Gainesville, Florida
Overview
 
Gainesville is the largest city in, and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of, Alachua County
Alachua County, Florida
Alachua County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2006 estimate for the county is 227,120. Its county seat is Gainesville, Florida. Alachua County is the home of the University of Florida and is also known for its diverse culture, local music, and artisans...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 as well as the principal city of the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
The Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan statistical area designated by the Office of Management and Budget and used for statistical purposes by the Census Bureau and other agencies. The metropolitan statistical area comprises Alachua and Gilchrist counties within...

 (MSA). The preliminary 2010 Census population count for Gainesville is 124,354. Gainesville is home to the sixth largest campus in the USA, the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

, as well as to Santa Fe College. The Gainesville MSA was ranked as the #1 place to live in the 2007 edition of Cities Ranked and Rated. Gainesville was also ranked as one of the "best places to live and play" in 2007 by National Geographic Adventure
National Geographic Adventure
National Geographic Adventure, formerly known as Adventure One but now commonly known as Nat Geo Adventure, is a subscription TV channel part of National Geographic Channels International and News Corporation...

.
Encyclopedia
Gainesville is the largest city in, and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of, Alachua County
Alachua County, Florida
Alachua County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2006 estimate for the county is 227,120. Its county seat is Gainesville, Florida. Alachua County is the home of the University of Florida and is also known for its diverse culture, local music, and artisans...

, Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 as well as the principal city of the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
The Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan statistical area designated by the Office of Management and Budget and used for statistical purposes by the Census Bureau and other agencies. The metropolitan statistical area comprises Alachua and Gilchrist counties within...

 (MSA). The preliminary 2010 Census population count for Gainesville is 124,354. Gainesville is home to the sixth largest campus in the USA, the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

, as well as to Santa Fe College. The Gainesville MSA was ranked as the #1 place to live in the 2007 edition of Cities Ranked and Rated. Gainesville was also ranked as one of the "best places to live and play" in 2007 by National Geographic Adventure
National Geographic Adventure
National Geographic Adventure, formerly known as Adventure One but now commonly known as Nat Geo Adventure, is a subscription TV channel part of National Geographic Channels International and News Corporation...

. Gainesville was additionally ranked as the 5th meanest city in the USA by the National Coalition for the Homeless twice in a row, in 2004 for its criminalization of homelessness and in 2009 for its ordinance restricting soup kitchens to 130-meals a day.

Native American, Pre-European

12,000 years ago Paleo Indians
Paleo Indians
Paleo-Indians or Paleoamericans is a classification term given to the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the American continent during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period...

 lived in Florida, but fewer than 100 sites have been found and although it is not known for certain whether any permanent settlements from that period were in the present city limits of Gainesville, archeological evidence of human presence exists. Upon retreat of the ice age, coastal Florida became inundated and Florida’s land mass shrank while the southeastern United States became wetter than it had been, so the Paleoindians required fewer moves between water spots and more populous camps inhabited for longer periods of time emerged; among the spots where camps from this later period have been found is around Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie is a Florida State Park, encompassing a savanna south of Gainesville, Florida, in Micanopy. It is also a U.S. National Natural Landmark. It is crossed by both I-75 and U.S. 441 .- History :...

 very close to Gainesville.

Eventually more complex social organization and agricultural practices emerged into what archeologists classify as the Deptford culture
Deptford culture
The Deptford culture was characterized by the appearance of elaborate ceremonial complexes, increasing social and opolitical complexity, mound burial, permanent settlements, population growth, and an increasing reliance on cultigens....

 (2500
25th century BC
The 25th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 2500 BCE to 2401 BCE.-Events:*c. 2900 BCE – 2334 BCE: Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period.*c. 2500 BCE: Rice was first introduced to Malaysia...

 – 100
1st century BC
The 1st century BC, also known as the last century BC or 1st century BCE, started on the first day of 100 BC and ended on the last day of 1 BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero; however, astronomical year numbering does use a minus sign, so "2 BC" is equal to "year -1"...

 BC). A campsite of people of the Deptford Culture has been excavated below the "Law School Mound" on the grounds of the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

. Around the 1st century AD, Deptford people commenced moving into the environs of Gainesville to take advantage of wetlands in the environs of Paynes Prairie and northern Orange Lake becoming the Cades Pond culture
Cades Pond culture
The Cades Pond culture is defined as a Middle Woodland Southeast period archaeological culture in north-central Florida, dating from around 200 to 700 CE.-Geography:...

.

In the 7th century the Deptford people were displaced by migrants thought to be from the Ocmulgee culture of the river valleys of Southern Georgia, dubbed the Alachua culture
Alachua culture
The Alachua culture is defined as a Late Woodland Southeast period archaeological culture in north-central Florida, dating from around AD700 to 1700. It is found in an area roughly corresponding to present-day Alachua County, the northern half of Marion County and the western part of Putnam County...

 since most of their villages have been found in present-day Alachua County. The "Law School Mound" on the University of Florida’s campus is a burial mound built c 1000
11th century
As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century is the period from 1001 to 1100 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era....

 by people of the Alachua culture who probably lived along the shore of Lake Alice
Lake Alice (Gainesville, Florida)
Lake Alice is a small lake on the University of Florida campus in Gainesville, Florida, USA.The lake is a wildlife area and is one of the few areas in incorporated Gainesville where one may view live alligators. The university's bat house is near the lake. The Baughman Center sits on the southwest...

.

Alachua culture villages budded off to form clusters connected by a series of forest trails, many of which are still in use as paved roads; among these clusters are some in the present city limits of Gainesville near the Devil's Millhopper and near Moon Lake (the eastern shore of which is 0.4 miles from the city limits) as well as northwest of and north-central of Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie is a Florida State Park, encompassing a savanna south of Gainesville, Florida, in Micanopy. It is also a U.S. National Natural Landmark. It is crossed by both I-75 and U.S. 441 .- History :...

, and west of Newnans Lake.

In the recorded period, the region was home to the Potano
Potano
The Potano tribe lived in north-central Florida at the time of first European contact. Their territory included what is now Alachua County, the northern half of Marion County and the western part of Putnam County. This territory corresponds to that of the Alachua culture, which preceded the...

, a Timucua
Timucua
The Timucua were a Native American people who lived in Northeast and North Central Florida and southeast Georgia. They were the largest indigenous group in that area and consisted of about 35 chiefdoms, many leading thousands of people. The various groups of Timucua spoke several dialects of the...

 chiefdom descended from the Alachua culture people (the town of Potano was in what is now the San Felasco Hammock
San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park
San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park is a Florida State Park in Alachua County, Florida. It is located northwest of Gainesville, Florida on CR 232 , just south of the town of Alachua.-Fauna:...

 northwest of Gainesville).

Pre-American European Colonialization

Hernando De Soto and his army passed through Gainesville in August, 1539 towards the beginning their four-year exploration of what is now the southeastern United States, the third village where they stayed, Utinamocharra, having been in the dense cluster east of Moon Lake at the northwestern edge of present-day Gainesville.

The Native Americans
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, having little resistance to diseases introduced from Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, declined significantly in number after the arrival of Europeans and Spanish suppression of native revolts further reduced the population.

The remaining Timucua were converted to Roman Catholicism and organized into missions
Spanish missions in Florida
Beginning in the second half of the 16th century, the Kingdom of Spain established a number of missions throughout la Florida in order to convert the Indians to Christianity, to facilitate control of the area, and to prevent its colonization by other countries, in particular, England and France...

 overseen by Fransiscan priests. The Mission San Francisco de Potano
Mission San Francisco de Potano
Mission San Francisco de Potano was a Spanish mission near Gainesville, Florida, United States. In 2007, evidence of Spanish-built post remnants provided structural evidence of the former mission's location. On April 30, 2009, it was added to the U.S...

, the first doctrina (a mission with a resident priest) in Florida west of the St. Johns River
St. Johns River
The St. Johns River is the longest river in the U.S. state of Florida and its most significant for commercial and recreational use. At long, it winds through or borders twelve counties, three of which are the state's largest. The drop in elevation from the headwaters to the mouth is less than ;...

, was founded in 1606 at the south edge of present-day San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park
San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park
San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park is a Florida State Park in Alachua County, Florida. It is located northwest of Gainesville, Florida on CR 232 , just south of the town of Alachua.-Fauna:...

. In or adjacent to present day Gainesville were three other missions (each named for the saint's day the first Mass was said in it), Santa Ana and San Miguel, which were south of and within a day's walk from San Francisco, are thought to be in the cluster east of Moon Lake where Spanish and Indian artifacts from the Mission-period are been found while San Buenaventura lay near Fox Pond, less than 2 km from the present city limits of Gainesville The earliest missions were apparently established adjacent to native villages visited by De Soto's expedition; Santa Ana is thought to be located where Utinamocharra lay and in 1606 the friar who served as the priest was told of cruelties that the chief, when a boy, had suffered from De Soto's men. Chief Potano
Potano
The Potano tribe lived in north-central Florida at the time of first European contact. Their territory included what is now Alachua County, the northern half of Marion County and the western part of Putnam County. This territory corresponds to that of the Alachua culture, which preceded the...

's town was relocated in the colonial period to the vicinity of the Devil's Millhopper, which is now inside the City of Gainesville, from the western shore of Orange Lake
Orange Lake (Florida)
Orange Lake is in Alachua County, Florida, about ten miles south of Hawthorne. It has an area of about 750 square km, and is part of the Orange Creek Basin. which is in turn part of the Oklawaha River watershed. Cross Creek flows into it from Lochloosa Lake, and Orange Creek drains it into the...

.

In the first decade of the 18th century, however, colonial soldiers from the Province of Carolina
Province of Carolina
The Province of Carolina, originally chartered in 1629, was an English and later British colony of North America. Because the original Heath charter was unrealized and was ruled invalid, a new charter was issued to a group of eight English noblemen, the Lords Proprietors, in 1663...

 and their Yamasee Indian
Yamasee
The Yamasee were a multiethnic confederation of Native Americans that lived in the coastal region of present-day northern coastal Georgia near the Savannah River and later in northeastern Florida.-History:...

 allies had killed or carried off nearly all the remaining native inhabitants (10,000 – 12,000 native Floridians were taken as slaves according to the governor of La Florida
Spanish Florida
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of Florida, which formed part of the Captaincy General of Cuba, the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and the Spanish Empire. Originally extending over what is now the southeastern United States, but with no defined boundaries, la Florida was a component of...

) and the few remaining Timucua fled and ended up living in the vicinity of St. Augustine
St. Augustine, Florida
St. Augustine is a city in the northeast section of Florida and the county seat of St. Johns County, Florida, United States. Founded in 1565 by Spanish explorer and admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, it is the oldest continuously occupied European-established city and port in the continental United...

.

Spanish
Spanish people
The Spanish are citizens of the Kingdom of Spain. Within Spain, there are also a number of vigorous nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history....

 colonists began cattle ranching in the Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie is a Florida State Park, encompassing a savanna south of Gainesville, Florida, in Micanopy. It is also a U.S. National Natural Landmark. It is crossed by both I-75 and U.S. 441 .- History :...

 area using Timucua labor and the largest ranch became known as La Chua (which combines the Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 article La with the Timucuan word Chua, meaning sinkhole
Sinkhole
A sinkhole, also known as a sink, shake hole, swallow hole, swallet, doline or cenote, is a natural depression or hole in the Earth's surface caused by karst processes — the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks or suffosion processes for example in sandstone...

). Although La Chua was destroyed by the above-mentioned raiders from Carolina, the ranch nevertheless gave its name to the Alachua band of the Seminole
Seminole
The Seminole are a Native American people originally of Florida, who now reside primarily in that state and Oklahoma. The Seminole nation emerged in a process of ethnogenesis out of groups of Native Americans, most significantly Creeks from what is now Georgia and Alabama, who settled in Florida in...

 tribe who settled in the region in the 18th century under the leadership of the great chief Ahaya the Cowkeeper
Cowkeeper
Cowkeeper, also known as Ahaya in Mikasuki , was the first recorded chief of the Alachua band of the Seminole tribe. This was the name which the English used, as he held a very large herd of cattle.-Early life and education:...

.

Early American Settlement

Gainesville was founded to place the Alachua County seat on the proposed route of the Florida Railroad
Florida Railroad
The Florida Railroad was the first railroad to connect the east and west coasts of Florida, running from Fernandina to Cedar Key. The line later became part of the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, and, where still in use, is operated by CSX Transportation and the First Coast Railroad...

 Company's line stretching from Cedar Key
Cedar Key, Florida
Cedar Key is a city in Levy County, Florida, United States. The population was 790 at the 2000 census. According to the U.S Census estimates of 2005, the city had a population of 958. The Cedar Keys are a cluster of islands close to the mainland. Most of the developed area of the city has been on...

 to Fernandina Beach
Fernandina Beach, Florida
Fernandina Beach is a city in Nassau County in the state of Florida in the United States of America and on Amelia Island. It is a part of Greater Jacksonville and is among Florida's northernmost cities. The area was first inhabited by the Timucuan Indian tribe...

. County residents decided to move the county seat from Newnansville
Newnansville, Florida
The Newnansville Town Site was where the town of Newnansville was located. It is approximately 1.5 miles northeast of Alachua, Florida, on S.R. 235 off of US 441...

 (and chose the name Gainesville) in 1853, as the proposed railroad would bypass Newnansville. A site on Black Oak Ridge where the railroad was expected to cross it was selected in 1854. It is generally accepted that the new settlement was named for General Edmund P. Gaines
Edmund P. Gaines
Edmund Pendleton Gaines was a United States army officer who served with distinction during the War of 1812, the Seminole Wars and the Black Hawk War.-Early life:...

, commander of U.S. Army troops in Florida early in the Second Seminole War
Second Seminole War
The Second Seminole War, also known as the Florida War, was a conflict from 1835 to 1842 in Florida between various groups of Native Americans collectively known as Seminoles and the United States, part of a series of conflicts called the Seminole Wars...

. The railroad was completed from Fernandina to Gainesville in 1859, passing six blocks south of the courthouse.

A false but nonetheless popular legend, which has been repeated in some books, holds that Gainesville was originally named Hogtown; however, Hogtown
Hogtown, Florida
Hogtown was a 19th century settlement in and around what is now Westside Park in Gainesville, Florida, USA where a historical marker...

 was actually an early 19th century settlement in and around what is now Westside Park (in the northeast corner of the intersection of NW 8th Avenue and 34th Street) where a historical marker
Historical marker
A historical marker or historic marker is an indicator such as a plaque or sign to commemorate an event or person of historic interest and to associate that point of interest with a specific locale one can visit.-Description:...



notes Hogtown's location at that site. Hogtown is the eponymous village of the adjacent Hogtown Creek which flows 5.7 miles through the City of Gainesville. Hogtown continued to exist until after Gainesville was founded as evidenced on a map showing both towns which was published in 1864 based on surveys from 1855. Two residents of Hogtown played a prominent role in establishing Gainesville. William Lewis, who owned a plantation in Hogtown, delivered 20 votes pledged to him to create a new town on the expected route of the railroad, in an attempt to have the new town named Lewisville. Tillman Ingram, who also owned a plantation and a sawmill in Hogtown, helped swing the vote to move the county seat to the new town by offering to build a new courthouse at a low price. Residents of Newnansville, disgruntled at losing the county seat, called the site chosen for the new town "Hog Wallow", because of its location between Hogtown and Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie is a Florida State Park, encompassing a savanna south of Gainesville, Florida, in Micanopy. It is also a U.S. National Natural Landmark. It is crossed by both I-75 and U.S. 441 .- History :...

. The former site of Hogtown was annexed by the City of Gainesville in 1961.

A town site of 103.25 acres (41.8 ha) was purchased for $642.51. The County Commission ordered the public sale of lots in the town site in 1854, but no deeds were recorded until 1856. A courthouse was constructed in Gainesville in 1856, and the county seat was then officially moved from Newnansville. A jail was built in 1857, and a well was dug and a pump for public use installed the same year. Property values rose quickly. A city block on the edge of town purchased for $14.57 in 1857 sold for $100 in 1858. The railroad from Fernandina reached Gainesville in 1859, and connected to Cedar Key the next year. By that time, there were eight or nine stores and three hotels surrounding the courthouse square.

Secession and the Civil War

In the 1850s secession
Secession
Secession is the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or especially a political entity. Threats of secession also can be a strategy for achieving more limited goals.-Secession theory:...

ist sentiment was strong in Gainesville. Half of the white
White people
White people is a term which usually refers to human beings characterized, at least in part, by the light pigmentation of their skin...

 residents in Gainesville had been born in South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

 (where secessionist sentiments were very strong), or had parents who had been born in that state. Aside from a few foreign-born residents, the other whites in town had also been born in Southern states
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

. Another factor was fear of blacks
Black people
The term black people is used in systems of racial classification for humans of a dark skinned phenotype, relative to other racial groups.Different societies apply different criteria regarding who is classified as "black", and often social variables such as class, socio-economic status also plays a...

. Blacks, mostly slaves, were a majority of the population in Alachua County (although there were few in Gainesville itself). John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry
John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry was an attempt by white abolitionist John Brown to start an armed slave revolt by seizing a United States Arsenal at Harpers Ferry in Virginia in 1859...

 in 1859 frightened the whites in Gainesville, leading them to organize a militia
Militia
The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary citizens to provide defense, emergency law enforcement, or paramilitary service, in times of emergency without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. It is a polyseme with...

 company
Company (military unit)
A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 80–225 soldiers and usually commanded by a Captain, Major or Commandant. Most companies are formed of three to five platoons although the exact number may vary by country, unit type, and structure...

 called the Gainesville Minute Men.

The Gainesville Minute Men were incorporated into the First Florida Regiment soon after Florida seceded from the Union
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Several more companies were recruited in Gainesville and Alachua County during the Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. During the war Gainesville served as a depot for food requisitioned by the Confederate
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

 government from the surrounding area. A small post on the east side of Gainesville called Fort Lee was an induction point for men entering the Confederate States Army
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the army of the Confederate States of America while the Confederacy existed during the American Civil War. On February 8, 1861, delegates from the seven Deep South states which had already declared their secession from the United States of America adopted the...

.

Fighting on a small scale reached Gainesville twice. On February 15, 1864, a small Union
Union (American Civil War)
During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty free states and five border slave states. It was opposed by 11 southern slave states that had declared a secession to join together to form the...

 raiding party occupied Gainesville. Elements of the Second Florida Cavalry attempted to drive the union force from the town, but were defeated in a street battle. The raiding party was associated with a larger invasion of Florida that was defeated at the Battle of Olustee
Battle of Olustee
The Battle of Olustee or Battle of Ocean Pond was fought in Baker County, Florida on 20 February 1864, during the American Civil War. It was the largest battle fought in Florida during the war.-Background:In February 1864, Major General Quincy A...

 five days later. The Union troops did not seize or destroy any property on this raid, but did distribute food stores to the residents, who were suffering from shortages. Early in the morning of August 17, 1864, 265 Union troops and 15 "loyal Floridians" reached Gainesville. The troops stopped just east of town to prepare breakfast and care for their horses. A small home guard of 30 to 40 old men and boys attacked the Union camp, and were easily driven off. The Union troops then broke ranks and started looting the town. While the Union troops were scattered throughout the town a large number of Confederate troops were spotted approaching. The Union troops resisted the Confederate advance for an hour and a half, but were finally driven from Gainesville with heavy casualties.

After the Civil War

For several months following the civil war, the 3rd United States Colored Troops
United States Colored Troops
The United States Colored Troops were regiments of the United States Army during the American Civil War that were composed of African American soldiers. First recruited in 1863, by the end of the Civil War, the men of the 175 regiments of the USCT constituted approximately one-tenth of the Union...

 were stationed in Gainesville, which encouraged freed men to settle there. At the same time black farm laborers were recruited from Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

 and South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

 to help harvest what was expected to be a very large cotton crop, but heavy rain ruined the cotton, and the recently arrived blacks were left without work. Black residents soon outnumbered whites in Gainesville, which had had 223 white residents in 1860. Vagrancy and theft became major problems in Gainesville, and large numbers of blacks were arrested by Federal Troops.

White residents resumed political life in Florida immediately after the end of the Civil War. Gainesville incorporated as a city in 1866, but the city government was weak and the council did not maintain a regular schedule of meetings. With military control asserted over Florida in 1867 as part of Reconstruction, the reconstituted Florida legislature required all cities to re-incorporate, and Gainesville did so in 1869. During Reconstruction Gainesville blacks were elected to a number of state and local offices. Blacks had largely been disenfranchised by the 1890s, however.

Following the Civil War, the city prospered as an important cotton shipping facility. Florida produced more Sea Island Cotton
Gossypium barbadense
Gossypium barbadense, also known as extra long staple cotton as it generally has a staple of at least 1 3/8" or longer, is a species of cotton plant. Some types of ELS cotton are American Pima, Egyptian Giza, Indian Suvin, Chinese Xiniang, Sudanese Barakat, and Russian Tonkovoloknistyi...

 in the 1880s than any other state, and Gainesville was the leading shipping point for cotton in Florida. Two more railroads had reached Gainesville by the 1880s, and citrus
Citrus
Citrus is a common term and genus of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae. Citrus is believed to have originated in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeastern India, Myanmar and the Yunnan province of China...

 and vegetables had become important local crops. However, the citrus industry ended when the great freeze
Great Freeze
The Great Freeze refers to the winter of 1894-1895, especially in Florida where the brutally cold weather destroyed much of the nation's citrus crop. It was also known for wiping out the Royal Palm tree from central Florida.-Weather Records:...

s of 1894–95 and 1899 destroyed the crops, and citrus growing was largely abandoned in the area. Phosphate
Phosphate
A phosphate, an inorganic chemical, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry or ecology. Inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in...

 mining and lumbering became important parts of the local economy. A manufacturing area had grown up south of downtown, near the railroads.

The first school for blacks in Gainesville, the Union Academy, was established in 1866 by the Freedmen's Bureau
Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands
The Freedmen's Bureau, was a U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed freedmen in 1865–1869, during the Reconstruction era of the United States....

 to educate freed slaves. White residents of Gainesville were opposed to education for blacks, and treated the teachers at the school badly, including incidents of boys throwing "missiles" into the classrooms. By 1898 the school served 500 students, and it continued in operation until 1929. White students had only private schools available before 1869, including the East Florida Seminary, which moved from Ocala in 1866 and merged with the Gainesville Academy (founded in 1856). Even after a public school system had been established in Alachua County, most white children who went to school did so at private schools, and the Union Academy was in session for a larger part of the year, and its teachers were better paid, than was the case for the public schools. Public education remained underfunded into the 1880s, classes having to meet in abandoned houses or rented rooms. The school year for public schools was as short as three months for some years. The first public school building was built in 1885. The Gainesville Graded and High School, with twelve classrooms and an auditorium, opened in 1900, and most of the private schools closed soon after. The county school board also provided some funds for upkeep of the Union Academy.

There was no dedicated church building in Gainesville in the first years of its existence. A church built in 1859 by the Presbyterians was shared by itinerant preachers of several denominations until 1874. The Methodist mission to Gainesville lapsed during the Civil War, and a church they had built was used by a black congregation after the war. Several white protestant denominations organized congregations and built churches in the 1870s. Catholics, who had been holding services in private homes for 25 years, built a church in 1887. Jewish families began moving to Gainesville in the late 1860s. Although a Jewish cemetery was established in 1872, there was no synagogue in Gainesville until 1924.

Gainesville was a rough town after the Civil War, and into the early 20th century. Whites and blacks commonly carried firearms, and gunshots were often heard at night. Killings and serious injuries were frequent. Some of the violence was racial. Young Mens Democratic Clubs (usually a cover name for the Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically...

) formed in the late 1860s to fight political domination by Republican northerners and blacks reportedly burned the homes of many republicans and killed nineteen, including five blacks. A black man was taken from the jail and lynched in 1871. In 1891 a black man and a white man, members of a dreaded gang, were also taken from the jail and lynched. Later that year a black man accused of giving shelter to Harmon Murray, another member of that gang, was also taken from the jail and lynched. The city had only a single police officer until well into the 20th century, which was inadequate to deal with the violence. A posse authorized by the city council also did little to stem the violence. Punishments for crime included public executions, the pillory
Pillory
The pillory was a device made of a wooden or metal framework erected on a post, with holes for securing the head and hands, formerly used for punishment by public humiliation and often further physical abuse, sometimes lethal...

, lashes
Flagellation
Flagellation or flogging is the act of methodically beating or whipping the human body. Specialised implements for it include rods, switches, the cat o' nine tails and the sjambok...

 and fines.

A volunteer fire department was organized in 1882, but was unable to stop several fires in 1884 that burned most of the wooden buildings in downtown Gainesville. The burned buildings were replaced with brick structures. A brick courthouse replaced the old wooden one in 1885. Public utilities were gradually installed in the city late in the 19th century; gas in 1887, water in 1891, and telephones and electricity later in the 1890s. By 1900 Gainesville was the seventh largest city in Florida, with over 3,600 residents.

The Republican Party
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 remained strong in Gainesville even after the end of Reconstruction in 1876 because of the large number of blacks and Northern
Northern United States
Northern United States, also sometimes the North, may refer to:* A particular grouping of states or regions of the United States of America. The United States Census Bureau divides some of the northernmost United States into the Midwest Region and the Northeast Region...

 whites who have moved there after the Civil War. Some Southerners had also joined the Republican Party. Alachua county was one of the few counties in Florida that was won by the Republican Party in the election of 1880
United States presidential election, 1880
The United States presidential election of 1880 was largely seen as a referendum on the end of Reconstruction in Southern states carried out by the Republicans. There were no pressing issues of the day save tariffs, with the Republicans supporting higher tariffs and the Democrats supporting lower...

. In the 1880s Republicans and Democrats reached an accommodation. In the election of 1883 most city races were won by wide majorities, with both Republicans and Democrats, white and blacks, being elected. There was tension within the Republican Party between blacks and Northern whites, however. By 1885 the arrival of whites from northern states and the departure of blacks gave Gainesville a white majority. The imposition by the Florida Legislature in 1889 of a poll tax
Poll tax
A poll tax is a tax of a portioned, fixed amount per individual in accordance with the census . When a corvée is commuted for cash payment, in effect it becomes a poll tax...

 and a de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

literacy test
Literacy test
A literacy test, in the context of United States political history, refers to the government practice of testing the literacy of potential citizens at the federal level, and potential voters at the state level. The federal government first employed literacy tests as part of the immigration process...

 in the form of separate ballot boxes for each office, which required voters to be able to read labels on the boxes in order to vote correctly, effectively disenfranchised most blacks. Some blacks switched to the Democratic Party, further weakening the Republicans, and the Republican Party ceased to be a factor in Gainesville politics in the 1890s.

Twentieth century

Major change came to Gainesville early in the 20th century. Citizens felt that the city did not have sufficient resources and powers to provide the services demanded in a growing city. The state legislature was asked to grant Gainesville a new charter, and in 1905 it did so, also enlarging the city limits. The city offered its first bond issue the same year. Money from bond issues was used to start a sewer system and pave important streets, initially with crushed rock, and after 1910, with bricks. When private companies were unable to provide adequate electric service to Gainesville, the city built a generating plant, which became operational in 1914.

Another development in 1905 had a significant impact on the future of Gainesville. At the time, Florida was funding eight post-secondary schools
Tertiary education
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education, such as a high school, secondary school, university-preparatory school...

. Concerned about rising requests for funding and duplication of course offerings, the state legislature passed the Buckman Act, consolidating the eight institutions into four segreated schools, including, for white men, the University of the State of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 (renamed University of Florida in 1909). Gainesville competed for the university, with Lake City
Lake City, Florida
Lake City is the county seat of Columbia County, Florida, in the United States. In 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population at 12,614. In addition, it is the Principal City of the Lake City Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is composed of Columbia County, and had an...

 as its principal rival. Gainesville offered free water for the school from the city system, 500 acres west of the city, purchase of the East Florida Seminary site from the state for $30,000, and $40,000 cash. The fact that Alachua was a dry county
Dry county
A dry county is a county in the United States whose government forbids the sale of alcoholic beverages. Some prohibit off-premises sale, some prohibit on-premises sale, and some prohibit both. Hundreds of dry counties exist across the United States, almost all of them in the South...

, banning the sale of all alcohol other than low-alcohol beer, was viewed as a factor in favor of Gainesville. The state selected Gainesville, causing the biggest celebration in the history of the city.

The University opened with 136 students in the fall of 1906. For the first decade of the school's existence it was in a rural setting, connected to downtown Gainesville by a single crushed rock road. The school had to close its gates at night to keep wandering cows out. Buildings at the University were originally built with State funds, but in 1919 the city contributed $1,000 for a new gymnasium to help bring the New York Giants
San Francisco Giants
The San Francisco Giants are a Major League Baseball team based in San Francisco, California, playing in the National League West Division....

 to town for spring training
Spring training
In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, and gives existing team players practice time prior to competitive play...

. As the University grew, commercial establishments spread westward along University Avenue and new subdivisions were developed near the campus.

The city experienced growing pains in the first decades of the century. The city's only water supply had been Boulware Springs
Boulware Springs Water Works
The Boulware Springs Water Works is a historic site in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 3400 Southeast 15th Street. On June 20, 1985, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places...

 for many years, but the limits of its supply had been reached, and the city could no longer connect new subdivisions to city utilities. A bond issue was required to drill a well and build a water tower. A fire house was built in 1903, and the fire department was modernized, replacing its last horses with motorized equipment in 1913. However, the department remained a volunteer organization until the 1920s.

Gainesville's economy was still dominated by agriculture. Gainesville was a major shipping point for cotton until the industry was devastated by the boll weevil
Boll weevil
The boll weevil is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters, which feeds on cotton buds and flowers. Thought to be native to Central America, it migrated into the United States from Mexico in the late 19th century and had infested all U.S. cotton-growing areas by the 1920s,...

 infestation in 1916-18, after which cotton was abandoned as a crop in the area. Truck farming
Market garden
A market garden is the relatively small-scale production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as cash crops, frequently sold directly to consumers and restaurants. It is distinguishable from other types of farming by the diversity of crops grown on a small area of land, typically, from under one acre ...

 had become important in north central Florida, with large shipments of vegetables and melons from Gainesville to markets in the northern U. S. Phosphate mining continued to be important, although starting to decline, and industries such as processing naval stores
Naval stores
Naval Stores is a broad term which originally applied to the resin-based components used in building and maintaining wooden sailing ships, a category which includes cordage, mask, turpentine, rosin, pitch and tar...

 and making fertilizer thrived in Gainesville. World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 severely affected the economy in Gainesville. Markets in Europe, in particular Germany, were cut off by the war, and phosphate mining and the naval stores industry went into a slump, aggravated by the loss of cotton processing and shipping.

Boom and bust

Gainesville participated in the national economic boom that followed the end of World War I. In 1925, Gainesville was swept up by the land boom
Florida land boom of the 1920s
The Florida land boom of the 1920s was Florida's first real estate bubble, which burst in 1925, leaving behind entire new cities and the remains of failed development projects such as Aladdin City in south Miami-Dade County and Isola di Lolando in north Biscayne Bay...

 that had started in Miami Beach
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, incorporated on March 26, 1915. The municipality is located on a barrier island between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter which separates the Beach from Miami city proper...

 earlier in the year. New subdivisions were platted and auctioned, binders
Offer and acceptance
Offer and acceptance analysis is a traditional approach in contract law used to determine whether an agreement exists between two parties. Agreement consists of an offer by an indication of one person to another of the offeror's willingness to enter into a contract on certain terms without...

 on property were sold and resold with ever increasing prices, and almost 100 real estate brokers and agents
Real estate broker
A real estate broker, real estate agent or realtor is a party who acts as an intermediary between sellers and buyers of real estate/real property and attempts to find sellers who wish to sell and buyers who wish to buy...

 were registered in Gainesville on the first day licenses were required. Plans were floated to build a modern first-class hotel in Gainesville. After a false start in which the financing plans fell through, a developer from southern Florida who had become heavily involved in the real estate market in Gainesville, W. McKey Kelly, put forward plans for a ten-story, 120-room hotel. Construction on the Hotel Kelly, also known as the Dixie Hotel, started in 1926, but Kelly ran out of money before construction was completed, and the collapse of the land boom doomed the project. The unfinished hotel sat empty for more than a decade until a Federal grant and private donation allowed its completion as the Seagle Building.

Changes in city government occurred in the 1920s. The city changed its charter to add a city manager
City manager
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council-manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities...

. The police force was increased from three men to nine, and a desk sergeant was available to answer a telephone 24 hours a day. A county hospital opened in Gainesville in 1928. More streets were paved, using asphalt
Asphalt
Asphalt or , also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is present in most crude petroleums and in some natural deposits, it is a substance classed as a pitch...

 rather than bricks. Increasing demand for electricity led the city commission to consider contracting with Florida Power and Light rather than issuing bonds to expand the city generating capacity, but voters passed an amendment to the city charter forbidding any such deal. With a booming population, schools had become overcrowded. Gainesville High School was opened in 1926 and expanded two years later. The old Gainesville Graded and High School became an elementary school. Lincoln School, offering 12 grades for blacks, opened in 1923. It was the first public high school for blacks in Gainesville.

The Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan, often abbreviated KKK and informally known as the Klan, is the name of three distinct past and present far-right organizations in the United States, which have advocated extremist reactionary currents such as white supremacy, white nationalism, and anti-immigration, historically...

 became active in Gainesville in the early 1920s. As elsewhere, it was anti-black, anti-semitic, and anti-Catholic, and professed to uphold morality. In an early incident, a worker was kidnapped from his job late at night and beaten severely for neglecting his wife and children. A police officer had tried to intervene, but retreated when guns were drawn. City officials condoned the incident. Former mayor William Reuben Thomas
William Reuben Thomas
William Reuben Thomas was a politician and businessman from Gainesville, Florida.-Background:Thomas was a native of Gainesville, Florida. After graduating college he became a teacher at the East Florida Seminary...

 condemned the event and called for the mayor and police chief, who apparently were members of the Klan, to step down, to no avail. The Klan also objected to a Catholic priest who had organized a drama club at the University, and in 1923 Catholic priests were officially banned from all state college campuses. The next year three men in full Klan regalia kidnapped the priest from his rectory, beat him severely, and castrated him. The priest and another witness identified two of the kidnappers as the mayor and police chief of Gainesville, but there was no publicity and no investigation of the incident. In the 1930s the Klan took credit for burning down the houses of prostitution on North Main Street, ostensibly to protect the morals of the students at the University.

The collapse of the land boom in 1925-1926 had not been as severe in Gainesville as in southern Florida, but did cool off the local economy. As a result, the Wall Street Crash of 1929
Wall Street Crash of 1929
The Wall Street Crash of 1929 , also known as the Great Crash, and the Stock Market Crash of 1929, was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States, taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its fallout...

 was not felt as strongly as in many other places. The city of Gainesville remained solvent throughout the Depression
Great Depression in the United States
The Great Depression began with the Wall Street Crash of October, 1929 and rapidly spread worldwide. The market crash marked the beginning of a decade of high unemployment, poverty, low profits, deflation, plunging farm incomes, and lost opportunities for economic growth and personal advancement...

 and unemployment was lower than in most of the country. Agriculture continued to be a mainstay of the local economy. In 1922 tung tree
Tung tree
Vernicia fordii is a species of Vernicia in the spurge family, native to southern China, Burma, and northern Vietnam. Other vernacular names include Tung Oil Tree, Tung-oil Tree, Tungoil Tree, China Wood-Oil Tree, Kalo Nut Tree, 油桐 Vernicia fordii (Tung Tree; syn. Aleurites fordii Hemsl.) is a...

s were planted in Alachua County, and Gainesville became the center of tung oil
Tung oil
Tung oil or China wood oil is a drying oil obtained by pressing the seed from the nut of the tung tree . As a drying oil, tung oil hardens upon exposure to air. The resulting coating is transparent plastic-like and is exploited in most of its applications, which include wood finishing and the...

 production in the United States. Tung oil had previously been available only from China
China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

. Both tung oil and tung tree seeds were shipped around the world from Gainesville. The University of Florida, with about 1,000 employees and 2,000 students, helped stabilize the local economy during the Depression. In the middle and late 1930s various New Deal
New Deal
The New Deal was a series of economic programs implemented in the United States between 1933 and 1936. They were passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The programs were Roosevelt's responses to the Great Depression, and focused on what historians call...

 programs brought money and employment to Gainesville. Utility lines were extended, streets paved and sidewalks installed. The Seagle Building was completed and occupied by the University of Florida. An airport, Gainesville's first, was built.

World War II and after

World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 brought economic and population growth to Gainesville. Even before the United States entered the war, the opening of Camp Blanding
Camp Blanding
Camp Blanding Joint Training Center is the primary military reservation and training base for the Florida National Guard, both the Florida Army National Guard and certain non-flying activities of the Florida Air National Guard. The installation is located in Clay County, Florida near the city of...

 affected Gainesville, with soldiers on leave visiting the city, and officers renting housing for their families. The airport was improved and taken over by the Army Air Corps
United States Army Air Corps
The United States Army Air Corps was a forerunner of the United States Air Force. Renamed from the Air Service on 2 July 1926, it was part of the United States Army and the predecessor of the United States Army Air Forces , established in 1941...

 as the Alachua Army Airbase. Agriculture prospered and local industries received contracts for producing military supplies. Building construction also increased. The hospital was expanded with financial help from the Federal government. The university was used to train enlisted men, air cadets and officers.

The end of World War II brought even more growth to Gainesville. The G.I. Bill allowed war veterans to attend college, and enrollment at the University of Florida boomed. More than half of the approximately 9,000 students at the university in 1946-47 were veterans. Many of the veterans had families, straining housing availability in the city. The University became co-educational in 1947, with the admission of over 800 women. The population of Gainesville doubled from 1940 to 1950, with construction and employment at the university becoming more important in the city's economy. The city's power plant was inadequate for demand. The Federal government had required the city to buy electricity from private power companies rather than expand its own generating capacity during World War II. After the voters again rejected a proposal for the city to buy electric power wholesale, the city embarked on a major expansion of power generation. The water and sewer systems also were greatly expanded. The airport was returned to the city, and scheduled passenger flights started in 1950. The police department expanded from about 10 officers in the 1930s to 40 by 1950. Also in 1950, the old system of named streets was replaced by a quadrant system of numbered streets.

The rapid growth of Gainesville put a strain on the public schools. When residents voted down proposals to issue bonds for school construction, the school board acquired surplus barracks from army bases to use as temporary classroom. The newer residents helped to pass school bond issues beginning in the 1950s. The return of veterans to Gainesville and the growth of the university also began to influence politics in Gainesville. In the 1930s, land ownership in and around Gainesville, and with it political power, had become concentrated in fewer hands. Veterans returning to the city after World War II had difficulty entering financial and political inner circles. University faculty and staff had been well integrated into the community before the war, but the growth after the war brought in many faculty who were dissatisfied with the political status quo in Gainesville. To avert tensions with local politicians, J. Hillis Miller
J. Hillis Miller
Joseph Hillis Miller, Jr. is an American literary critic who has been heavily influenced by—and who has heavily influenced—deconstruction.- Early life and education :...

, President of the university from 1947 to 1953, barred university faculty and staff from participating in local politics.

During the 1960s, Gainesville became a center for college activism, and was described as then-professor Marshall Jones as "The Berkeley of the South". The city was the center of the Gainesville Eight
Gainesville Eight
The Gainesville Eight were a group of anti-Vietnam War activists indicted on charges of conspiracy to disrupt the 1972 Republican National Convention in Miami Beach, Florida. All eight defendants were acquitted....

 case in the 1970s, in which eight activists were accused of conspiracy to violently disrupt the 1972 Republican National Convention
1972 Republican National Convention
The 1972 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held from August 21 to August 23, 1972 at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida. It nominated the incumbents Richard M. Nixon of California for President and Spiro T. Agnew of Maryland for Vice...

 in Miami Beach
Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States, incorporated on March 26, 1915. The municipality is located on a barrier island between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter which separates the Beach from Miami city proper...

. After their acquittal, activism declined, but rose again during the mid-1980s, as the University of Florida became the state's focal point for anti-apartheid activism.

The city gained notoriety in 2010 and 2011 after local church Dove World Outreach Center
Dove World Outreach Center
Dove World Outreach Center is a 50 member non-denominational charismatic Christian church in Gainesville, Florida led by pastor Terry Jones and his wife, Sylvia. The church first gained notice during the late 2000s for its public displays and criticism of Islam and gays, and was designated as...

 began anti-sharia
Sharia
Sharia law, is the moral code and religious law of Islam. Sharia is derived from two primary sources of Islamic law: the precepts set forth in the Quran, and the example set by the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the Sunnah. Fiqh jurisprudence interprets and extends the application of sharia to...

 campaigns and the Dove World Quran-burning controversy.

Geography

Gainesville is located at 29°39'55" North, 82°20'10" West (29.665245, -82.336097), which is roughly the same latitude as Houston
Houston, Texas
Houston is the fourth-largest city in the United States, and the largest city in the state of Texas. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city had a population of 2.1 million people within an area of . Houston is the seat of Harris County and the economic center of , which is the ...

, Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

. According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has a total area of 49.1 square miles (127 km²), of which 48.2 square miles (125 km²) is land and 0.9 square miles (2 km²) is water. The total area is 1.87% water.

Gainesville's tree canopy is both dense and species rich, including broadleaf evergreens, conifers, and deciduous species; the city has been recognized by the Arbor Day Foundation every year since 1982 as a "Tree City, USA".

Gainesville is the only city with more than 10,000 residents in the Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area
The Gainesville, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan statistical area designated by the Office of Management and Budget and used for statistical purposes by the Census Bureau and other agencies. The metropolitan statistical area comprises Alachua and Gilchrist counties within...

 (Alachua and Gilchrist counties), and it is surrounded by rural area, including the 21000 acres (85 km²) wilderness of Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie
Paynes Prairie is a Florida State Park, encompassing a savanna south of Gainesville, Florida, in Micanopy. It is also a U.S. National Natural Landmark. It is crossed by both I-75 and U.S. 441 .- History :...

 on its southern edge. The city is characterized by its medium size, central location, about 90 minutes driving time from either Jacksonville
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the county seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968...

 or Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

 and five hours driving time from either Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

 or Miami. The area is dominated by the presence of the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

, which in 2008 had been the third largest university campus in the USA and as of Fall, 2010 is the sixth largest campus in the USA.

Climate

Gainesville's climate is defined as humid subtropical. Due to its inland location, Gainesville experiences wide temperature fluctuation for Florida. During the summer season, roughly from June 1 to September 30, the city's climate is similar to the rest of the state, with frequent afternoon thunderstorms and high humidity. Temperatures range from the low 70s at night to around 90 °F (32.2 °C) during the day on average. From October through May, however, the Gainesville area has a climate distinct from peninsular Florida with occasional freezing temperatures at night and sustained freezes occurring every few years. The all time record low of 10 °F (-12 °C) was reached on January 21, 1985, and the city was struck by a substantial snow and ice storm on Christmas Eve, 1989. Snow was also recorded in 1976, 1996 and again on December 26, 2010. In winter, highs average between 64 and 68 °F (18–20 °C), and lows average between 42 and 45 °F (6–7 °C). In average winters, Gainesville will see temperatures drop below 30 °F (-1 °C). Low temperatures between 10 and 20°F (-12 - -7 °C) are not unheard of, and occur 3 to 4 times per decade on average. In Gainesville, cold temperatures are almost always accompanied by clear skies and high pressure systems
High pressure area
A high-pressure area is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment. Winds within high-pressure areas flow outward due to the higher density air near their center and friction with land...

; snow is therefore rare.

The city's flora and fauna are also distinct from coastal regions of the state, and include many deciduous species, such as dogwood, maple, hickory and sweet gum, alongside palms, live oaks, and other evergreens. Thus, the city enjoys brief periods of fall color in late November and December (though hardly comparable to areas further north) and a noticeable and prolonged spring from late February through early April. This is a generally pleasant period, as colorful blooms of azalea and redbud complement a cloudless blue sky, for this is also the period of low precipitation and lowest humidity. The city averages 48.36 inches (1,228 mm) of precipitation per year. Summer is the wettest season, with 19.51 inches (496 mm), while fall is the driest season, with only 9.04 inches (230 mm) of precipitation.

Cityscape

Suburban sprawl is a concern of the city commissioners. However, the "New Urbanization" plan to gentrify the area between historic Downtown and the University of Florida may slow the growth of suburban sectors and spark a migration toward upper-level apartments in the inner city. The area immediately north of the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 is also seeing active redevelopment.

The east side of Gainesville houses the majority of the African-American community within the city, while the west side consists of the mainly white student and resident population. There are also large-scale planned communities on the far west side, most notably Haile Plantation
Haile Plantation, Florida
Haile Plantation, an unincorporated community and New Urbanism planned development, is a 2,600 household development of regional impact southwest of the city of Gainesville, within Alachua County, Florida, United States...

, which was built on the site of a former plantation.

The destruction of the city's landmark Victorian
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

 courthouse in the 1960s, which some considered unnecessary, brought the idea of historic preservation to the attention of the community. The bland county building which replaced the grand courthouse became known to some locals as the "air conditioner." Additional destruction of other historic buildings in the downtown followed. Only a small handful of older buildings are left, like the Hippodrome State Theatre
Hippodrome State Theatre
The Hippodrome State Theatre is a regional professional theatre in downtown Gainesville, Florida, United States. It was founded in 1972 by local actors. The address is 25 Southeast 2nd Place....

, at one time a Federal building. Revitalization of the city's core has picked up, and many parking lots and underutilized buildings are being replaced with infill development and near-campus housing which blend in with existing historic structures. There is a proposal to rebuild a replica of the old courthouse on a parking lot one block from the original location.

Helping in this effort are the number of areas and buildings which have been added to the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

. Dozens of examples of restored Victorian and Queen Anne style
Queen Anne Style architecture
The Queen Anne Style in Britain means either the English Baroque architectural style roughly of the reign of Queen Anne , or a revived form that was popular in the last quarter of the 19th century and the early decades of the 20th century...

 residences constructed in the city's agricultural heyday of the 1880s and 1890s can be found in the following districts:
  • Northeast Gainesville Residential District
    Northeast Gainesville Residential District
    The Northeast Gainesville Residential District is a U.S. historic district located in Gainesville, Florida. It encompasses approximately , bounded by 1st, and 9th Streets, 10th and East University Avenues. It contains 229 historic buildings.-External links:* *...

  • Southeast Gainesville Residential District
    Southeast Gainesville Residential District
    The Southeast Gainesville Residential District is a U.S. historic district located in Gainesville, Florida. It encompasses approximately , bounded by East University Avenue, Southeast Ninth Street, Southeast Fifth Avenue, and Sweetwater Branch. It contains 94 historic buildings.-External links:* *...

  • Pleasant Street Historic District


Additionally, the University of Florida Campus Historic District
University of Florida Campus Historic District
The University of Florida Campus Historic District is a historic district on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. The district, bounded by West University Avenue, Southwest 13th Street, Stadium Road and North-South Drive, encompasses approximately and contains 11 listed...

, consisting of eleven buildings, plus an additional fourteen contributing properties, lie within the boundaries of the city. Most of the buildings in the Campus Historic District are constructed in variations of Collegiate Gothic architecture, which returned to prominence in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Historic structures on the Register in and around downtown are:
  • Bailey Plantation House
    Bailey House (Gainesville, Florida)
    The Maj. James B. Bailey House is a historic home in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 1121 Northwest 6th Street. On December 5, 1972, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places....

     (1854)
  • Colson House (1905)
  • Matheson House
    Matheson House (Gainesville, Florida)
    The Matheson House is a historic building in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 528 Southeast 1st Avenue. It was the home of eight-term mayor Chris Matheson, who was also a state legislator. The building is now part of the Matheson Museum, which recounts the history of Alachua...

     (1867)
  • Thomas Hotel
    Hotel Thomas
    The Hotel Thomas, also known as Sunkist Villa but currently known as the Thomas Center, is an historic building in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located on the block bounded by Northeast 2nd and 5th Streets and Northeast 6th and 7th Avenues...

     (1919)
  • The Old Post Office (now the Hippodrome State Theatre
    Hippodrome State Theatre
    The Hippodrome State Theatre is a regional professional theatre in downtown Gainesville, Florida, United States. It was founded in 1972 by local actors. The address is 25 Southeast 2nd Place....

    ) (1913)
  • Masonic Temple
    Masonic Order Lodge No. 41 (Gainesville, Florida)
    The Masonic Temple in Gainesville, Florida is a historic Masonic building, located at 215 North Main Street. It was constructed by Gainesville Masonic Lodge No. 41 in 1908.On May 29, 1998, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places....

     (1913)
  • Seagle Building
    Dixie Hotel (Gainesville, Florida)
    The John F. Seagle Building is a historic building located at 408 West University Avenue in Gainesville, Florida, in the United States. Built in 1926, it was designed by noted University of Florida architect and professor Rudolph Weaver and built by G...

     (1937), downtown Gainesville's tallest building.
  • Baird Hardware Company Warehouse
    Baird Hardware Company Warehouse
    The Baird Hardware Company Warehouse is a historic building in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 619 South Main Street. On November 25, 1985, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.-External links:* at * at * at * at...

     (1910)
  • Cox Furniture Store
    Cox Furniture Store
    The Cox Furniture Store is a historic site in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 19 Southeast First Avenue. On June 10, 1994, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.-External links:* at * at * at...

     (1887)
  • Cox Furniture Warehouse
    Cox Furniture Warehouse
    The Cox Furniture Warehouse is a historic site in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 602 South Main Street. On June 10, 1994, it was added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places.-External links:* at * at * at...

     (c. 1890)
  • Epworth Hall (1884)
  • Old Gainesville Depot
    Old Gainesville Depot
    The Old Gainesville Depot is a historic site at 203 Southeast Depot Avenue in Gainesville, Florida. It was originally built in 1907, and added to the U.S. National Register of Historic Places on November 22, 1996...

     (1850s)
  • Mary Phifer McKenzie House
    Mary Phifer McKenzie House
    The Mary Phifer McKenzie House is an historic house located at 617 East University Avenue in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is now the Sweetwater Branch Inn Bed and Breakfast. On April 26, 1982, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places.-External links:* at * at * ** ** *...

     (1895)
  • Star Garage
    Star Garage
    The Star Garage is a U.S. historic building in Gainesville, Florida. It is located at 119 Southeast 1st Avenue. On December 17, 1985, it was added to the U.S...

     (1903)

Demographics

Gainesville Demographics
2010 Census
United States Census, 2010
The Twenty-third United States Census, known as Census 2010 or the 2010 Census, is the current national census of the United States. National Census Day was April 1, 2010 and is the reference date used in enumerating individuals...

Gainesville Alachua County Florida
Total population 124,354 247,336 18,801,310
Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010
30.3% 13.5% 17.6%
Population density 2,028.5/sq mi 282.7/sq mi 350.6/sq mi
White (including White Hispanic) 64.9% 69.6% 75.0%
(Non-Hispanic White
Non-Hispanic Whites
Non-Hispanic Whites or White, Not Hispanic or Latino are people in the United States, as defined by the Census Bureau, who are of the White race and are not of Hispanic or Latino origin/ethnicity. Hence the designation is exclusive in the sense that it defines who is not included as opposed to who is...

)
57.8% 63.7% 57.9%
Black or African-American 23.0% 20.3% 16.0%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 10.0% 8.4% 22.5%
Asian 6.9% 5.4% 2.4%
Native American or Native Alaskan 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian 0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial)
Multiracial American
Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

2.9% 2.6% 2.5%
Some Other Race 1.9% 1.7% 3.6%


In 2010, there were 57,576 households out of which 11.4% were vacant, In 2000, 22.3% of households had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.5% are married couples living together, 13.3% have a female householder with no husband present, and 50.8% are non-families. 32.6% of all households are made up of individuals and 7.9% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 2.25 and the average family size is 2.90.

In 2000, the city's population is spread out with 17.8% under the age of 18, 29.4% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 16.4% from 45 to 64, and 9.8% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 26 years. For every 100 females there are 95.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 94.2 males.

As of 2000, the median income for a household in the city is $28,164, and the median income for a family is $44,263. Males have a median income of $31,090 versus $25,653 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city is $16,779. 26.7% of the population and 15.3% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 24.7% of those under the age of 18 and 9.5% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line, making Gainesville one of the poorest cities with a large public university.

Languages

As of 2000, 87.10% of residents spoke English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 as their first language
First language
A first language is the language a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity...

, while 6.31% spoke Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

, 1.28% spoke Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

, 0.55% spoke French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

, 0.52% spoke Korean
Korean language
Korean is the official language of the country Korea, in both South and North. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in People's Republic of China. There are about 78 million Korean speakers worldwide. In the 15th century, a national writing...

, and 0.50% spoke German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 as their mother tongue. In total, 12.89% of the total population spoke languages other than English.

Economy

Numerous guides such as the 2004 book Cities Ranked and Rated: More than 400 Metropolitan Areas Evaluated in the U.S. and Canada have mentioned Gainesville's low cost of living. The restaurants near the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 also tend to be inexpensive. The property taxes are high to offset the cost of the university, as the university's land is tax-exempt. However, the median home cost remains slightly below the national average, and Gainesville residents, like all Floridians, do not pay state income taxes.

This city's job market scored only 6 points out of a possible 100 in the Cities Ranked and Rated guide, as the downside to the low cost of living is an extremely weak local job market that is oversupplied with college-educated residents. The University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

, the Shands
Shands at the University of Florida
Shands at the University of Florida is a teaching hospital at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida and Jacksonville, Florida and is two of many hospitals in the Shands HealthCare system.-History:...

 Healthcare system (a private-public-university partnership), and the city government are the largest employers in the city, although other large employers include Nationwide Insurance and CH2M Hill
CH2M Hill
CH2M Hill is an American-based global provider of engineering, construction, and operations services for corporations, nonprofits, and federal, state, and local governments. The firm is headquartered in Meridian, an unincorporated area of Douglas County, Colorado in the Denver-Aurora Metropolitan...

. The median income
Median household income
The median household income is commonly used to generate data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more...

 in Gainesville is slightly below the U.S. average.

The city of Gainesville promotes solar power
Solar power
Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. Solar radiation, along with secondary solar-powered resources such as wind and wave power, hydroelectricity and biomass, account for most of the available...

 by allowing small businesses and homeowners to supply electricity into the municipal power grid under favorable tariff. Presently purchasing rate is set at $0.32 per kilowatt-hour.
The sports drink Gatorade
Gatorade
Gatorade is a brand of sports-themed food and beverage products, built around its signature product: a line of sports drinks. Gatorade is currently manufactured by PepsiCo, distributed in over 80 countries...

 was invented in Gainesville in the 1960s as a means of refreshing the UF football team. UF still receives a share of the profits from the beverage. However, Gatorade's headquarters are now located in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, Illinois
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

.

Education

All of the Gainesville urban area is served by Alachua County Public Schools, which has some 75 different institutions in the county, most of which are in the Gainesville area. Gainesville is also home to the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 and Santa Fe College. The University of Florida is a major financial boost to the community, and hundreds of thousands of dollars in additional revenues are created by the athletic events that occur at UF, including SEC football games. In all the University of Florida contributes nearly $9 billion annually to Florida's economy and is responsible for more than 100,000 jobs.

Other educational institutions include: City College
City College (Florida)
City College is a private coeducational four-year college located in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. The school was founded in 1984 as a branch of Draughons Junior College, before becoming a separate school in 1989. In addition to its main campus, City College has two branch campuses in Gainesville and...

 (Gainesville campus), Oak Hall School
Oak Hall High School
Oak Hall School is an independent, college-preparatory school in Gainesville, Florida that serves over 750 students in grades pre-k through 12. Students are admitted to Oak Hall on the basis of previous academic record, recommendations and an admission test with a writing sample...

, and Saint Francis Catholic High School
St. Francis High School (Gainesville, Florida)
St. Francis Catholic High School is a private, Roman Catholic high school in Gainesville, Florida. It is located in the Roman Catholic Diocese of St. Augustine.-Background:...

.

The Alachua County Library District
Alachua County Library District
The Alachua County Library District provides public library service to more than 230,000 people in the city of Gainesville, Florida and also serves eight municipalities of Alachua County. It is made up of a Headquarters Library located in downtown Gainesville, nine branch locations distributed...

 provides public library service to a county-wide population of approximately 190,655. The Library District has reciprocal borrowing agreements with the surrounding counties of Baker
Baker County, Florida
Baker County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 22,259. The U.S. Census Bureau 2008 estimate for the county is 26,164 . Its county seat is Macclenny, Florida. While primarily rural, the county is included in the Jacksonville Metropolitan Area.-...

, Bradford
Bradford County, Florida
Bradford County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 26,088. The 2005 U.S. Census Bureau estimate for the county was 28,118 . Its county seat is Starke, Florida. Bradford County is the home of the Florida State Prison as well as several other state...

, Clay
Clay County, Florida
Clay County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 190,895. Its county seat is Green Cove Springs, Florida. Clay County is part of the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan area.- History :...

, Columbia
Columbia County, Florida
Columbia County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 56,513. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 64,040 . Its county seat is Lake City, Florida....

, Dixie, Gilchrist
Gilchrist County, Florida
Gilchrist County is a rural county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 14,437. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 16,402. Gilchrist County has only one traffic light in the entire county and has no road with more than one lane of traffic...

, Lafayette
Lafayette County, Florida
Lafayette County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 7,022. It is the second least populated county in the state, having one more resident, according to the 2000 census, than Liberty County, Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is...

, Levy
Levy County, Florida
Levy County is a county located in the state of Florida. As of 2000, the population was 34,450. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county is 37,998. Its county seat is Bronson, Florida. Levy is pronounced lee vee.- History :...

, Marion
Marion County, Florida
Marion County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2006 estimate for the county is 316,183. Its county seat is Ocala....

, Putnam
Putnam County, Florida
Putnam County is a county located in the state of Florida. The entire county makes up the Palatka Micropolitan Statistical Area. As of 2000, the population was 70,423. The U.S. Census Bureau 2009 estimate for the county was 72,893 . Its county seat is Palatka, Florida. The county is centrally...

, and Union
Union County, Florida
Union County is a county located in the state of Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2005 estimate for the county was 14,916. The county seat is Lake Butler.- History :...

. These agreements are designed to facilitate access to the most conveniently located library facility regardless of an individual's county of residence.

Transportation

Gainesville has an extensive road system, which is served by Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

, and several Florida State Routes
State Roads in Florida
Roads maintained by the Florida Department of Transportation or a toll authority are referred to officially as State Roads, abbreviated SR. State Roads are always numbered; in general, the numbers follow a grid. Odd numbered roads run north-south, and even numbered roads run east-west...

, including State routes 20
State Road 20 (Florida)
State Road 20 is an east–west route across northern Florida and the Florida Panhandle.-Route description:The western terminus of State Road 20 is at State Road 85 in Niceville. The route proceeds east through Blountstown, crossing the Apalachicola River on the Trammell Bridge, then proceeding...

, 24
State Road 24 (Florida)
County Road 24B is a short county road spur of SR 24 in Bronson. It travels west of SR 24 to U.S. Highway 27 Alternate and is known locally as Picnic Street.-External links:**...

, and 26
State Road 26 (Florida)
-Route description:The western terminus of SR 26 is at US 19/98/27 Alternate in Fanning Springs, near the Gilchrist/Levy county line. The route proceeds east through Trenton where it is names West Wade Street and East Wade Street, then into Alachua County and Newberry as West Newberry Road, until...

, among others. Gainesville is also served by US 441
U.S. Route 441 in Florida
U.S. Route 441 in Florida is a north–south United States Highway. It runs from Miami in South Florida northwest to the Georgia border north of the Lake City area....

 and nearby US 301
U.S. Route 301 in Florida
U.S. Route 301 in Florida runs from the Sarasota-Bradenton-Venice, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area northeast to the Greater Jacksonville Metropolitan Area. The road is a spur of U.S...

, which gives a direct route to Jacksonville
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the county seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968...

, Ocala
Ocala, Florida
Ocala is a city in Marion County, Florida. As of 2007, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau was 53,491. It is the county seat of Marion County, and the principal city of the Ocala, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had an estimated 2007 population of 324,857.-History:Ocala...

, and Orlando
Orlando, Florida
Orlando is a city in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida. It is the county seat of Orange County, and the center of the Greater Orlando metropolitan area. According to the 2010 US Census, the city had a population of 238,300, making Orlando the 79th largest city in the United States...

.

The city's streets are set up on a grid system with four quadrants (NW, NE, SW and SE). All streets are numbered, except for a few major thoroughfares which are often named for the towns to which they lead (such as Waldo
Waldo, Florida
Waldo is a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. The population was 821 at the 2000 census. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2004 estimates, the city had a population of 784....

 Road (SR 24), Hawthorne
Hawthorne, Florida
Hawthorne is a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. The population was 1,417 at the 2010 census.-Geography:Hawthorne is located at .According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of...

 Road (SR 20), Williston
Williston, Florida
Williston is a city in Levy County, Florida, United States. The population was 2,297 at the 2000 census. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2004 estimates, the city had a population of 2,467.-Geography:Williston is located at ....

 Road (SR 121), Archer
Archer, Florida
Archer is a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau estimates of 2006, the city had a population of 1,302.The city is named after James T. Archer.-Geography:Archer is located at...

 Road (also SR 24) and Newberry
Newberry, Florida
Newberry is a city located on the west side of Alachua County, Florida, United States. The population was 3,316 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population estimated by the U.S. Census Bureau is 3,630 . Much of the city borders the neighboring Gilchrist County to the west...

 Road (SR 26). Streets ending in the suffixes Avenue, Place, Road or Lane (often remembered by use of the acronym "APRiL") run generally east-west, while all other streets run generally north-south.

Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach
Amtrak Thruway Motorcoach
Thruway Motorcoach is Amtrak's system of Amtrak-owned intercity coaches, locally contracted transit buses, through-ticketed local bus routes and taxi services to connect Amtrak train stations to areas not served by its railroads...

 buses connect with Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville (Amtrak station)
Jacksonville Amtrak station is a passenger train station in Jacksonville, Florida, United States. It is served by Amtrak's Silver Meteor, Silver Star, and Thruway Motorcoach to Lakeland...

, to the north and Lakeland, Florida (to/from points south, LKL)
Lakeland (Amtrak station)
The Lakeland Amtrak station is a train station in Lakeland, Florida, United States served by Amtrak, the national railroad passenger system. Lakeland is unique in that it has two separate Amtrak station codes; one for passengers traveling to points north and the other for passengers traveling...

, to the south. Buses arrive/depart stations to connect with the Amtrak Silver Service. Amtrak train service is available at Palatka, Florida
Palatka (Amtrak station)
The Palatka Amtrak station is a historic Atlantic Coast Line Railroad depot in Palatka, Florida. It is located at 220 North Eleventh Street, on the corner of US 17-FL 100. It opened in 1909 and originally served as a junction with Florida Southern Railway, Georgia Southern and Florida Railroad and...

, 32 miles (51 km) to the east.

At one time, Gainesville had railroad lines extending in six directions from the community and was served by several depots, the earliest route constructed reaching the town in 1859. As traffic and business patterns changed, the less heavily used railroads were abandoned beginning in 1943, and some routes realigned, with the last trains running in the middle of Main Street in 1948. By the 1980s, the only freight operator into the city was the Seaboard System, (formerly the Seaboard Coast Line Railroad
Seaboard Coast Line Railroad
The Seaboard Coast Line Railroad was a former Class I railroad company operating in the Southeastern United States beginning in 1967. Its passenger operations were taken over by Amtrak in 1971...

, now merged into CSX
CSX Transportation
CSX Transportation operates a Class I railroad in the United States known as the CSX Railroad. It is the main subsidiary of the CSX Corporation. The company is headquartered in Jacksonville, Florida, and owns approximately 21,000 route miles...

). Passenger service into Gainesville had ended by the time of Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

's 1971 creation. In 1984, the last freight trackage was removed as the Seaboard abandoned the branch through Gainesville to Hawthorne due to light customer traffic on the line.

In addition to its extensive road network, Gainesville is also served by Gainesville Regional Transit System
Gainesville Regional Transit System
Gainesville Regional Transit System is the local area transit corporation that serves the Gainesville, Alachua County, Florida area and the University of Florida campus. It presently serves 25 city routes , nine campus routes, and three "Later Gator" routes...

, or RTS, which is the fourth largest mass transit system in the state. The area is also served by Gainesville Regional Airport
Gainesville Regional Airport
Gainesville Regional Airport is a public airport located three miles northeast of the central business district of Gainesville, a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. The airport is owned by the City of Gainesville, FL and operated by the Gainesville-Alachua County Regional Airport...

 in the northeast part of the city, with daily service to Atlanta
Atlanta, Georgia
Atlanta is the capital and most populous city in the U.S. state of Georgia. According to the 2010 census, Atlanta's population is 420,003. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, which is home to 5,268,860 people and is the ninth largest metropolitan area in...

, Miami
Miami, Florida
Miami is a city located on the Atlantic coast in southeastern Florida and the county seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida and the eighth-most populous county in the United States with a population of 2,500,625...

 and Charlotte
Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte is the largest city in the U.S. state of North Carolina and the seat of Mecklenburg County. In 2010, Charlotte's population according to the US Census Bureau was 731,424, making it the 17th largest city in the United States based on population. The Charlotte metropolitan area had a 2009...

.

According to the 2000 Census, 5.25 percent of Gainesville residents commute to work by bike, among the highest figures in the nation for a major population center.

Culture

Gainesville is known as a supporter of the visual arts. Each year, two large art festivals attract artists and visitors from all over the southeastern United States.

Cultural facilities include the Florida Museum of Natural History
Florida Museum of Natural History
The Florida Museum of Natural History is the State of Florida's official state-sponsored and chartered natural history museum. Its main facilities are located on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida....

, Harn Museum of Art
Harn Museum of Art
The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art is an art museum at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. It is in the UF Cultural Plaza area in the southwest part of campus....

, the Hippodrome State Theatre
Hippodrome State Theatre
The Hippodrome State Theatre is a regional professional theatre in downtown Gainesville, Florida, United States. It was founded in 1972 by local actors. The address is 25 Southeast 2nd Place....

, and the Curtis M. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts
Curtis M. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts
The Curtis M. Phillips Center for the Performing Arts is a performing arts theatre in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located on the western side of the University of Florida campus. This facility presents the some of the most established and emerging national and international artists...

. Smaller theaters include the Acrosstown Repertory Theatre (ART) and the Gainesville Community Playhouse (GCP). GCP is the oldest community theater group in Florida; in 2006, it christened a new theater building.

The presence of a major university enhances the city's opportunities for cultural lifestyles. The University of Florida College of Fine Arts is the umbrella college for the School of Music, School of Theatre and Dance, School of Art and Art History, and a number of other programs and centers including The University Galleries, the Center for World Art, and Digital Worlds. Collectively, the College offers many performance events and artist/lecture opportunities for students and the greater Gainesville community, the majority of which are offered at little or no cost.

Since 1989, Gainesville has been home to Theatre Strike Force
Theatre Strike Force
Theatre Strike Force is the University of Florida's premier improv and sketch comedy troupe. The style of improv performed by Theatre Strike Force is primarily short form, however several outlets for long form improvisation exist within the group...

, the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

's premier improv troupe
Improvisational theatre
Improvisational theatre takes many forms. It is best known as improv or impro, which is often comedic, and sometimes poignant or dramatic. In this popular, often topical art form improvisational actors/improvisers use improvisational acting techniques to perform spontaneously...

. In addition Gainesville also plays host to several sketch comedy
Sketch comedy
A sketch comedy consists of a series of short comedy scenes or vignettes, called "sketches," commonly between one and ten minutes long. Such sketches are performed by a group of comic actors or comedians, either on stage or through an audio and/or visual medium such as broadcasting...

 troupes and stand-up comedians
Stand-up comedy
Stand-up comedy is a comedic art form. Usually, a comedian performs in front of a live audience, speaking directly to them. Their performances are sometimes filmed for later release via DVD, the internet, and television...

.

In April 2003, Gainesville became known as the "Healthiest Community in America" when it achieved the only "Gold Well City" award given by the Wellness Councils of America (WELCOA). Headed up by Gainesville Health & Fitness Centers, and with the support of Shands HealthCare
Shands HealthCare
Shands HealthCare is a medical network in north-central Florida, named in 2007 to the U.S. News & World Report list of the nation's top 50 hospitals.-History:William A. Shands was a Florida state Senator, elected from the 32nd District in the mid-1940s...

 and the Gainesville-area Chamber of Commerce
Chamber of commerce
A chamber of commerce is a form of business network, e.g., a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community...

, 21 businesses comprising 60 percent of the city’s workforce became involved in the "Gold Well City" effort. As of July 2011, Gainesville remained the only city in the country to reach the achievement.

The counties surrounding Alachua County
Alachua County, Florida
Alachua County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2006 estimate for the county is 227,120. Its county seat is Gainesville, Florida. Alachua County is the home of the University of Florida and is also known for its diverse culture, local music, and artisans...

 vote strongly Republican, while Alachua County votes strongly Democratic. In the 2008 election, there was a 22% gap in votes in Alachua county between Barack Obama
Barack Obama
Barack Hussein Obama II is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama previously served as a United States Senator from Illinois, from January 2005 until he resigned following his victory in the 2008 presidential election.Born in...

 and John McCain
John McCain
John Sidney McCain III is the senior United States Senator from Arizona. He was the Republican nominee for president in the 2008 United States election....

, while the remaining eleven candidates on the ballot and write-in votes received approximately 1.46% of the vote.

Homelessness

The National Coalition for the Homeless cited Gainesville as the 5th meanest city in the USA for the city's criminalization of homelessness in the Coalition's two most recent reports (in 2004 and 2009), the latter time for its meal limit ordinance. Gainesville has a number of ordinances that target the homeless, including an anti-panhandling measure, restrictions on feeding free meals to the hungry, and a measure illegalizing sleeping outdoors on public property. In 2005, the Alachua Board of County Commissioners and the Gainesville City Commission responded by issuing a written "Ten Year Plan to End Homelessness"; however, the plan has never been implemented and in 2010 "A Needs Assessment of Unsheltered Homeless Individuals In Gainesville, Florida" was presented to a joint meeting of Gainesville and Alachua County Commissions.

Meal limit

Restrictions on feeding the hungry have recently brought infamy to Gainesville when a documentary
Documentary
A documentary is a creative work of non-fiction, including:* Documentary film, including television* Radio documentary* Documentary photographyRelated terms include:...

 on the matter, "Civil Indigent" won several awards. A restriction of 130 meals at any site being served to the hungry had for 18 years been an unenforced ordinance until March 2009, when a downtown developer presented data to the City Plan Board (residents appointed by the City Commission to advise the Commission on planning issues) showing that a downtown soup kitchen distributed significantly more meals than the legal limit, which resulted in a strict enforcement of the meal limit ordinance Outrage has engendered much activism, including the founding of the "Coalition to End the Meal Limit NOW!" which organizes protests against, and publishes data about, the meal limit, the gathering of 13,060 signatures by an online petition to repeal meal limit, protesters picketing the Mayor's State of the City Address and picketing developers who lobby City Hall to keep a meal limit on soup kitchens, and groups including the Democratic Party of Alachua County urging the lifting of the meal limit. In 2009, the City Plan Board unanimously recommended to the Gainesville City Commission the 130-meals-per-day limit be lifted and in March, 2011 the City Plan Board again voted unanimously to recommend removing the limit; in March 2011 a downtown developer, contrariwise, asked the City Commission to decrease the number of meals that may be served.
The Gainesville City Commission unanimously voted to repeal the meal limit on August 18, 2011, proposing to replace it with a three hour serving window as a compromise. Once the city attorney drafts a new ordinance, two more votes are needed for the change to take effect.

Marijuana

Gainesville is renowned in the recreational drug culture for "Gainesville Green", a particularly potent strain of marijuana
Cannabis (drug)
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among many other names, refers to any number of preparations of the Cannabis plant intended for use as a psychoactive drug or for medicinal purposes. The English term marijuana comes from the Mexican Spanish word marihuana...

. Orange and Blue magazine published a full-length article in Fall of 2003 about the history of Gainesville Green and the local marijuana culture in general. In the mid-1990s, there were several Gainesville Hemp Festivals which took place outside of the Alachua county
Alachua County, Florida
Alachua County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. The U.S. Census Bureau 2006 estimate for the county is 227,120. Its county seat is Gainesville, Florida. Alachua County is the home of the University of Florida and is also known for its diverse culture, local music, and artisans...

 courthouse.

Music scene

Gainesville is traditionally well-known for its music scene and has spawned a number of bands and musicians including Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers
Tom Petty And The Heartbreakers are an American rock band from Gainesville, Florida. They were formed in 1976 by Tom Petty , Mike Campbell , Benmont Tench , , Ron Blair and Stan Lynch...

, Steven Stills, Don Felder
Don Felder
Donald William "Don" Felder is an American musician and songwriter, best known for his work as lead guitarist for the Eagles from 1974 to 1980 and again from 1994 to 2001.-Early life and influences:...

 and Bernie Leadon
Bernie Leadon
Bernard Mathew "Bernie" Leadon, III is an American musician and songwriter, best known as a founding member of the Eagles. Prior to the Eagles, he was a member of two pioneering and highly influential country rock bands, Dillard & Clark and the Flying Burrito Brothers...

 of The Eagles, The Motels
The Motels
The Motels are a New Wave music band from the Los Angeles area best known for "Only the Lonely" and "Suddenly Last Summer", each of which peaked at number nine on the Billboard Hot 100 in 1982 and 1983, respectively. Their song "Total Control" reached #4 on the Australian charts in 1980...

, Against Me!
Against Me!
Against Me! is an American punk rock band formed in 1997 in Naples, Florida and relocated to Gainesville, Florida in 1999. Their first full-length album, released on No Idea Records in 2002, was Against Me! Is Reinventing Axl Rose. They have released music on Misanthrope Records, Crasshole Records,...

, Less Than Jake
Less Than Jake
Less Than Jake is an American ska punk band from Gainesville, Florida. Originally formed in 1992 as a power pop trio, the band evolved into a hybrid of ska punk. Less Than Jake have also been cited as showing influences from a wide variety of genres including post-grunge, heavy metal, alternative...

, Hot Water Music
Hot Water Music
Hot Water Music is a punk rock band from Gainesville, Florida. The members of the band are Chuck Ragan, Chris Wollard, Jason Black, and George Rebelo. HWM first formed in 1993...

, John Vanderslice
John Vanderslice
John Vanderslice is an American musician and songwriter. Previously a member of the band Mk Ultra, he now records and performs as a solo artist.-Early years:...

, Sister Hazel
Sister Hazel
Sister Hazel are an alternative rock band from Gainesville, Florida, whose style also blends elements of folk rock, pop, classic rock 'n' roll and southern rock. Their music is characterized by highly melodic tunes and generally optimistic lyrics. The band's instrumentation often features abrupt...

, and For Squirrels
For Squirrels
For Squirrels was an alternative rock band based out of Gainesville, Florida, active between the years of 1992–1996 prior to changing their name to Subrosa, eventually disbanding in 2001...

. It is also currently the location of independent label No Idea Records
No Idea Records
For other uses, see No Idea .No Idea Records is an independent record label based in Gainesville, Florida which produces both vinyl records and compact discs...

 and the former home of Plan It X Records
Plan It X Records
Plan-It-X Records is an independent record label in the United States. Originally based in Georgetown, Indiana, PIX is currently based out of Bloomington, Indiana following brief stints in Olympia, Washington, Gainesville, Florida and Cairo, Illinois. Some consider the label most notable for...

, which moved to Cairo, Ill. No Idea puts on the annual 3-day rock festival known as The Fest
The Fest
The Fest is an annual music festival in Gainesville, Florida, organized by No Idea Records. It is a predominantly punk rock festival, though there are also a good number of indie rock, country, and metal acts. The Fest first took place in 2002 and has since attracted a large number of punk bands...

. For two years, the Gainesville non-profit organization called Harvest of Hope Foundation hosted the Harvest of Hope Fest
Harvest of Hope Fest
Harvest of Hope Fest was an annual charity fundraiser and music festival that provided financial support for the Harvest of Hope Foundation which benefits migrant and seasonal farmworkers living in the U.S. The three day event took place in March 2009 and 2010 at the St. Johns County Fairgrounds...

ival in St. Augustine, Florida.

Between 1987 and 1993, Gainesville had a very active rock music scene, with Hollywood star River Phoenix
River Phoenix
River Jude Phoenix was an American film actor, musician, and teen icon. He was the oldest brother of fellow actors Rain, Joaquin, Liberty, and Summer Phoenix.Phoenix began acting at age 10 in television commercials...

 having the local club Hardback Cafe as his main base. Phoenix's band Aleka's Attic
Aleka's Attic
Aleka's Attic were an alternative folk/rock band from Gainesville, Florida formed by River Phoenix and his sister Rain.-History:The original line up of Aleka's Attic included River as lead singer and played guitar; his younger sister Rain sang, but, contrary to many incorrect reports, did not play...

 was a constant feature of the rock scene, among others. The Phoenix family is still a presence in Gainesville with Rain Phoenix
Rain Phoenix
Rain Phoenix is an American actress, musician, and singer. Phoenix has four siblings: two brothers, actors Joaquin and the late River Phoenix, and two sisters, Summer and Liberty.-Early life:...

's band Papercranes and Liberty Phoenix's store, Indigo.

Today, Gainesville is still known for its strong music community and was named "Best Place to Start a Band in the United States" by Blender Magazine in March 2008. The article cited the large student population, cheap rent, and friendly venues as reasons.

Over the past decade, Gainesville has been home to a wide variety of bands, from the latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

/afrobeat
Afrobeat
Afrobeat is a combination of traditional Yoruba music, jazz, highlife, funk and chanted vocals, fused with percussion and vocal styles, popularised in Africa in the 1970s. Its main creator was the Nigerian multi-instrumentalist and bandleader Fela Kuti, who gave it its name, who used it to...

 sounds of Umoja Orchestra
Umoja Orchestra
The Umoja Orchestra is a Gainesville, FL-based band whose music incorporates elements from afrobeat, jazz, funk, afro-cuban as well as traditional African, Caribbean and South American styles, like salsa and merengue...

, to the rock
Rock music
Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed during and after the 1960s, particularly in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has its roots in 1940s and 1950s rock and roll, itself heavily influenced by rhythm and blues and country music...

 of Morningbell
Morningbell
Morningbell is a psychedelic rock band based in Gainesville, Florida. The band was formed in 2000 by brothers Travis Atria and Eric Atria...

, to ska staples The Know How
The Know How
The Know How is a third wave ska band from Gainesville, Florida, formed in 1998. Their musical style blends ska and pop punk and prominently features a Moog synthesizer alongside more typical ska instrumentation Despite releases on Jump Up! Records and Stomp Records, numerous nationwide tours The...

.

Gainesville's reputation as an independent music mecca can be traced back to 1984 when a local music video station was brought on the air. The station was called TV-69, broadcast on UHF 69 and was owned by Cozzin Communications. The channel drew considerable media attention thanks to its promotion by famous comedian Bill Cosby
Bill Cosby
William Henry "Bill" Cosby, Jr. is an American comedian, actor, author, television producer, educator, musician and activist. A veteran stand-up performer, he got his start at various clubs, then landed a starring role in the 1960s action show, I Spy. He later starred in his own series, the...

, who was part-owner of that station when it started. TV-69 featured many videos by punk and indie-label bands and had several locally produced videos ("Clone Love" by a local parody band, and a Dinosaur Jr
Dinosaur Jr
Dinosaur Jr. is an American alternative rock band formed in Amherst, Massachusetts in 1984. Originally called Dinosaur, prior to legal issues that forced the group to change their name, the band disbanded in 1997 until reuniting in 2005...

 song).

Annual cultural events

  • The Spring Arts Festival, hosted each year, usually in early April, by Santa Fe College (formerly Santa Fe Community College), is one of the three largest annual events in Gainesville and is known for its high quality, unique artwork
  • The nationally recognized The Downtown Festival and Art Show, hosted each fall by the City of Gainesville, attracts award-winning artists and draws a crowd of more than 100,000.
  • The Hoggetowne Medieval Faire has attracted thousands of fairgoers for over 20 years
  • The Gainesville Improv Festival
    Gainesville Improv Festival
    The Gainesville Improv Festival, or GIF, is a 4 day long festival in Gainesville, Florida which celebrates improvisational and sketch theatre. The mission is to share the culture and traditions of the vibrant Gainesville improvisation scene with the rest of the national improv community...

    , provides a venue for new talent.

Television

Gainesville is the 162nd-largest television market in the nation, as measured by Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research is an American firm that measures media audiences, including television, radio, theatre films and newspapers...

. Broadcast television stations in the Gainesville market consist of WCJB
WCJB-TV
WCJB-TV is the ABC-affiliated television station for North Central Florida licensed to Gainesville. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 16 from a transmitter in Wacahoota. The station can also be seen on CommuniComm Services channel 3, Cox channel 7, and Bright House...

, an ABC
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network. Created in 1943 from the former NBC Blue radio network, ABC is owned by The Walt Disney Company and is part of Disney-ABC Television Group. Its first broadcast on television was in 1948...

 affiliate in Gainesville; WGFL
WGFL
WGFL is the CBS-affiliated television station for North Central Florida licensed to High Springs. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 28 from a transmitter in Newberry. The station can also be seen on Cox and CommuniComm Services channel 4. There is a high definition feed...

, a CBS
CBS
CBS Broadcasting Inc. is a major US commercial broadcasting television network, which started as a radio network. The name is derived from the initials of the network's former name, Columbia Broadcasting System. The network is sometimes referred to as the "Eye Network" in reference to the shape of...

 affiliate broadcasting from High Springs
High Springs, Florida
High Springs is a city in Alachua County, Florida, United States. The population was 3,863 at the 2000 census. As of 2004, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau is 4,139 .-Geography:High Springs is located at ....

; WOGX
WOGX
WOGX is the Fox owned-and-operated television station for North Central Florida that is licensed to Ocala. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on UHF channel 31 from a transmitter along CR 316 west of I-75/FL 93 and the Heijahs Town section of Reddick...

, a Fox
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company, commonly referred to as Fox Network or simply Fox , is an American commercial broadcasting television network owned by Fox Entertainment Group, part of Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation. Launched on October 9, 1986, Fox was the highest-rated broadcast network in the...

 affiliate from Ocala
Ocala, Florida
Ocala is a city in Marion County, Florida. As of 2007, the population recorded by the U.S. Census Bureau was 53,491. It is the county seat of Marion County, and the principal city of the Ocala, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, which had an estimated 2007 population of 324,857.-History:Ocala...

; and WUFT, the PBS
Public Broadcasting Service
The Public Broadcasting Service is an American non-profit public broadcasting television network with 354 member TV stations in the United States which hold collective ownership. Its headquarters is in Arlington, Virginia....

 station affiliated with the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 in Gainesville. NBC
NBC
The National Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcasting television network and former radio network headquartered in the GE Building in New York City's Rockefeller Center with additional major offices near Los Angeles and in Chicago...

 affiliate WNBW
WNBW (TV)
WNBW-DT is the NBC-affiliated television station for North Central Florida licensed to Gainesville. It broadcasts a high definition digital signal on VHF channel 9 from a transmitter in Newberry. The station can also be seen on Cox and CommuniComm Services channel 9. There is a high definition feed...

 began broadcasting in the city on Jan 1, 2009.

Radio

Arbitron
Arbitron
Arbitron is a consumer research company in the United States that collects listener data on radio audiences. It was founded as American Research Bureau by Jim Seiler in 1949 and became national by merging with L.A. based Coffin, Cooper and Clay in the early 1950s...

 ranks the Gainesville-Ocala market as the nation's 83rd-largest. Thirteen radio stations are licensed to operate in the city of Gainesville—five AM stations, six commercial FM stations, and two low-power non-commercial FM stations. Three of the stations (WRUF, WRUF-FM
WRUF-FM
WRUF-FM is a radio station broadcasting a country music format. Licensed to Gainesville, Florida, USA, the station serves the Gainesville/Ocala area. The station is currently owned by the University of Florida...

, and WUFT-FM
WUFT-FM
WUFT-FM 89.1 is an NPR member radio station owned by the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, broadcasting news from NPR.UF has been involved in broadcasting for almost nine decades. It owns WRUF , one of the oldest radio stations in the state, and sister television station WUFT-TV was...

) are operated by broadcasting students at the University of Florida. WUFT-FM is the city's NPR
NPR
NPR, formerly National Public Radio, is a privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization that serves as a national syndicator to a network of 900 public radio stations in the United States. NPR was created in 1970, following congressional passage of the Public Broadcasting...

 member station, while the WRUF stations are operated as commercial stations.

Print

Gainesville is served by The Gainesville Sun
The Gainesville Sun
The Gainesville Sun is a newspaper published daily in Gainesville, Florida, United States, covering the North-Central portion of the state. It is a part of the New York Times Regional Media Group. The paper is published by James E...

and The Independent Florida Alligator
The Independent Florida Alligator
The Independent Florida Alligator is the daily student newspaper of the University of Florida. The Alligator is the largest student-run newspaper in the United States, with a daily circulation of 35,000 and readership of over 52,000...

, the student newspaper for the University of Florida
University of Florida
The University of Florida is an American public land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant research university located on a campus in Gainesville, Florida. The university traces its historical origins to 1853, and has operated continuously on its present Gainesville campus since September 1906...

 and Santa Fe College.

Points of interest

  • 34th Street Wall
    34th Street Wall
    The 34th Street Wall is a 1,120-foot-long retaining wall along SW 34th Street in Gainesville, Florida. The wall, which dates back to 1979, was originally built to prevent erosion of a hill on the nearby University of Florida golf course when 34th Street was widened from two lanes to four.The wall...

  • Ben Hill Griffin Stadium at Florida Field
  • Bivens Arm
    Bivens Arm
    Bivens Arm is a body of water in Gainesville, Florida. Located west of U.S. Route 441 and south of Archer Road, it is a part of Paynes Prairie....

  • Civic Media Center
    Civic Media Center
    The Civic Media Center is a grassroots, community-based radical infoshop, an alternative library and reading room in Gainesville, Florida, United States...

  • The Devil's Millhopper
    Devil's Millhopper Geological State Park
    Devil's Millhopper Geological State Park is a Florida State Park located north-westernmost part of Gainesville, Florida, off County Road 232, northwest of the University of Florida....

  • Florida Museum of Natural History
    Florida Museum of Natural History
    The Florida Museum of Natural History is the State of Florida's official state-sponsored and chartered natural history museum. Its main facilities are located on the campus of the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida....

     (including the Butterfly Rainforest exhibit)
  • Gainesville-Hawthorne Trail State Park
    Gainesville-Hawthorne Trail State Park
    Gainesville-Hawthorne State Trail is a rail trail in Florida.It is protected as a long Florida State Park and runs from the City of Gainesville's Boulware Springs Water Works to the town of Hawthorne...

  • Gainesville Raceway
    Gainesville Raceway
    Gainesville Raceway is a quarter-mile dragstrip just outside Gainesville, Florida. It opened in 1969 and is most famous for hosting the NHRA's prestigious Gatornationals event since 1970...

  • Haile Homestead
    Haile Homestead
    The Haile Homestead, also known as Haile Plantation House or Kanapaha, is a historic site and museum in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located at 8500 SR 24. On May 2, 1986, the house was added to the U.S...

  • Harn Museum of Art
    Harn Museum of Art
    The Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art is an art museum at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. It is in the UF Cultural Plaza area in the southwest part of campus....

  • Kanapaha Botanical Gardens
    Kanapaha Botanical Gardens
    The Kanapaha Botanical Gardens is a botanical garden in Gainesville, Florida, operated by the North Florida Botanical Society. Their name comes from nearby Lake Kanapaha. The gardens were established in 1978 when the society leased 33 acres for a public botanical garden. Another 29 acres were...

  • Lake Alice
    Lake Alice (Gainesville, Florida)
    Lake Alice is a small lake on the University of Florida campus in Gainesville, Florida, USA.The lake is a wildlife area and is one of the few areas in incorporated Gainesville where one may view live alligators. The university's bat house is near the lake. The Baughman Center sits on the southwest...

  • Lake Wauburg
  • Newnan's Lake
    Newnan's Lake
    Newnans Lake is located off State Road 20, east of Gainesville, Florida. Approximately wide, Newnans Lake is home to many forms of wildlife, and had been designated as a protected site by Alachua County....

  • Paynes Prairie
    Paynes Prairie
    Paynes Prairie is a Florida State Park, encompassing a savanna south of Gainesville, Florida, in Micanopy. It is also a U.S. National Natural Landmark. It is crossed by both I-75 and U.S. 441 .- History :...

  • San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park
    San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park
    San Felasco Hammock Preserve State Park is a Florida State Park in Alachua County, Florida. It is located northwest of Gainesville, Florida on CR 232 , just south of the town of Alachua.-Fauna:...

  • Santa Fe College Teaching Zoo
  • Stephen C. O'Connell Center
  • William Reuben Thomas Center
    Hotel Thomas
    The Hotel Thomas, also known as Sunkist Villa but currently known as the Thomas Center, is an historic building in Gainesville, Florida, United States. It is located on the block bounded by Northeast 2nd and 5th Streets and Northeast 6th and 7th Avenues...


Sister cities

Gainesville maintains sister city relationships with four cities in three separate arrangements:
Novorossiisk, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (since 1982) Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba
Kfar Saba , officially Kfar Sava, is a city in the Sharon region, of the Center District of Israel. At the end of 2009, Kfar Saba had a total population of 83,600.-History:...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 (since 1998) Qalqilya, Palestinian Territories
Palestinian territories
The Palestinian territories comprise the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. Since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in 1988, the region is today recognized by three-quarters of the world's countries as the State of Palestine or simply Palestine, although this status is not recognized by the...

 (since 1998) Duhok, Kurdistan, Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

(since 2006)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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