Gunter Demnig
Gunter Demnig is a German artist. He is best known for his "Stolperstein" memorials to the victims of Nazi persecution and oppression in Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...



Gunter Demnig grew up in Nauen
Nauen is a town in the Havelland district, in Brandenburg, Germany. It is situated 38 km west of Berlin and 26 km northwest of Potsdam.-History:...

 and Berlin and acquired his abitur
Abitur is a designation used in Germany, Finland and Estonia for final exams that pupils take at the end of their secondary education, usually after 12 or 13 years of schooling, see also for Germany Abitur after twelve years.The Zeugnis der Allgemeinen Hochschulreife, often referred to as...

 in 1967. Later that year, he began studying creative education at Berlin University of the Arts
Berlin University of the Arts
The Universität der Künste Berlin, UdK is a public art school in Berlin, Germany, one of the four universities in the city...

 with Professor Herbert Kaufmann. From 1969 to 1970, he studied industrial design there. In 1971, he transferred to the Kunsthochschule Kassel
Kunsthochschule Kassel
Kunsthochschule Kassel is a college of fine arts in Kassel, Germany. Founded in 1777, it is a semi-autonomous department of the University of Kassel .-Notable people:* Bernhard, Count of Bylandt* August Bromeis...

, resuming his study of creative education and passed the first state examination in 1974.

That same year, he began studying art with Harry Kramer at the University of Kassel
University of Kassel
The University of Kassel, founded in 1970, is one of the newer universities in the state of Hesse. The university is in Kassel, and as of September 2010 has about 18,113 students...

. Following that, he spent two years planning, building and managing historical monuments, from 1977 to 1979. From 1980 to 1985, Demnig was an artistic-scientific colleague on the art faculty at the University of Kassel
Kassel is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants.- History :...


In 1985, he opened his own studio in Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 and worked on numerous local projects. Since 1994, he has also been involved with the IGNIS-Kulturzentrum (IGNIS Cultural Center).

Demning's best known work is what he calls Stolpersteine. Stolperstein (in the singular) is the German word for "stumbling block". Demning's Stolpersteine are small, cobblestone-sized brass memorials for the victims of National Socialism. Set into the pavement of sidewalks in front of the buildings where Nazi victims once lived or worked, they call attention both to the individual victim and the scope of the Nazi war crimes. There have been over 20,000 Stolpersteine laid in several countries in Europe, making the project the world's largest memorial.


  • 1980- Odor marks, Cassel-Paris
  • 1981- Blood spot, Kassel-London
  • 1988- Travel to West Berlin
    West Berlin
    West Berlin was a political exclave that existed between 1949 and 1990. It comprised the western regions of Berlin, which were bordered by East Berlin and parts of East Germany. West Berlin consisted of the American, British, and French occupation sectors, which had been established in 1945...

  • 1993- Conceives Stolperstein project
  • 1997- First two Stolpersteine
    Stolperstein is the German word for "stumbling block", "obstacle", or "something in the way". The artist Gunter Demnig has given this word a new meaning, that of a small, cobblestone-sized memorial for a single victim of Nazism...

     installed at the invitation of Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service
    Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service
    The Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service is an alternative to Austria's compulsory national military service / alternative service founded in 1992. Since 1998 it is part of the Austrian Service Abroad...

     founder Andreas Maislinger
    Andreas Maislinger
    Andreas Maislinger is an Austrian historian and founder of the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service and Braunau Contemporary History Days.- Studying and learning :...

     for the brothers Matthias and Johann Nobis
    Johann Nobis
    Johann Nobis was an Austrian conscientious objector.-Life:...

    , with legal permit from St. Georgen
    Sankt Georgen bei Salzburg
    Sankt Georgen is a municipality in the district of Salzburg-Umgebung in the state of Salzburg in Austria.-Overview:On July 19, 1997 the artist Gunter Demnig installed two Stolpersteine for Johann Nobis and his brother Matthias Nobis in front of their birth house in Holzhausen at the invitation of ...

     (near Salzburg
    -Population development:In 1935, the population significantly increased when Salzburg absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was created for American soldiers of the postwar Occupation, and could be used for...

  • 2000 - Project "Stolpersteine" continues, acquiring permits to install the memorials


  • 1982- Alte Oper
    Alte Oper
    The Alte Oper is a major concert hall and former opera house in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The building was inaugurated in 1880. Many important works have been premiered at the Alte Oper, including Carl Orff's Carmina Burana in 1937....

    , Frankfurt am Main
  • 1986- Kunsthalle Baden-Baden, Museum of the City of Cologne
  • 1991- Kunstlerhaus Bethanien, Berlin
  • 1995- Akademie der Künste
    Akademie der Künste
    The Akademie der Künste, Berlin is an arts institution in Berlin, Germany. It was founded in 1696 by Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg as the Prussian Academy of Arts, an academic institution where members could meet and discuss and share ideas...

    , Berlin

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.