Franklin Institute
Overview
 
The Franklin Institute (named after the noted American scientist
Scientist
A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word...

 and statesman
Statesman
A statesman is usually a politician or other notable public figure who has had a long and respected career in politics or government at the national and international level. As a term of respect, it is usually left to supporters or commentators to use the term...

 Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Dr. Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat...

) is a museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

, and one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States, dating to 1824. The Institute also houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
Benjamin Franklin National Memorial — located in the rotunda of The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — features a colossal seated statue of Benjamin Franklin. The high memorial, sculpted by James Earle Fraser between 1906 and 1911, honors the writer, inventor and American...

.
On February 5, 1824, Samuel Vaughn Merrick
Samuel Vaughn Merrick
Samuel Vaughan Merrick was a 19th-century American manufacturer.Born in Hallowell, Maine, Merrick left school 1816 and moved to Philadelphia...

 and William H. Keating founded The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. The museum began in 1825 in its original building at 15 South 7th Street (now the site of the Atwater Kent Museum) and moved into its current home on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Benjamin Franklin Parkway is a scenic boulevard that runs through the cultural heart of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Named for favorite son Benjamin Franklin, the mile-long Parkway cuts diagonally across the grid plan pattern of Center City's Northwest quadrant...

, near that parkway's intersection with 20th Street, over 100 years later, in 1934.
Encyclopedia
The Franklin Institute (named after the noted American scientist
Scientist
A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method. The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. This article focuses on the more restricted use of the word...

 and statesman
Statesman
A statesman is usually a politician or other notable public figure who has had a long and respected career in politics or government at the national and international level. As a term of respect, it is usually left to supporters or commentators to use the term...

 Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
Dr. Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat...

) is a museum in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

, and one of the oldest centers of science education and development in the United States, dating to 1824. The Institute also houses the Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
Benjamin Franklin National Memorial
Benjamin Franklin National Memorial — located in the rotunda of The Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania — features a colossal seated statue of Benjamin Franklin. The high memorial, sculpted by James Earle Fraser between 1906 and 1911, honors the writer, inventor and American...

.

History

On February 5, 1824, Samuel Vaughn Merrick
Samuel Vaughn Merrick
Samuel Vaughan Merrick was a 19th-century American manufacturer.Born in Hallowell, Maine, Merrick left school 1816 and moved to Philadelphia...

 and William H. Keating founded The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. The museum began in 1825 in its original building at 15 South 7th Street (now the site of the Atwater Kent Museum) and moved into its current home on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Benjamin Franklin Parkway
Benjamin Franklin Parkway is a scenic boulevard that runs through the cultural heart of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Named for favorite son Benjamin Franklin, the mile-long Parkway cuts diagonally across the grid plan pattern of Center City's Northwest quadrant...

, near that parkway's intersection with 20th Street, over 100 years later, in 1934. Funds to build the new Institute and Memorial on the Parkway came from the Poor Richard Club, the City Board of Trust, the Benjamin Franklin Memorial, Inc., and The Franklin Institute. John T. Windrim's original design was a completely square building surrounding the Benjamin Franklin Statue, which had yet to be built. Despite the effects of the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, the Benjamin Franklin Memorial, Inc. raised $5 million between December 1929 and June 1930. Only two of the four wings envisioned by Windrim were built. The Franklin Institute was integrated
Racial integration
Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation . In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely...

 in 1870, when Philadelphia teacher and activist Octavius Catto
Octavius Catto
Octavius Valentine Catto was a black educator, intellectual, and civil rights activist. He was also known for being a cricket and baseball player in 19th-century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...

 was admitted as a member.

Many scientists have demonstrated groundbreaking new technology at The Franklin Institute. From September 2 to October 11, 1884, it hosted the International Electrical Exhibition of 1884
International Electrical Exhibition of 1884
Throughout the 19th century, Philadelphia's Franklin Institute was often the organizer of American-held international exhibitions that showcased the achievements of industrial civilization. For example, it played a key role in organizing and hosting the International Electrical Exhibition of 1884...

, the first great electrical exposition in the United States. Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American inventor, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer...

 demonstrated the principle of wireless telegraphy at the institute in 1893. The world's first public demonstration of an all-electronic television system was later given by Philo Taylor Farnsworth on August 25, 1934.

On March 31, 1940, press agent William Castellini issued a press release stating that the world would end the next day. The story was picked up by KYW
KYW (AM)
KYW is a class A AM radio station on 1060 kHz licensed to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. KYW is owned by the CBS Radio unit of CBS Corporation, and has broadcasted an all-news format since 1965. The station's studios are located on Market Street in Center City Philadelphia, and it transmitters...

, which reported, "Your worst fears that the world will end are confirmed by astronomers of Franklin Institute, Philadelphia. Scientists predict that the world will end at 3 p.m. Eastern Standard Time
North American Eastern Time Zone
The Eastern Time Zone of the United States and Canada is a time zone that falls mostly along the east coast of North America. Its UTC time offset is −5 hrs during standard time and −4 hrs during daylight saving time...

 tomorrow. This is no April Fool joke. Confirmation can be obtained from Wagner Schlesinger, director of the Fels Planetarium of this city." This caused a panic in the city which only subsided when The Franklin Institute assured people it had made no such prediction. Castellini was dismissed shortly thereafter.

Succession of presidents

  • James Ronaldson (1824–1852)
  • Samuel V. Merrick (1852–1854)
  • John C. Cresson (1855–1863)
  • William Sellers
    William Sellers
    William Sellers was a mechanical engineer, manufacturer, businessperson, and inventor who filed more than 90 patents, most notably the design for the United States standard screw thread...

     (1864–1867)
  • John Vaughan Merrick (1868–1869)
  • Coleman Sellers (1870–1875)
  • Robert Empie Rogers (1875–1879)
  • William Penn Tatham (1880–1886)
  • Joseph Miller Wilson (1887–1893)
  • Dr. Walton Clark (1907–1924)
  • Dr. W. Laurence LePage
  • Dr. Bowen C. Dees
  • Dr. Athelstan F. Spilhaus (1966–1969)
  • Dr. Joel N. Bloom (1969–1990)
  • Dr. Dennis M. Wint (1995–present)

Capital Campaign

In 2006, The Franklin Institute began fundraising activities for the Inspire Science! capital campaign, a $64.7 million campaign intended to fund the construction of a 53,000 square foot building addition, new exhibits, and upgrades and renovations to the existing Institute building and exhibits.

In 2011, The Franklin Institute received a $10 million gift from Athena and Nicholas Karabots towards the Inspire Science! capital campaign. This gift is the largest gift in the Institute's history, and put The Franklin Institute within $6 million of the $64.7 million capital campaign goal. The Nicholas and Athena Karabots Pavilion will house not only a $10 million multiroom exhibit on neuroscience, but also a conference center, classroom space, and additional room for traveling exhibitions.

The Science Center

The most recognizable part of The Franklin Institute's Science Center is The Franklin Institute Science Museum. In the spirit of inquiry and discovery embodied by Benjamin Franklin, the mission of The Franklin Institute Science Museum serves to inspire an understanding of and passion for science and technology learning. Among other exhibits, The Science Museum holds the largest collection of artifacts from the Wright brothers
Wright brothers
The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur , were two Americans credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903...

' workshop.

Permanent exhibits

  • Electricity, which replaced Franklin...He's Electric in 2010, showcases Franklin's discovery of electricity and its use in the modern world, including elements such as a sustainable dance floor, and an array of LEDs that turn on in the presence of cell phone signals and other low-power electrical signals. (Electricity and Technology)
  • Changing Earth, which opened to the public, along with Electricity, on March 27, 2010, focuses on the powerful forces of air, water, and land and their effect upon the earth, as well as how humans respond to and interact with these forces.
  • The Franklin Airshow features The Wright Brothers
    Wright brothers
    The Wright brothers, Orville and Wilbur , were two Americans credited with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903...

     Aeronautical Engineering Collection, their newly restored Model B Flyer
    Wright Flyer
    The Wright Flyer was the first powered aircraft, designed and built by the Wright brothers. They flew it four times on December 17, 1903 near the Kill Devil Hills, about four miles south of Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, U.S.The U.S...

    , and a U.S. Air Force 1948 T-33 Shooting Star
    T-33 Shooting Star
    The Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star is an American-built jet trainer aircraft. It was produced by Lockheed and made its first flight in 1948, piloted by Tony LeVier. The T-33 was developed from the Lockheed P-80/F-80 starting as TP-80C/TF-80C in development, then designated T-33A. It was used by the...

     Jet Trainer. (Aviation and Technology)
  • The Giant Heart has been a Philadelphia icon since its opening in 1954. (Biology, Chemistry and Anatomy)
  • The Joel N. Bloom Observatory, remodeled in 2006, features five telescopes, including a giant 10" Zeiss Refractor and four 8" Meade Reflectors.
  • The Sports Challenge is an interactive exhibit that shows the science behind sports. (Physics and Technology)
  • The Train Factory has a real, moving train: The Baldwin 60000
    Baldwin 60000
    Baldwin 60000 is an experimental steam locomotive built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Eddystone, Pennsylvania in 1926, during the height of the railroading industry. It received its number for being the 60,000th locomotive built by Baldwin....

     steam locomotive. (History, Engineering and Technology)
  • Sir Isaac's Loft, allows visitors to blend art and science into their own masterpiece. (Physics and Art)
  • Space Command features real space suits and allows visitors to track their houses, in real time, via satellite. (Astronomy, Technology and Mathematics)
  • The Franklin Institute once featured the Foxtrot Papa Boeing 707 as a permanent exhibit. This partial fuselage could easily be seen from the outside of the building and was a remarkable sight in the middle of a major city. But in the 1980s, the aircraft was sold for scrap, much to the dismay of aviation enthusiasts.
  • Amazing Machine allows visitors to experience a machine-like environment featuring little-seen pieces from The Franklin Institute's priceless collection, including Maillardet's Automaton, believed to have the largest cam-based memory of any automaton of the era.

Other attractions

The Science Center includes many pertinent attractions that are not museum exhibits. The Budd BB-1 Pioneer, in front of the museum, was the first stainless steel airplane built by the Edward F. Budd Manufacturing Corporation
Budd Company
The Budd Company is a metal fabricator and major supplier of body components to the automobile industry, and was formerly a manufacturer of stainless steel passenger rail cars during the 20th century....

 and has been on display since 1935.

A model which would eventually become the Lunar Module in the Apollo space program, first shown on display in the 1966–67 World's Fair, held in the New York Hall of Science, is also located on the grounds.

Theaters

In 1933, Samuel Simeon Fels
Samuel Simeon Fels
Samuel Simeon Fels was an American businessman and philanthropist.Early in Samuel's life his family relocated to Philadelphia, where Samuel's older brother Joseph Fels founded a soap manufacturing company, Fels & Co. Samuel became the company's first president, a post which he held until his death...

 contributed funds to build The Fels Planetarium
Planetarium
A planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation...

, only the second in the United States after Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

's Adler Planetarium
Adler Planetarium
The Adler Planetarium & Astronomy Museum in Chicago, Illinois was the first planetarium built in the Western Hemisphere and is the oldest in existence today. Adler was founded and built in 1930 by the philanthropist Max Adler, with the assistance of the first director of the planetarium, Philip Fox...

. Fully reconstructed in 2002, the Planetarium's new design includes replacement of the original 40,000-pound stainless steel dome, originally built in 1933. The new premium dome is lighter and is 60 feet (18.3 m) in diameter. It is the first of its kind in the United States. The planetarium is also outfitted for visitors who are hearing impaired.

The Tuttleman IMAX
IMAX
IMAX is a motion picture film format and a set of proprietary cinema projection standards created by the Canadian company IMAX Corporation. IMAX has the capacity to record and display images of far greater size and resolution than conventional film systems...

 Theater
is an IMAX dome theater that is 180° encompassing and tilted at 30 degrees. The seating places the audience up in the dome which is over 70 feet (21.3 m) across and 4.5 stories tall. In addition, the theater has 20,000 watts of amplifier power and over 50 speakers.

Early in 2008, extensive renovation of the museum's auditorium was completed. Previously a lecture hall, the space was re-named Franklin Theater, and features 3-D and hi-def Blu-Ray digital projection capabilities. The Franklin Theater’s core mission is to showcase educational films during daytime hours while also including mass release feature length films.

Traveling exhibits

In the past, the Science Center has hosted many traveling exhibits including Storms, Titanic, Grossology
Grossology
Grossology may refer to:* Grossology , a series of non-fictional children's books written by Sylvia Branzei* Grossology , a Canadian animated TV series...

, Body Worlds
Body Worlds
Body Worlds is a traveling exhibition of preserved human bodies and body parts that are prepared using a technique called plastination to reveal inner anatomical structures...

, Darwin
Charles Darwin
Charles Robert Darwin FRS was an English naturalist. He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection.He published his theory...

, and Robots. In the summer of 2007, The Franklin Institute hosted Tutankhamun and The Golden Age of The Pharaohs, in the Mandell Center of The Franklin Institute Science Museum. The exhibit began its United States Tour in Los Angeles
Los Ángeles
Los Ángeles is the capital of the province of Biobío, in the commune of the same name, in Region VIII , in the center-south of Chile. It is located between the Laja and Biobío rivers. The population is 123,445 inhabitants...

, CA
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, and went to Fort Lauderdale, FL
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

, and Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, IL
Illinois
Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

, before coming to Philadelphia for its final American appearance. When the exhibit left Philadelphia on September 30, 2007, it traveled to London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, England.
This exhibit was nearly twice the size of the original Tutankhamun exhibit of the 1970s, and contained 50 objects directly from Tut's tomb, as well as nearly 70 object from the tombs of his ancestors in The Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
The Valley of the Kings , less often called the Valley of the Gates of the Kings , is a valley in Egypt where, for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to 11th century BC, tombs were constructed for the Pharaohs and powerful nobles of the New Kingdom .The valley stands on the west bank of...

. The show also featured a CAT Scan that revealed what the Boy King may have looked like.

The Franklin Institute is a member of the Association of Science and Technology Centers (ASTC) and the American Association of Museums (AAM).




The Franklin Institute is also a member of the Science Museum Exhibit Collaborative with the following partners: the Fort Worth Museum of Science & History; the Museum of Science, Boston
Museum of Science, Boston
The Museum of Science is a Boston, Massachusetts landmark, located in Science Park, a plot of land spanning the Charles River. Along with over 500 interactive exhibits, the Museum features a number of live presentations throughout the building every day, along with shows at the Charles Hayden...

; COSI Columbus, formerly known as the Center of Science and Industry in Columbus, Ohio
Columbus, Ohio
Columbus is the capital of and the largest city in the U.S. state of Ohio. The broader metropolitan area encompasses several counties and is the third largest in Ohio behind those of Cleveland and Cincinnati. Columbus is the third largest city in the American Midwest, and the fifteenth largest city...

; OMSI in Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

; the Science Museum of Minnesota
Science Museum of Minnesota
The Science Museum of Minnesota is an American museum focused on topics in technology, natural history, physical science and mathematics education. Founded in 1907 and located in Saint Paul, Minnesota, the 501 nonprofit institution is staffed by over 500 employees and over 1,600 volunteers...

 in Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota. The city lies mostly on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, and adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city...

; and the California Science Center
California Science Center
The California Science Center is a state agency and museum located in Exposition Park, Los Angeles. Billed as the West Coast's largest hands-on science center, the California ScienCenter is a public-private partnership between the State and the California Science Center Foundation...

, formerly the California Museum of Science & Industry, in Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles, California
Los Angeles , with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 3,792,621, is the most populous city in California, USA and the second most populous in the United States, after New York City. It has an area of , and is located in Southern California...

.

School programs/workshops

Throughout the school year, the Museum Programs Department at The Franklin Institute provides educational experiences for school groups that visit the museum. These educational experiences include an exclusive workshop on various topics, typically relating to the current traveling exhibitions. These workshops help to enhance each student's experience while at the museum.

Homeschooling

The Museum Programs Department also helps to enhance the educational opportunities of home-schooled students by welcoming them to the museum to take part in various activities and experiments.

Camp-In

Camp-In is a sleep-over program that has been in operation for many years. Taking place from October through May, it gives families, scout groups, youth groups, and school groups an opportunity to see the museum at night. Along with sleeping over, campers see an IMAX show, planetarium show, a science demonstration, and take part in several workshop activities. Also, campers have the chance to explore the museum during the evening hours when it is closed to the public. Also in 2010 of last school year, many different schools participated in 'Spy Camp' which involved chemical experiences such as the changing of chemical color changes and making a molecular dessert, which was ice cream frozen with liquid nitrogen.

Discovery Camp

Discovery Camp is a summer-camp program that takes place inside the museum. The camp begins in the middle of June and continues to the end of August divided into 6 themed sessions. This program gives children aged 6–13 the opportunity to visit the museum all week long and receive many exclusive benefits, such as private demonstrations and activities, an IMAX, a planetarium show, field trips, and special 'behind the scenes' access.

Museum floor programs

Various floor programs contribute to a typical visitor's experience at the museum. Throughout the day there are public shows, such as the Liquid Air Show or the Space Bootcamp Show, along with many interactive carts, such as Papermaking and Puzzles/Brainteasers. These activities are intended to bring a personal side to the science that the museum tries to convey.

The Benjamin Franklin National Memorial


The Benjamin Franklin National Memorial features a 20 feet (6.1 m) high marble statue, sculpted by James Earle Fraser. Originally opened in 1938, the Memorial was designed by architect John T. Windrim
John T. Windrim
John Torrey Windrim was an American architect.He trained in the office of his father, architect James H. Windrim. He was elected to the Philadelphia Chapter of the American Institute of Architects in 1901, and became a Fellow of the Institute in 1926...

 and modeled after the Pantheon
Pantheon, Rome
The Pantheon ,Rarely Pantheum. This appears in Pliny's Natural History in describing this edifice: Agrippae Pantheum decoravit Diogenes Atheniensis; in columnis templi eius Caryatides probantur inter pauca operum, sicut in fastigio posita signa, sed propter altitudinem loci minus celebrata.from ,...

 in Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

. The Hall is 82 feet (25 m) in length, width, and height. The domed ceiling is self-supporting and weighs 1600 tons. The floors, walls, columns, pilasters, and cornices are made of marbles imported from Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and France.
Congress designated the Hall and statue as the official Benjamin Franklin National Memorial on October 25, 1972. Vice President of the United States
Vice president
A vice president is an officer in government or business who is below a president in rank. The name comes from the Latin vice meaning 'in place of'. In some countries, the vice president is called the deputy president...

 Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller was the 41st Vice President of the United States , serving under President Gerald Ford, and the 49th Governor of New York , as well as serving the Roosevelt, Truman and Eisenhower administrations in a variety of positions...

 dedicated the memorial in 1976.




The Benjamin Franklin National Memorial is the only privately owned National Memorial in the country, and it is maintained by the museum.




On December 30, 2005, Congress authorized the Institute to receive up to $10,000,000 in matching grants for the rehabilitation of the memorial and for the development of related exhibits.


In the fall of 2008, The Benjamin Franklin National Memorial was re-opened after a summer-long restoration that included multi-media enhancements. Philadelphia's most famous citizen is now featured in Benjamin Franklin Forever - an hourly 3.5-minute multimedia presentation utilizing the entire rotunda.

Also noteworthy is The Franklin Institute's Frankliniana Collection, some of which is on rotating display in the Pendulum Staircase. Highlights might include his 1777 Nini Medallion; the maquette
Maquette
A maquette is a small scale model or rough draft of an unfinished architectural work or a sculpture...

 of Franklin's bust from the statue of Franklin in the Memorial; the figurehead of Franklin's bust from the USS Franklin; Franklin's Ceremonial Sword used in the Court of King Louis XVI and even the odometer that Ben used to measure the postal routes in Philadelphia. Additionally, the Institute's Electricity exhibition highlights one of Franklin's lightning rods; his Electricity Tube, given to him by Peter Collinson; a Franklin Electrostatic Generator; Franklin's 1751 publication of Observations and Experiments on Electricity...; and Thornton Oakley
Thornton Oakley
-Biography :Thornton Oakley was born March 27, 1881, in Pittsburgh. He studied at the University of Pennsylvania and received B.S. and M.S. degrees in architecture in 1901 and 1902...

's two 1940 historical murals of Franklin and the "Kite and Key" experiment.

The Journal of The Franklin Institute

In 1826, The Journal of The Franklin Institute was established to publish U.S. Patent information and to document scientific and technological achievements throughout the nation. It is the second oldest continuously published scientific journal
Scientific journal
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past...

 in the country, and is now primarily devoted to applied mathematics
Applied mathematics
Applied mathematics is a branch of mathematics that concerns itself with mathematical methods that are typically used in science, engineering, business, and industry. Thus, "applied mathematics" is a mathematical science with specialized knowledge...

.

Awards

Since 1824, The Franklin Institute has maintained the longest continuously awarded science and technology awards program in the United States, and one of the oldest in the world. The first issue of the Journal of The Franklin Institute, dated January 1826, makes the first written reference to these awards. Before 1998 several medals were awarded by The Franklin Institute, such as (year indicates when the award was first presented): the Elliott Cresson Medal
Elliott Cresson Medal
The Elliott Cresson Medal, also known as the Elliott Cresson Gold Medal, was the highest award given by the Franklin Institute. The award was established by Elliott Cresson, life member of the Franklin Institute, with $1,000 granted in 1848...

 (1875), the Edward Longstreth Medal (1890), the Howard N. Potts Medal
Howard N. Potts Medal
The Howard N. Potts Medal was a science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.Also see The Franklin Institute Awards.-Laureates:Following people received the Howard N. Potts Medal:...

 (1911), the Franklin Medal
Franklin Medal
The Franklin Medal was a science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, PA, USA.-Laureates:*1915 - Thomas Alva Edison *1915 - Heike Kamerlingh Onnes *1916 - John J...

 (1915), the Louis E. Levy Medal (1924), and the Albert A. Michelson Medal (1968). Past winners include Henry Ford
Henry Ford
Henry Ford was an American industrialist, the founder of the Ford Motor Company, and sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production. His introduction of the Model T automobile revolutionized transportation and American industry...

, Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright was an American architect, interior designer, writer and educator, who designed more than 1,000 structures and completed 500 works. Wright believed in designing structures which were in harmony with humanity and its environment, a philosophy he called organic architecture...

, Marie Curie
Marie Curie
Marie Skłodowska-Curie was a physicist and chemist famous for her pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first person honored with two Nobel Prizes—in physics and chemistry...

, and Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
Thomas Alva Edison was an American inventor and businessman. He developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and a long-lasting, practical electric light bulb. In addition, he created the world’s first industrial...

.

In 1998 all of the endowed medals were reorganized as the Benjamin Franklin Medal
Benjamin Franklin Medal (Franklin Institute)
The Benjamin Franklin Medal is a science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, PA, USA.-Laureates:*1998 - Emmanuel Desurvire *1998 - Robert B. Laughlin *1998 - David N. Payne...

s
. Multiple medals are given every year, for different fields of science and engineering. The fields awarded today are "Chemistry
Chemistry
Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds....

", "Computer
Computer science
Computer science or computing science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and of practical techniques for their implementation and application in computer systems...

 and Cognitive Science
Cognitive science
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. It includes research on how information is processed , represented, and transformed in behaviour, nervous system or machine...

", "Earth
Earth science
Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences...

 and Environmental Science
Environmental science
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences, to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems...

", "Electrical Engineering
Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering is a field of engineering that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics and electromagnetism. The field first became an identifiable occupation in the late nineteenth century after commercialization of the electric telegraph and electrical...

", "Life Science", "Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering is a discipline of engineering that applies the principles of physics and materials science for analysis, design, manufacturing, and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the production and usage of heat and mechanical power for the...

" and "Physics
Physics
Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

". In the past also the fields "Earth Science
Earth science
Earth science is an all-embracing term for the sciences related to the planet Earth. It is arguably a special case in planetary science, the Earth being the only known life-bearing planet. There are both reductionist and holistic approaches to Earth sciences...

", "Engineering
Engineering
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

" and "Materials Science
Materials science
Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering. This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties. It incorporates...

" were rewarded.

Additionally since 1990, the Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science (shortly the Bower Science Award) and the Bower Award for Business Leadership have been yearly awarded. They are funded by a $7.5 million bequest
Bequest
A bequest is the act of giving property by will. Strictly, "bequest" is used of personal property, and "devise" of real property. In legal terminology, "bequeath" is a verb form meaning "to make a bequest."...

 in 1988 from Henry Bower, who was a chemical manufacturer in Philadelphia. The Bower Science Award contains $250,000 of cash, one of the largest amounts for a science award in the U.S.

The Institute's Committee on Science and the Arts determines the winners of these awards. Recipients and related information can be found in the laureates database.
Recent Franklin Institute Awards
Award 2010 2011
Benjamin Franklin Medal in Chemistry JoAnne Stubbe
JoAnne Stubbe
JoAnne Stubbe is an American chemist. She is currently the Novartis Professor of Chemistry & Biology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.-Career:...

K.C. Nicolaou
Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer and Cognitive Science Shafrira Goldwasser John R. Anderson
Benjamin Franklin Medal in Earth and Environmental Science see Bower Science Award Jillian F. Banfield
Jillian F. Banfield
Jillian Fiona Banfield is a geomicrobiologist and biogeochemist whose work focuses on the fundamental relationship between microorganisms and their chemical environments...

Benjamin Franklin Medal in Electrical Engineering Gerhard M. Sessler and James E. West
James Edward Maceo West
James Edward Maceo West is an American inventor and acoustician. Along with Gerhard Sessler, West developed the foil electret microphone in 1962...

Ingrid Daubechies
Ingrid Daubechies
Ingrid Daubechies is a Belgian physicist and mathematician. She was between 2004 and 2011 the William R. Kenan Jr. Professor in the mathematics and applied mathematics departments at Princeton University. In January 2011 she moved to Duke University as a Professor in mathematics. She is the first...

Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science Peter C. Nowell see Bower Science Award
Benjamin Franklin Medal in Mechanical Engineering D. Brian Spalding Dean Kamen
Dean Kamen
Dean L. Kamen is an American entrepreneur and inventor from New Hampshire.Born in Rockville Centre, New York, he attended Worcester Polytechnic Institute, but dropped out before graduating after five years of private advanced research for drug infusion pump AutoSyringe...

Benjamin Franklin Medal in Physics J. Ignacio Cirac, David J. Wineland
David J. Wineland
David J. Wineland is an American physicist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology physics laboratory in Boulder...

, and Peter Zoller
Peter Zoller
Peter Zoller is a theoretical physicist from Austria. He is Professor at the University of Innsbruck and works on quantum optics and quantum information and is best known for his pioneering research on quantum computing and quantum communication and for bridging quantum optics and solid state...

Nicola Cabibbo
Nicola Cabibbo
Nicola Cabibbo was an Italian physicist, best known for his work on the weak interaction. He was also the president of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics from 1983 to 1992, and from 1993 until his death he was the president of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences...

Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science W. Richard Peltier (Earth Science) George Church
George Church
George Church is an American molecular geneticist. He is currently Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School, Professor of Health Sciences and Technology at Harvard and MIT, and a core faculty member at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University.With...

 (Genomics)
Bower Award for Business Leadership William H. Gates Fred Kavli
Fred Kavli
Fred Kavli is a Norwegian and naturalized American physicist, business leader, inventor, and philanthropist. He was born in the village of Eresfjord, Nesset municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. Today Kavli lives in the city of Santa Barbara, California. He established The Kavli...


Informal Science Learning Research

The Franklin Institute also undertakes informal science education research. Areas of special strength are educational technology, school partnerships, and youth leadership. In addition, the Center has built a substantial portfolio of unique online resources of the history of science, including online exhibits on Ben Franklin and the Heart, as well as resources on the Wright Aeronautical Engineering Collection.

The Science Leadership Academy

Main article: Science Leadership Academy
Science Leadership Academy
The Science Leadership Academy is a magnet public high school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which opened in September 2006. SLA is a partnership between The Franklin Institute and the School District of Philadelphia...



Opening its doors in September 2006, The Science Leadership Academy
Science Leadership Academy
The Science Leadership Academy is a magnet public high school in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which opened in September 2006. SLA is a partnership between The Franklin Institute and the School District of Philadelphia...

is a partnership between The Franklin Institute and The School District of Philadelphia to create a learning environment based on The Institute's philosophy that inquiry is the basis of learning. The Science Leadership Academy provides a rigorous, college-preparatory curriculum with a focus on science, technology, mathematics and entrepreneurship. Students at the SLA learn in a project-based environment where the core values of inquiry, research, collaboration, presentation and reflection are emphasized in all classes.




SLA was named an Apple Distinguished School in 2009 for its innovative 1:1 laptop program; a title which is reserved for schools that have implemented a 21st-century vision of education using Apple technology. The Distinguished School program was begun in 2008, and the Science Leadership Academy is one of only 33 schools in the nation, and the second in Pennsylvania, to receive the award.

Teacher professional development

The Franklin Institute is proud to offer summer institutes and school year mini-courses for K-8 teachers, in collaboration with the School District of Philadelphia and Curriculum & Instruction Office. These programs embody the Center for Innovation's commitment to inquiry science by modeling effective science teaching and learning strategies. Participants raise questions, investigate phenomena, interpret findings, consider real world connections, and reflect on the process.

Partnerships for Achieving Careers in Technology and Science

Partnerships for Achieving Careers in Technology and Science, or PACTS, is a year-round program of science enrichment, career development, and leadership opportunities for diverse middle- and high-school students in the Philadelphia Region. PACTS students use hands-on science workshops, field based research, field trips, and laboratory experiments to learn how science affects their everyday lives. PACTS is a youth leadership experience designed to involve students as an active part of the daily life of The Franklin Institute. Students who continue the program through high-school emerge with the skills and confidence to be successful college students and productive adults.

Girls at the Center

Girls at the Center is a partnership between The Franklin Institute and the Girl Scouts of the USA
Girl Scouts of the USA
The Girl Scouts of the United States of America is a youth organization for girls in the United States and American girls living abroad. It describes itself as "the world's preeminent organization dedicated solely to girls". It was founded by Juliette Gordon Low in 1912 and was organized after Low...

 provided girls and their families a chance to learn about science together. Over 100 sites participated in the program, with over seventy of the sites still active today. Girls at the Center provided activities for the girls to do with their families at home, as well as projects to be completed on site, all culminating in a year-end party.

See also

  • Academy of Natural Sciences
    Academy of Natural Sciences
    The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, formerly Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, is the oldest natural science research institution and museum in the New World...

  • John Scott Award
    John Scott Award
    The John Scott Legacy Medal and Premium, created in 1816, is a medal presented to men and women whose inventions improved the "comfort, welfare, and happiness of human kind" in a significant way...

     (City of Philadelphia)
  • Logan Square
    Logan Circle (Philadelphia)
    Logan Circle, also known as Logan Square, is an open-space park in Center City Philadelphia's northwest quadrant and one of the five original planned squares laid out on the city grid. The circle itself exists within the original bounds of the square; the names Logan Square and Logan Circle are...

  • Wagner Free Institute of Science
    Wagner Free Institute of Science
    The Wagner Free Institute of Science is a natural history museum located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1855 by William Wagner, a notable merchant, philanthropist, and gentleman scientist of the time, who sought to offer free educational courses to all who would seek to learn...

  • The building prominently appears in the movie National Treasure
    National Treasure (film)
    National Treasure is a 2004 mystery adventure heist film from the Walt Disney Studios under Walt Disney Pictures. It was written by Jim Kouf, Ted Elliott, Terry Rossio, Cormac Wibberley, and Marianne Wibberley, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and directed by Jon Turteltaub...

    .
  • List of science museums#United States
  • List of science museums in the United States
  • List of children's museums in the United States (alphabetical)
  • :Category:Children's museums in the United States (by state)

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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