bordered by Mexico
to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean
to the southwest, Belize
to the northeast, the Caribbean
to the east, and Honduras
and El Salvador
to the southeast. Its area is 108,890 km² (42,043 mi²) with an estimated population of 13,276,517.
A representative democracy
, its capital is Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City
. Guatemala's abundance of biologically significant and unique ecosystems contributes to Mesoamerica's designation as a biodiversity hotspot
1821 Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica jointly declare independence from Spain.
1851 Honduras and El Salvador, during their invasion of Guatemala, are repelled at the Battle of La Arada.
1902 Quetzaltenango, second largest city of Guatemala, destroyed by Earthquake.
1913 Guatemala becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1941 World War II: The Republic of China, Cuba, Guatemala, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and the Philippine Commonwealth, declare war on Germany and Japan.
1945 Diplomatic relations between the Soviet Union and Guatemala are established.
1957 Carlos Castillo Armas, dictator of Guatemala, is assassinated.
1976 In Guatemala and Honduras an earthquake kills more than 22,000.
1982 Río Negro massacre in Guatemala.
1982 Guatemala's government, headed by Fernando Romeo Lucas García is overthrown in a military coup by right-wing General Efraín Ríos Montt.