel, Lüdinghausen district
  2. The town of Heessen, Beckum district
  3. The municipality of Uentrop, Unna district, formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Braam-Ostwennemar, Frielinghausen, Haaren, Norddinker, Schmehausen, Uentrop, Vöckinghausen and Werries
  4. The municipality of Rhynern
    Rhynern
    Rhynern, also Hamm-Rhynern, is the largest town by area and former municipality, in the district of the city of Hamm, Westphalia, Germany. It has 18,578 inhabitants. The town is predominantly rural-agrarian and lies off the Bundesautobahn 2 on European route E34, south of the town of Westtünnen...

    , (Unna district, without Hilbeck incorporated by Werl), formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Allen, Freiske, Hilbeck, Osterflierich, Osttünnen, Rhynern, Süddinker and Wambeln
  5. The municipality of Pelkum, (Unna district), formed in 1968, including the municipalities of Herringen, Lerche, Pelkum, Sandbochum, Weetfeld and parts of Wiescherhöfen.


The number of citizens more than doubles from 83.000 in 1974 to 173.000 in 1975.

City structure


Ascheberg
Ascheberg
Ascheberg is a municipality in the district of Coesfeld in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.The neighbouring cities, towns and municipalities of Ascheberg are the city Münster, the town Drensteinfurt , the city Hamm, the town Werne Ascheberg is a municipality in the district of...

1

Drensteinfurt
Drensteinfurt
Drensteinfurt is a town in the district of Warendorf, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated approx. 15 km north of Hamm and 20 km south of Münster...

2

Ahlen
Ahlen
Ahlen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is part of the District of Warendorf and is economically the most important town in that district. Ahlen is part of the larger Münster region, and of the historic Münsterland area....

2

Lippetal
Lippetal
Lippetal is a municipality in the district of Soest, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.- Geography :Lippetal is located north and south of the river Lippe between the cities of Lippstadt and Hamm . Lippetal is situated at the northern boundary of the Soester Börde, south of the river Lippe and...

3

Werne
Werne
Werne is a town in the Federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia in the Unna district in Germany. It is located on the southern edge of the Münsterland region near the Ruhrgebiet...

4
Hamm
(Map of Hamm's quarters
Stadtbezirk
A Stadtbezirk is a form of German city district, an administrative unit within a larger city. In Germany Stadtbezirke usually only exist in a metropolis with more than 150,000 inhabitants....

)

Welver
Welver
Welver is a municipality in the district of Soest, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.-History:The town was once known as Villinghausen or Vellinghausen. The Seven Year's War Battle of Villinghausen was fought nearby.-Geography:Welver is situated approx...

3

Bergkamen
Bergkamen
Bergkamen is a town in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated near the river Lippe, approx. north-east of Dortmund and south-west of Hamm....

4

Kamen
Kamen
Kamen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the district Unna.-Geography:Kamen is situated at the east end of the Ruhr area, approx...

4

Bönen
Bönen
Bönen is a municipality in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated between Hamm in the north-west and Unna in the south-east.- References :...

4

Unna
Unna
Unna is a town of around 67,000 people in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, the seat of the Unna district.-Geography:Unna is situated on an ancient salt-trading route, the Hellweg road. Trade on this route and during the period of the Hansa Trade Route came from as far as London...

4
1 District Coesfeld
Coesfeld (district)
Coesfeld is a Kreis in the northwestern part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, west of the city of Münster. Neighboring districts are Steinfurt, district-free Münster, Warendorf, district-free Hamm, Unna, Recklinghausen, Borken.- History :...


2 District Warendorf
Warendorf (district)
Warendorf is a Kreis in the northern part of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring districts are Steinfurt, Osnabrück , Gütersloh, Soest, district-free city Hamm, Coesfeld and the district-free city Münster.-History:...


3 District Soest
Soest (district)
Soest is a Kreis in the middle of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring districts are Warendorf, Gütersloh, Paderborn, Hochsauerland, Märkischer Kreis, Unna and the district-free city Hamm.-History:...


4 District Unna
Unna (district)
The Unna district is a Kreis in central North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring authorities are the district of Coesfeld, the city of Hamm, the districts of Soest and Märkischer Kreis, the cities of Hagen and Dortmund, and the district of Recklinghausen.-History:The area of the present...



Hamm has seven quarters (de: Stadtbezirk
Stadtbezirk
A Stadtbezirk is a form of German city district, an administrative unit within a larger city. In Germany Stadtbezirke usually only exist in a metropolis with more than 150,000 inhabitants....

), each divided into residential areas like City, which actually means the center of the city around the Pauluschurch or like Hövel-Radbod near the former entrance to the coalmine Radbod in the quarter Bockum-Hövel. The following table shows the situation in 2006. Every quarter is named with the prefix Hamm, like Hamm-Bockum-Hövel or Hamm-Mitte.
Quarter/Stadtbezirk
Stadtbezirk
A Stadtbezirk is a form of German city district, an administrative unit within a larger city. In Germany Stadtbezirke usually only exist in a metropolis with more than 150,000 inhabitants....

 of Hamm
Population Population per km² Area im Km²
Bockum-Hövel 35,468 1086 32.66
Heessen 23,639 809 29.23
Herringen 21,077 1088 19.38
Mitte 34,407 3154 10.91
Pelkum 18,974 628 30.21
Rhynern 18,648 315 59.23
Uentrop 28,122 630 44.62
Total 180.355 797 226.25


The former town Bockum-Hövel today forms the quarter with the largest number of inhabitants, closely followed by the centre of the city Hamm-Mitte. The latter is the smallest quarter by metric size.

International relations

Hamm is currently twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Neufchâteau
Neufchâteau, Vosges
Neufchâteau is a commune in the Vosges department in Lorraine in northeastern France.Inhabitants are called Néocastriens.-Geography:Positioned at the confluence of the Rivers Meuse and Mouzon, the little town dominates the Vosges Plain...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, since 1967 (originally with the municipality Herringen). Santa Monica
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, California, US. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is surrounded on three sides by the city of Los Angeles — Pacific Palisades on the northwest, Brentwood on the north, West Los Angeles on the northeast, Mar Vista on the east, and...

, California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, since 1969. Shipley
Shipley, West Yorkshire
Shipley is a town in West Yorkshire, England, by the River Aire and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, north of Bradford and north-west of Leeds....

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, since 1976. Chattanooga
Chattanooga, Tennessee
Chattanooga is the fourth-largest city in the US state of Tennessee , with a population of 169,887. It is the seat of Hamilton County...

, Tennessee
Tennessee
Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

, since 1977. Mazatlán
Mazatlán
Mazatlán is a city in the Mexican state of Sinaloa; the surrounding municipio for which the city serves as the municipal seat is Mazatlán Municipality. It is located at on the Pacific coast, across from the southernmost tip of the Baja California peninsula.Mazatlán is a Nahuatl word meaning...

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, since 1978. Toul
Toul
Toul is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.It is a sub-prefecture of the department.-Geography:Toul is located between Commercy and Nancy, and situated between the Moselle River and the Canal de la Marne au Rhin....

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, since 1987. Oranienburg
Oranienburg
Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Oberhavel.- Geography :Oranienburg is a town located on the banks of the Havel river, 35 km north of the centre of Berlin.- Division of the town :...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, since 1990. Kalisz
Kalisz
Kalisz is a city in central Poland with 106,857 inhabitants , the capital city of the Kalisz Region. Situated on the Prosna river in the southeastern part of the Greater Poland Voivodeship, the city forms a conurbation with the nearby towns of Ostrów Wielkopolski and Nowe Skalmierzyce...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, since 1991. Afyonkarahisar
Afyonkarahisar
Afyonkarahisar is a city in western Turkey, the capital of Afyon Province. Afyon is in mountainous countryside inland from the Aegean coast, south-west of Ankara along the Akarçay River. Elevation...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

, since 2006.

Miscellaneous

In 2006 Hamm was the first city to accomplish a "Ratsbürgerentscheid" (citizens decision). Subject of the plebiscite was a plan to build a 43 ha city lake (2007–2010) near the city centre. 136,521 citizens were entitled to vote, 57,563 used that possibility and 56.9% refused their approbation for the project. As minimal vote 20% (of the total 136,521 voters) had to decide between one of the possibilities (20% for Yes or 20% for NO). The city council accepted the voting and stopped the plans.
This procedure is planned for future projects in NRW.
Also in Hamm established was the "Baugerichtstag e. V." a society organizing a congress about the German building law. The congress is held in a two years term.

Health

Several hospital are situated in Hamm. The largest is the Marien Hospital with its two separate buildings, Marien Hospital I the old building within the centre of the city and Marien Hospital II together 587 beds. Then there is the (EVK Hamm) Evangelisches Krankenhaus Hamm (Protestant Hospital) combined with the children's hospital south of the centre together 493 beds, the St. Barbara Klinik (Clinic) in Heessen with 422 beds and the Malteser Krankenhaus (Hospital) St. Josef in Bockum-Hövel with 260 beds. Additional there are the Klinik für manuelle Therapie (Clinic for manual therapy) within the quarter Bad Hamm (138 beds), the cure district. The Westfälisches Institut Hamm für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und psychotherapie (Westphalian Institute Hamm for Children's- and Youth psychiatry and psychotherapy) as an Institute of the federal state (158 beds) and the private Klinik (clinic) am Bärenbrunnen. (All Hospital
Hospital
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment by specialized staff and equipment. Hospitals often, but not always, provide for inpatient care or longer-term patient stays....

s together have 2058 beds.)
Former Hospitals are:
  • The BWK Bundeswehr
    Bundeswehr
    The Bundeswehr consists of the unified armed forces of Germany and their civil administration and procurement authorities...

    krankenhaus Hamm (Hospital of the Federal Defence Forces) closed in 2007 after a reform of the German forces.
  • The St. Elisabeth Kinderklinik (Children's Hospital combined with the Märkische Kinderklinik and now part of the EVK Hamm as "Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin")
  • Märkische Kinderklinik (Children's Hospital combined with the Elisabeth Kinderklinik and now part of the EVK Hamm as "Klinik für Kinder- und Jugendmedizin")
  • Knappschaftskrankenhaus (Hospital operated by the health fund for miners (Bundesknappschaft) now Marien Hospital II)

Education

Hamm has six Gymnasien
Gymnasium (school)
A gymnasium is a type of school providing secondary education in some parts of Europe, comparable to English grammar schools or sixth form colleges and U.S. college preparatory high schools. The word γυμνάσιον was used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual...

 (grammar schools), two comprehensive schools and several Realschule
Realschule
The Realschule is a type of secondary school in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein. It has also existed in Croatia , Denmark , Sweden , Hungary and in the Russian Empire .-History:The Realschule was an outgrowth of the rationalism and empiricism of the seventeenth and...

n, Hauptschule
Hauptschule
A Hauptschule is a secondary school in Germany and Austria, starting after 4 years of elementary schooling, which offers Lower Secondary Education according to the International Standard Classification of Education...

n and Grundschulen (elementary school
Elementary school
An elementary school or primary school is an institution where children receive the first stage of compulsory education known as elementary or primary education. Elementary school is the preferred term in some countries, particularly those in North America, where the terms grade school and grammar...

s). The oldest Gymnasium in Hamm is the Gymnasium Hammonense which was established as academic school (small university) with three faculties in 1657. The school declined in its importance and in 1781 merged with the local Latin school and got reformed by Prussia. The new combined school was humanist Gymnasium. In 1867 the "Märkisches Gymnasium" followed as the second Gymnasium of Hamm, in 1902 the "Freiherr vom Stein Gymnasium", in 1924 the "Beisenkamp Gymnasium" – first as "Oberlyceum" (Gymnasium for girls) – and in 1968 the "Galilei
Galilei
Galilei is a surname, and may refer to:*Galileo Galilei , astronomer, philosopher, and physicist.*Vincenzo Galilei , composer, lutenist, and music theorist; father of Galileo...

-Gymnasium" were established. Additionally in Schloss Heessen there is a private school including the Gymnasium. Both comprehensive schools in Hamm are younger foundations by the city during school reforms of NRW.
Hamm is also well known for its many vocational school
Vocational school
A vocational school , providing vocational education, is a school in which students are taught the skills needed to perform a particular job...

s:
  • "Friederich List Berufskolleg für Wirtschaft" a trade school
  • "Eduard Spranger Berufskolleg für Technik" a vocational school for techniques
  • "Elisabeth Lüders Berufskolleg für Sozialwesen, Gesundheit, Hauswirtschaft und Kinderpflege" a vocational school for social welfare, health, home economics and child care, and several other schools.

In 2005 a small private university of applied sciences was established, the "SRH Fachhoschule Hamm".
The private university of applied sciences started with two study programs ending with degrees of Bachelor and Master of Science for logistic engineering
Logistic engineering
Logistics engineering is a branch of systems engineering dedicated to the scientific organization of the purchase, transport, storage, distribution, and warehousing of materials and finished goods....

.
The "Klinik für Psychatrie und Psychotherapie of the Marienhospital cooperates with the University Witten-Herdecke in eduacation and science.
During the summer 2009 another university of applied sciences was founded by the federal state NRW, named Hochschule Hamm-Lippstadt. The University is divided in two departments, each with its own small Campus area, one in Hamm and another in Lippstadt
Lippstadt
Lippstadt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the largest town within the district of Soest.-Geography:Lippstadt is situated in the Lippe valley, roughly 70 kilometres east of Dortmund and roughly 30 kilometres west of Paderborn...

.

Industry and economy

Major industrial branches are the coal-mining industry, steel industry, chemical industry
Chemical industry
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products.-Products:...

 and the car component supplier industry.
In the last century there were four coal-mines within the urban district. Today the Bergwerk Ost in Herringen is the last operating coal mine with about 3,000 employees.
Mannesmann Hoesch Präzisrohr, Westfälische Draht Industrie (WDI) and Böhler Thyssen Welding are the major representatives of the steel industry, the chemical industry is represented by DuPont
DuPont
E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company , commonly referred to as DuPont, is an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. DuPont was the world's third largest chemical company based on market capitalization and ninth based on revenue in 2009...

 in Uentrop and the car supplier industry by Hella KGaA Hueck & Co. factory 4 in Bockum-Hövel with about 1000 employees.
The energy industry
Energy industry
The energy industry is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution...

 is represented by a RWE
RWE
RWE AG , is a German electric power and natural gas public utility company based in Essen. Through its various subsidiaries, the energy company contributes electricity and gas to more than 20 million electricity customers and 10 million gas customers, principally in Europe...

 coal power plant and a further power plant (Trianel) in Uentrop. A new coal power plant is currently under construction. The THTR-300
THTR-300
The THTR-300 was a thorium high-temperature nuclear reactor rated at 300 MW electric . The German state of North Rhine Westphalia, in the Federal Republic of Germany, and Hochtemperatur-Kernkraftwerk GmbH financed the THTR-300’s construction. Operations started on the plant in Hamm-Uentrop,...

, also in Uentrop-Schmehhausen, was decommissioned in 1989.
Alongside the A2, in the southern part of the urban district, a new business park inhabits the growing logistic
Logistic
Logistic may refer to:* Logistics, the management of resources and their distributions** Logistic engineering, the scientific study of logistics** Military logistics, the study of logistics at the service of military units and operations...

 business.
Hamm is also known as "City of Law" (Stadt des Rechts) because of the greatest German regional appeal court (Oberlandesgericht), the local court (Amtsgericht), the industrial court (Arbeitgericht) and the industrial appeal court (Landesarbeitsgericht). The Chamber of Notaries and bar association of the regional appeal court Hamm and the courts are of greater influence on the appearance of the city.
Several hospitals in the urban district are also important employers, for example the EVK Hamm has about 1000 employees.

Media

The only daily newspaper of Hamm printed there, is the "Westfälischer Anzeiger". At first, a weekly, newspaper in Hamm was the "Kreis Hammsches Wochenblatt" founded by Heinich Jakob Grote in 1822. Its name was changed in 1848 to "Westfälischer Anzeiger". A second newspaper appeared, founded by the Thiemann family, the "Westfälische Kurier". Both co-existed until the end of the Second World War. After the War both newspapers were combined and named "Westfälischer Anzeiger und Kurier". In the 1960s another name-change made the "Westfälischer Anzeiger". This newspaper is the mantle of several smaller regional newspapers, together they had a total 153,428 copies in 2004. In the 1970s the "Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung" unsuccessfully tried to establish its own daily newspaper.
Two weekly newspapers appear in Hamm the "Stadtanzeiger" from the "Westfälischer Anzeiger" with a total of 384.000 copies and the Sonntags-Rundblick by a medium sized local company.
Since 1990 the local radio station "Radio Lippewelle Hamm" is On Air and number one radio station of the local radios in NRW.
On the 3rd October 1993 the "Offener Kanal Hamm" started broadcasting, it is a small TV project by people for the people, started through the federal state.

Roads

Hamm is linked to three motorways. The Bundesautobahn 1 (BAB 1 or A1, Puttgarden-Saarbrücken) named Hansaline with two connections No.81 and 82., the (BAB 2 or A2, Oberhausen-Berlin) with three connctions No.17,18 and 19 and the A445 (Hamm-Arnsberg) which is connected by the B63 until the planned construction between Hamm and Werl
Werl
Werl is a town located in the district of Soest in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.-Geography:Werl is easily accessible because it is located between the Sauerland, Münsterland, and the Ruhr Area...

 is completed. The Kamener Kreuz
Kamener Kreuz
The Kamener Kreuz was formerly a full cloverleaf interchange near Dortmund in North Rhine-Westphalia Germany where the Autobahnen A1 and A2 meet. It lies between the towns of Kamen and Bergkamen in the west and the city of Hamm and the municipality Bönen in the east...

 is situated in the southwest of Hamm. Two "federal roads" (Bundesstrassen) the B61 and B63 intersect in the city centre. Several state roads (Landesstrassen) are connecting Hamm with its neighbouring towns and municipalities.

Railways

Hamm has three stations, the main railway station Hamm (Westfalen)
Hamm (Westfalen) railway station
Hamm is a railway station situated in the city of Hamm in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia....

 and two minor stations, one in Bockum-Hövel and the other one in Heessen. The main station is one of the biggest railway hubs in Germany, and connected with one of the greatest marshalling yards of Europe, the latter now only partly operating. Notable is the railway station for its Art deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...



Gründerzeit
Gründerzeit
' refers to the economic phase in 19th century Germany and Austria before the great stock market crash of 1873. At this time in Central Europe the age of industrialisation was taking place, whose beginnings were found in the 1840s...

 inspired building styles. Hamm is connected to the rail since May 2, 1847.

Buses

The city bus net Hamm is served by the "Stadtwerke Hamm", with 65 buses, and the "Verkehrsgesellschaft Breitenbach". A regional bus service is served by different companies and both nets serve the central bus station
Bus station
A bus station is a structure where city or intercity buses stop to pick up and drop off passengers. It is larger than a bus stop, which is usually simply a place on the roadside, where buses can stop...

, which is situated in front of the main railway station in the centre of Hamm. Hamm is part of the Verkehrsgemeinschaft Ruhr-Lippe. About 12 million people are using the bus net every year, transported by 50 bus lines with 500 bus stops within the city.

Canal

Hamm is the end of the "Datteln-Hamm-Kanal", three ports are situated in the urban district.
The city port, the canal end port Uentrop, and the port of "Gersteinwerk". The ports of Hamm are the second biggest canal port by freight transact, 1,4 millions tons a year by ship
Ship
Since the end of the age of sail a ship has been any large buoyant marine vessel. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on size and cargo or passenger capacity. Ships are used on lakes, seas, and rivers for a variety of activities, such as the transport of people or goods, fishing,...

s and 0,5 million tons by train. The city port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 allowes for ships up to 110 meters length 11,45 meters width and 2,7 meters draft. It is linked with the railway by a track to the near main railway station and the marshaling yard.

Airfield and Airports

Near city centre, in the meadows of the River Lippe, the sport airfield Hamm is situated. Its runway is 900 m long and 30 m wide. The airfield is operated by the Luftsportclub Hamm e. V..
Hamm is situated in the middle of a triangle of three smaller International Airport
Airport
An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport...

s, in the north the Münster Osnabrück International Airport
Münster Osnabrück International Airport
Münster Osnabrück International Airport or Flughafen Muenster/Osnabrueck , is the 4th largest international commercial airport in North Rhine-Westphalia...

 (FMO) in the south-west Dortmund Airport
Dortmund Airport
Dortmund Airport , is the international airport located east of Dortmund, Germany. Its slogan is Näher als man denkt . Since 2006 it has been carrying the name "Dortmund Airport 21", in reference to the fact that Dortmund's utility company, DSW21, is its major shareholder...

 and in the east Paderborn Lippstadt Airport
Paderborn Lippstadt Airport
-Facilities:The terminal offers several facilities for travelers. There are mainly travel agencies in the airport. A Restaurant is available, too. There are also shops and car rentals at the airport....

.
The nearest greater International Airport
International airport
An international airport is any airport that can accommodate flights from other countries and are typically equipped with customs and immigration facilities to handle these flights to and from other countries...

 is Düsseldorf International Airport
Düsseldorf International Airport
Düsseldorf International Airport is the largest airport in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, and the third largest airport in Germany, handling 18.99 million passengers in 2010....

.

Notable Citizens

  • 1770, 5 April, Rulemann Friedrich Eylert, pastor of the Reformed Church in Hamm, ev. Bishop in Potsdam
  • 1824, 13 April, Friedrich Kapp
    Friedrich Kapp
    Friedrich Kapp was a German-American lawyer, writer, and politician. He was an outspoken opponent of Germany's colonization fervor during his time as a National Liberal Reichstag deputy. This was exemplified in his speech to the annual Congress of German Economists...

    , German-American attorney, author and politician
  • 1868, 24 October, Gustav Lübcke, bookbinder, merchant, art collector and director of the Museum Hamm (later named after him)
  • 1882, 18 January, Anna Siemsen, educationalist and politician
  • 1884, 5 July, August Siemsen, educationalist and politician
  • 1891, 27 March, Hans Siemsen, journalist and author
  • 1900, 9 July, Hermann Freytag, Lord mayor of Duisburg (NSDAP)
  • 1902, 2 June, Joachim von Elbe, jurist, member of legal department of the US military government in Germany after the Second World War.
  • 1903, 5 February, Fritz Everding, naturalistic painter and graphic artist
  • 1906, 19 May, Gerd Bucerius
    Gerd Bucerius
    Gerd Bucerius was a German politician and journalist, one of the founding members of Die Zeit. He is the namesake of the Bucerius Law School in Hamburg and of the Bucerius Kunst Forum, an art gallery....

    , publisher („Die Zeit“ ab 1959) and publicist (founder of the publishing house Gruner und Jahr GmbH & Co.)
  • 1907, 13 March, Ludwig Biermann
    Ludwig Biermann
    Ludwig Franz Benedict Biermann was a German astronomer.He made important contributions to astrophysics and plasma physics...

    , physicist
  • 1907, 21 March, Josef Veldtrup, educationalist and poet
  • 1923, 16 March, Heinz Wallberg, conductor
  • 1926, 21 February, Karl Otto Conrady, literary scientists, publisher, lyric poet („Der Neue Conrady. Das große deutsche Gedichtbuch“)
  • 1927, 15 March, Hanns Joachim Friedrichs, TV-Journalist und moderator („Tagesthemen“)
  • 1927, 17 October, Friedrich Hirzebruch
    Friedrich Hirzebruch
    Friedrich Ernst Peter Hirzebruch is a German mathematician, working in the fields of topology, complex manifolds and algebraic geometry, and a leading figure in his generation.-Life:He was born in Hamm, Westphalia...

    , mathematician, founder and first director of the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in Bonn
  • 1930, 16 August, Manfred Schulte, politician (SPD), Member of the Bundestag (MdB)
  • 1941, 21 October, Gerhard Schmitt-Thiel, moderator, author and journalist
  • 1948, 22 March, Bernard Dietz
    Bernard Dietz
    Bernard Dietz is a former German football player and manager.-Club career:A defender and sweeper in his professional career, Bernard Dietz played in 495 Bundesliga matches for MSV Duisburg and FC Schalke 04, scoring 70 goals in his Duisburg years and seven in his days with FC Schalke 04 in the top...

    , named „Ennatz“, footballer
  • 1951, 17 April, Horst Hrubesch
    Horst Hrubesch
    Horst Hrubesch is a retired German football player employed as a youth trainer at the German Football Association. His nickname was Das Kopfball-Ungeheuer for his heading skills.-Career:...

    , footballer
  • 1953, 23 March, Josef Kaczor, named „Jupp“, footballer
  • 1956, 7 January, Leonard Lansink, actor („Wilsberg (TV-Series)“)
  • 1957, 24 January, Klaus Fiehe, musician und radio presenter
  • 1958, 17 April, Ralf Wosik, table tennis
    Table tennis
    Table tennis, also known as ping-pong, is a sport in which two or four players hit a lightweight, hollow ball back and forth using table tennis rackets. The game takes place on a hard table divided by a net...

     player
  • 1960, 7 February, Klaus J. Behrendt, actor ("Tatort-Kommissar Max Ballauf")
  • 1960, 13 June, Christoph Oertel, filmcomposer und sounddesigner
  • 1960, 1 September, Joachim Masannek, author und director of "Die Wilden Kerle"
  • 1964, 29 March, Andreas Obering (Der OBeL), actor („Das Wunder von Bern“), comedian
  • 1964, 16 June, Michael Lusch, footballer
  • 1964, 4 December, Uwe Kröger
    Uwe Kröger
    Uwe Kröger is a famous musical star in the German-speaking countries of the world. Besides starring on stage, Kröger has taken part in numerous galas and concerts, as well as making a few television and film appearances...

    , musical actor
  • 1965, 1 December, Till Hoheneder (Till), former Till&Obel, comedian und musician
  • 1978, 5. July, İsmail YK
    Ismail YK
    Ismail YK, full name İsmail Yurtseven , is a Turkish pop singer, and composer for Turkish Pop Music. YK stands for Yurtseven Kardeşler, the group he was a member of at the start of his career.-Biography:...

    , musician
  • 1978, 8. October, Torben Wosik, table tennis player
  • 1983, 5. November, Mike Hanke
    Mike Hanke
    Mike Hanke is a German football player who plays the position of striker, with Germany's Borussia Mönchengladbach.-Club career:Hanke made his debut in the 2001–02 season of the German Bundesliga for Schalke 04...

    , footballer for Hannover 96
    Hannover 96
    Hannoverscher Sportverein von 1896, commonly referred to as Hannover 96, Hannover or simply 96, is a German association football club based in the city of Hanover, Lower Saxony.-Foundation to WWII:...


External links

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