H. G. van de Sande Bakhuyzen
Hendricus Gerardus van de Sande Bakhuyzen (Apr 2, 1838, The Hague
The Hague
The Hague is the capital city of the province of South Holland in the Netherlands. With a population of 500,000 inhabitants , it is the third largest city of the Netherlands, after Amsterdam and Rotterdam...

 – Jan 8, 1923, Leiden) was a Dutch
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

. His surname, van de Sande Bakhuyzen, is sometimes erroneously given as Backhuyzen or Bakhuysen. His first name is sometimes given as Hendrik Gerard. Not to be confused with the animal painter Hendrik van de Sande Bakhuyzen
Hendrik van de Sande Bakhuyzen
Hendrik van de Sande Bakhuyzen was a Dutch painter, well-known for his landscapes and marinas...


He studied astronomy
Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth...

 under Frederik Kaiser
Frederik Kaiser
Frederik Kaiser was a Dutch astronomer.He was director of the Leiden Observatory from 1838 until his death....


After he got his degree, he was a high school teacher from 1864–1867, during which time he wrote a very successful textbook on mechanics
Mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the behavior of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment....

. In 1867 he became a professor at the Technical College in Delft
Delft is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland , the Netherlands. It is located between Rotterdam and The Hague....


He became director of the Leiden Observatory
Leiden Observatory
Leiden Observatory is an astronomical observatory in the city of Leiden, Netherlands. It was established by Leiden University in 1633, to house the quadrant of Snellius, and is the oldest operating University observatory in the world Leiden Observatory (Sterrewacht Leiden in Dutch) is an...

 in 1872 upon the death of Frederik Kaiser. He retired in 1908.

He chose to concentrate on fundamental astronomy rather than on the then-new field of spectroscopy
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and radiated energy. Historically, spectroscopy originated through the study of visible light dispersed according to its wavelength, e.g., by a prism. Later the concept was expanded greatly to comprise any interaction with radiative...

. He worked mainly on the observation of asteroid
Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

s, but also proved the connection between a meteor shower
Meteor shower
A meteor shower is a celestial event in which a number of meteors are observed to radiate from one point in the night sky. These meteors are caused by streams of cosmic debris called meteoroids entering Earth's atmosphere at extremely high speeds on parallel trajectories. Most meteors are smaller...

 on November 27 and the comet
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when close enough to the Sun, displays a visible coma and sometimes also a tail. These phenomena are both due to the effects of solar radiation and the solar wind upon the nucleus of the comet...

Biela's Comet or Comet Biela was a periodic comet first recorded in 1772 by Montaigne and Messier and finally identified as periodic in 1826 by Wilhelm von Biela. It was subsequently observed to split in two and has not been seen since 1852...

. He also worked on geodesy
Geodesy , also named geodetics, a branch of earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal...


He edited and published the Mars drawings of Johann Hieronymus Schröter in 1881, long after the latter's death.

He married Geertruida van Vollenhoven, who died in 1910. They had two daughters and a son, Adriaan, who would be mayor of Leiden from 1927 to 1941.

His brother Ernest-Frederich van de Sande Bakhuyzen was also an astronomer who worked at the Leiden Observatory.

Bakhuysen crater (with an "s") on Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance...

is named for him.

External links

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