Fokker F28
Overview
 
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet
Jet aircraft
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally fly much faster than propeller-powered aircraft and at higher altitudes – as high as . At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller-powered aircraft...

 airliner
Airliner
An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such aircraft are operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an aircraft intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial...

 designed and built by defunct Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 manufacturer Fokker
Fokker
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. The company operated under several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany, moving to the Netherlands in 1919....

.
Announced by Fokker in April 1962, production was a collaboration between a number of European companies, namely Fokker
Fokker
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. The company operated under several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany, moving to the Netherlands in 1919....

, MBB
Messerschmitt
Messerschmitt AG was a famous German aircraft manufacturing corporation named for its chief designer, Willy Messerschmitt, and known primarily for its World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262...

 of West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

, Fokker-VFW (also of Germany), and Short Brothers
Short Brothers
Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company, usually referred to simply as Shorts, that is now based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Founded in 1908, Shorts was the first company in the world to make production aircraft and was a manufacturer of flying boats during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s...

 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. There was also government money invested in the project, with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the West German government having 60% of the 35% German stake.

Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km (1,025 mi), the plane was later designed to have 60-65 seats.
Encyclopedia
The Fokker F28 Fellowship is a short range jet
Jet aircraft
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally fly much faster than propeller-powered aircraft and at higher altitudes – as high as . At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller-powered aircraft...

 airliner
Airliner
An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft for transporting passengers and cargo. Such aircraft are operated by airlines. Although the definition of an airliner can vary from country to country, an airliner is typically defined as an aircraft intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial...

 designed and built by defunct Dutch
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 aircraft
Aircraft
An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to fly by gaining support from the air, or, in general, the atmosphere of a planet. An aircraft counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines.Although...

 manufacturer Fokker
Fokker
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. The company operated under several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany, moving to the Netherlands in 1919....

.

Design and development

Announced by Fokker in April 1962, production was a collaboration between a number of European companies, namely Fokker
Fokker
Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. The company operated under several different names, starting out in 1912 in Schwerin, Germany, moving to the Netherlands in 1919....

, MBB
Messerschmitt
Messerschmitt AG was a famous German aircraft manufacturing corporation named for its chief designer, Willy Messerschmitt, and known primarily for its World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262...

 of West Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

, Fokker-VFW (also of Germany), and Short Brothers
Short Brothers
Short Brothers plc is a British aerospace company, usually referred to simply as Shorts, that is now based in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Founded in 1908, Shorts was the first company in the world to make production aircraft and was a manufacturer of flying boats during the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s...

 of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. There was also government money invested in the project, with the Dutch government providing 50% of Fokker's stake and the West German government having 60% of the 35% German stake.

Projected at first to transport 50 passengers to 1,650 km (1,025 mi), the plane was later designed to have 60-65 seats. On the design sheet, the F28 was originally to mount Bristol Siddeley
Bristol Siddeley
Bristol Siddeley Engines Ltd was a British aero engine manufacturer. The company was formed in 1959 by a merger of Bristol Aero-Engines Limited and Armstrong Siddeley Motors Limited. In 1961 the company was expanded by the purchase of the de Havilland Engine Company and the engine division of...

 BS.75 turbofans, but the prototype flew with the lighter Rolls-Royce "Spey Junior", a simplified version of the Rolls-Royce Spey.

The F28 was similar in design to the BAC 1-11 and DC-9, as it had a T-tail
T-tail
thumb|right|Grob motor gliderA T-tail is an aircraft tail stabilizer configuration in which the horizontal surfaces are mounted to the top of the vertical stabilizer. Traditionally, the horizontal control surfaces are mounted to the fuselage at the base of the vertical stabilizer...

 and the engines at the rear of the fuselage. The aircraft had wings with a slight crescent angle of sweep with aileron
Aileron
Ailerons are hinged flight control surfaces attached to the trailing edge of the wing of a fixed-wing aircraft. The ailerons are used to control the aircraft in roll, which results in a change in heading due to the tilting of the lift vector...

s at the tip, simple flaps
Flap (aircraft)
Flaps are normally hinged surfaces mounted on the trailing edges of the wings of a fixed-wing aircraft to reduce the speed an aircraft can be safely flown at and to increase the angle of descent for landing without increasing air speed. They shorten takeoff and landing distances as well as...

, and five-section liftdumper only operated after landing to dump the lift. The leading edge
Leading edge
The leading edge is the part of the wing that first contacts the air; alternatively it is the foremost edge of an airfoil section. The first is an aerodynamic definition, the second a structural one....

 was fixed and was anti-iced by bleed air
Bleed air
Bleed air in gas turbine engines is compressed air taken from within the engine, after the compressor stage and before the fuel is injected in the burners. While in theory bleed air could be drawn in any gas turbine engine, its usage is generally restricted to jet engines used in aircraft...

 from the engines. The tail cone could split and be hydraulically opened to the sides to act as a variable air brake
Air brake (aircraft)
In aeronautics, air brakes or speedbrakes are a type of flight control surface used on an aircraft to increase drag or increase the angle of approach during landing....

 - also used on the contemporaneous Blackburn Buccaneer
Blackburn Buccaneer
The Blackburn Buccaneer was a British low-level subsonic strike aircraft with nuclear weapon delivery capability serving with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force between 1962 and 1994, including service in the 1991 Gulf War...

. This design was also copied and used on the HS-146, which became the BAe-146. It had a retractable tricycle landing gear.

In terms of responsibility for production, Fokker designed and built the nose section, centre fuselage and inner wing; MBB/Fokker-VFW constructed the forward fuselage
Fuselage
The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage which in turn is used as a floating hull...

, rear fuselage and tail assembly; and Shorts designed and built the outer wings.

Final assembly of the Fokker F28 was at Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

.

Operational history

The F28-1000 prototype, registered PH-JHG, first flew on May 9, 1967 (exactly one month later than the famous Boeing 737
Boeing 737
The Boeing 737 is a short- to medium-range, twin-engine narrow-body jet airliner. Originally developed as a shorter, lower-cost twin-engine airliner derived from Boeing's 707 and 727, the 737 has developed into a family of nine passenger models with a capacity of 85 to 215 passengers...

). German certification was achieved on February 24, 1969. The first order was from German airline LTU
LTU
LTU may mean:*IATA code for Latur Airport, India*Light The Underground, Light painting photographer http://www.lighttheunderground.com/*La Trobe University, a university in Australia*Lambda the Ultimate, a weblog devoted to programming languages...

, but the first revenue-earning flight was by Braathens
Braathens
Braathens ASA, until 1997 Braathens South American & Far East Airtransport A/S and trading as Braathens SAFE, is a former Norwegian airline that operated from 1946 until it merged with Scandinavian Airlines Norway to become SAS Braathens in 2004. The airline was based in Oslo, first at Fornebu,...

 on March 28, 1969 who operated five F28s.
The F28 with an extended fuselage was named F28-2000 and could seat up to 79 passengers instead of the 65 seats on the F28-1000. The prototype for this model was a converted F28-1000 prototype, and first flew on April 28, 1971. The models F28-6000 and F28-5000 were modified F28-2000 and F28-1000 respectively, with slats
Leading edge slats
Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a result of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying slats an aircraft can fly at slower...

, greater wingspan, and more powerful and silent engines as the main features. The F28-6000 and F28-5000 were not a commercial success; only two F28-6000 and no F28-5000 were built. After being used by Fokker for a time, the F28-6000 were sold to Air Mauritanie
Air Mauritanie
Air Mauritanie was an airline based in Nouakchott, Mauritania. It was the national airline and operated domestic and regional services. A VIP-configured Boeing 727-200 was flown for the Mauritanian government. Its main base was Nouakchott International Airport....

, but not before they were converted to F28-2000s.

The most successful F28 was the F28-4000, which debuted on October 20, 1976 with one of the world's largest Fokker operators, Linjeflyg
Linjeflyg
Linjeflyg was formed in 1957 as a Swedish domestic airline by Scandinavian Airlines System, Dagens Nyheter AB and Stockholms-Tidningen AB.In October 1983, Linjeflyg moved from Stockholm-Bromma Airport in the central part of Stockholm, to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport in the north of Stockholm. Bromma...

. This version was powered by quieter Spey 555-15H engines, and had an increased seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

 (up to 85 passengers), a larger wingspan with reinforced wings, a new cockpit and a new "wide-look" interior featuring enclosed overhead lockers and a less 'tubular' look. The F28-3000, the successor to the F28-1000, featured the same improvements as the F28-4000.

F28s of Ansett Transport Industries' Western Australian intrastate airline, MacRobertson Miller Airlines
MacRobertson Miller Airlines
MacRobertson Miller Airlines Ltd. , callsign "Miller", IATA code "MV", was established in Australia in late 1927, by pilot Horrie Miller with the backing of chocolate millionaire Sir Macpherson Robertson....

 of Western Australia
Western Australia
Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

, flew the longest non-stop F28 route in the world, from Perth
Perth, Western Australia
Perth is the capital and largest city of the Australian state of Western Australia and the fourth most populous city in Australia. The Perth metropolitan area has an estimated population of almost 1,700,000....

 to Kununurra, in Western Australia
Western Australia
Western Australia is a state of Australia, occupying the entire western third of the Australian continent. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Indian Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east and South Australia to the south-east...

 - a distance of about 2,240 km (1,392 mi). MMA'a F28s also had the highest utilisation rates at the time, flying over 8 hours per day.

By the time production ended in 1987, 241 airframes had been built.

Variants

Data from
  • F.28 Mk 1000 - First variant derived from the third prototype, with a maximum capacity of 65 passengers in a high-density configuration. The Mk 1000 had a length of 27.40 m. It was powered by two Rolls-Royce RB.183-2 Mk.555-15 each with 43.8 kN (9,850 lbf) of thrust. Maximum weight at take-off was 28,123 kg (62,001 lb).

  • F.28 Mk 1000C - All-cargo, passenger/cargo version derived from Mk 1000 with a port-side cargo door.

  • F.28 Mk 2000 - It first flew on April 28, 1971, being certified on August 30, 1972. This variant had a fuselage 2.21 m longer than the Mk 1000, with a passenger capacity of 79 in high-density single-class configuration. It began revenue service with Nigeria Airways
    Nigeria Airways
    Nigeria Airways Ltd., more commonly known as Nigeria Airways, is a defunct Nigerian airline. The company was founded in 1958 after the dissolution of West African Airways Corporation. It was wholly owned by the Government of Nigeria, and served as the country's flag carrier. The airline was...

     in October 1972. Ten were built.


  • F.28 Mk 3000 - With the shorter fuselage of Mk 1000, it was one of the more successful variants, with greater structural strength and increased fuel capacity. It began revenue service with Garuda Indonesia
    Garuda Indonesia
    PT Garuda Indonesia Tbk , publicly known as Garuda Indonesia, is the flag carrier of Indonesia. It is named after the mystical giant bird Garuda of Hinduism and Buddhist mythology. It is headquartered at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia...

    .

  • F.28 Mk 4000 - The first prototype
    Prototype
    A prototype is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.The word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον , "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος , "original, primitive", from πρῶτος , "first" and τύπος ,...

     appeared on October 20, 1976 and had the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000 with a passenger capacity of 85. Wingspan was increased by 1.57 m and more powerful Rolls-Royce RB183 "Spey" Mk555-15P of 44 kN (9,901 lbf) thrust. It began service with Linjeflyg
    Linjeflyg
    Linjeflyg was formed in 1957 as a Swedish domestic airline by Scandinavian Airlines System, Dagens Nyheter AB and Stockholms-Tidningen AB.In October 1983, Linjeflyg moved from Stockholm-Bromma Airport in the central part of Stockholm, to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport in the north of Stockholm. Bromma...

     (Sweden) at the end of 1976.

  • F.28 Mk 5000 - Derived from the Mk 6000, was to combine the shorter fuselage of the Mk 3000 and an increased wingspan. Slats
    Leading edge slats
    Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a result of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying slats an aircraft can fly at slower...

     were to be added to the wings and more powerful Rolls-Royce "Spey" Mk555-15H engines were to be used. Although expected to be an excellent plane to operate in short runways due to its superior power, it was finally not built and the project was abandoned.

  • F.28 Mk 6000 - It first flew on September 27, 1973 and had the longer fuselage of the Mk 2000/4000 with an increased wingspan and the Slats
    Leading edge slats
    Slats are aerodynamic surfaces on the leading edge of the wings of fixed-wing aircraft which, when deployed, allow the wing to operate at a higher angle of attack. A higher coefficient of lift is produced as a result of angle of attack and speed, so by deploying slats an aircraft can fly at slower...

    . It was certified in October 1975.

  • F.28 Mk 6600 - Proposed version. Not built.

Accidents and Incidents

An "Incident" is defined by the United States NTSB as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft that affects or that could affect the safety of operations.

An "Accident" is defined by the United States NTSB as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft where there is serious personal bodily injury or death, and damage to the aircraft and/or property.

The following is a list of Fokker F28 accidents and incidents:
  • Braathens Flight 239
    Braathens Flight 239
    - External links :*...

     - December 23, 1972, (Asker
    Asker
    Asker is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the Viken traditional region. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Asker. The municipality is a suburb of Oslo, the national capital...

    , suburb to Oslo
    Oslo
    Oslo is a municipality, as well as the capital and most populous city in Norway. As a municipality , it was established on 1 January 1838. Founded around 1048 by King Harald III of Norway, the city was largely destroyed by fire in 1624. The city was moved under the reign of Denmark–Norway's King...

    , Norway
    Norway
    Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

    ): 40 fatalities. First fatal crash with a Fokker Fellowship.
  • Turkish Airlines
    1974 Turkish Airlines Izmir crash
    The 1974 Turkish Airlines Izmir crash occurred on January 26, 1974 when a Turkish Airlines Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship airliner, registration TC-JAO, named Van, on a domestic flight in Turkey from Izmir Cumaovası Airport to Istanbul Yeşilköy Airport , stalled shortly after takeoff due to over...

     - January 26, 1974, (Izmir
    Izmir
    Izmir is a large metropolis in the western extremity of Anatolia. The metropolitan area in the entire Izmir Province had a population of 3.35 million as of 2010, making the city third most populous in Turkey...

    , Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    ): 66 fatalities. the aircraft crashed down 100m away from the airfield during takeoff.
  • Turkish Airlines
    Turkish Airlines
    Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

     - January 30, 1975, (Marmara sea,near to Istanbul
    Istanbul
    Istanbul , historically known as Byzantium and Constantinople , is the largest city of Turkey. Istanbul metropolitan province had 13.26 million people living in it as of December, 2010, which is 18% of Turkey's population and the 3rd largest metropolitan area in Europe after London and...

    , Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    ): 41 fatalities. Crashed into the Sea of Marmara while attempting to land.
  • Garuda Indonesia Airways Flight 150- 24 September 1975 near Palembang
    Palembang
    Palembang is the capital city of the South Sumatra province in Indonesia. Palembang is one of the oldest cities in Indonesia, and has a history of being a capital of a maritime empire. Located on the Musi River banks on the east coast of southern Sumatra island, it has an area of 400.61 square...

    , Indonesia
    Indonesia
    Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...

     ): 26 fatalities. Crashed on approach in fog killing 25 people out of 61 passengers and crew. 1 person was killed on the ground.
  • Garuda Indonesia Airways- July 11, 1979
    1979 Garuda Fokker F28 crash
    The 1979 Garuda Fokker F28 crash occurred on 11 July 1979 when a Garuda Indonesia Fokker F28 airliner on a domestic flight in Indonesia from Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II Airport, Palembang, to Polonia International Airport, Medan, struck Mount Sibayak at on approach to landing...

    . 61 fatalities. Crashed into Mount Sibayak
    Sibayak
    Mt. Sibayak is a small stratovolcano overlooking the town of Berastagi in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Although its last eruption was more than a century ago, geothermal activity in the form of steam vents and hot springs remains high on and around the volcano. The vents produce crystalline...

     while on approach to Polonia International Airport
    Polonia International Airport
    Polonia International Airport is located in the city of Medan, Indonesia, about 5 km from the Central Business District. It is the first international airport in Medan, the other being the planned Kuala Namu International Airport...

    . There was bad weather at the time of the crash.
  • Turkish Airlines
    Turkish Airlines
    Turkish Airlines is the national flag carrier airline of Turkey, headquartered in the Turkish Airlines General Management Building on the grounds of Atatürk Airport in Yeşilköy, Bakirköy district, Istanbul...

     - December 23, 1979, (Ankara
    Ankara
    Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the country's second largest city after Istanbul. The city has a mean elevation of , and as of 2010 the metropolitan area in the entire Ankara Province had a population of 4.4 million....

    , Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    ): 39 fatalities. Because of turbulence.
  • NLM CityHopper Flight 431
    NLM Cityhopper Flight 431
    NLM CityHopper Flight 431 refers to a Fokker F-28-4000, registration PH-CHI, that was due to operate an international scheduled Rotterdam–Eindhoven–Hamburg passenger service. On , the aircraft encountered severe weather on its flightpath while en route its first leg, minutes after taking off from...

     - October 6, 1981 (Moerdijk, North Brabant, Netherlands
    Netherlands
    The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

    ): 17 fatalities, the aircraft flew into a tornado
    Tornado
    A tornado is a violent, dangerous, rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. They are often referred to as a twister or a cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology in a wider...

     which broke off one of the wings which led to a mid-air break up.
  • Garuda Indonesia Domestic Flight
    1982 Garuda Fokker F28 crash
    The 1982 Garuda Fokker F28 crash occurred on March 20, 1982, when a Fokker F28, opereated by Garuda Indonesia, overran the runway at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport, Indonesia during a very heavy rain...

     - March 20, 1982, runway overrun at Tanjung Karang-Branti Airport
    Radin Inten II Airport
    Radin Inten II Airport is a domestic airport that serves the city of Bandar Lampung in Lampung, Indonesia. The name is taken from Radin Inten II, the last Sultan of Lampung....

     in bad weather, 27 fatalities.
  • Air Ontario Flight 1363
    Air Ontario Flight 1363
    Air Ontario Flight 1363 was an Air Ontario flight of a Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship which crashed near Dryden, Ontario on March 10, 1989 immediately after take-off en route from Thunder Bay to Winnipeg via Dryden...

     - March 10, 1989 (Dryden, Ontario
    Dryden, Ontario
    Dryden is the second-largest city in the Kenora District of Northwestern Ontario, Canada, located on Wabigoon Lake. It is the smallest community in the province of Ontario designated as a city...

    , Canada
    Canada
    Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

    ): 24 fatalities. Due to various factors including snow, ice and lack of use of anti-icing measures.
  • USAir Flight 405
    USAir Flight 405
    USAir Flight 405 was a regularly scheduled domestic passenger flight between LaGuardia Airport in New York City, and Cleveland, Ohio. On March 22, 1992, a USAir Fokker F28, registration N485US, flying the route, crashed in poor weather in a partially inverted position in Flushing Bay, New York,...

     - March 22, 1992 (Queens, New York, United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    ): 27 fatalities. Due to ice buildup on the wings, pilot error and improper deicing
    Deicing
    For snow and ice control on roadways and similar facilities, see Snow removalDe-icing is defined as removal of snow, ice or frost from a surface...

     procedures at LaGuardia airport
    LaGuardia Airport
    LaGuardia Airport is an airport located in the northern part of Queens County on Long Island in the City of New York. The airport is located on the waterfront of Flushing Bay and Bowery Bay, and borders the neighborhoods of Astoria, Jackson Heights and East Elmhurst. The airport was originally...

  • Iran Asseman Airlines Flight 746
    Iran Asseman Airlines Flight 746
    On October 12, 1994 Iran Asseman Airlines Flight 746, a Fokker F-28 registration EP-PAV took off from Isfahan International Airport on a flight to Mehrabad Airport in Iran. Flight 746 had 59 passengers and 7 crew on board but 35 minutes after take off both engines lost power and shut down the...

     - October 12, 1994 ( near Natanz
    Natanz
    Natanz is a city in and the capital of Natanz County, Isfahan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 12,060, in 3,411 families. It is located south-east of Kashan....

    , Iran
    Iran
    Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

     ): 66 fatalities.
  • Air Mauritanie
    Air Mauritanie
    Air Mauritanie was an airline based in Nouakchott, Mauritania. It was the national airline and operated domestic and regional services. A VIP-configured Boeing 727-200 was flown for the Mauritanian government. Its main base was Nouakchott International Airport....

     - July 1, 1994: All 4 crew and 76 of the 89 passengers on board were killed when their plane crashed at Tidjikja Airport
    Tidjikja Airport
    Tidjikja Airport is an airport serving Tidjikja, the capital of the Tagant region of central Mauritania....

    .
  • Biman Bangladesh Flight 609 - December 22, 1997 (Sylhet
    Sylhet
    Sylhet , is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh. It is the main city of Sylhet Division and Sylhet District, and was granted metropolitan city status in March 2009. Sylhet is located on the banks of the Surma Valley and is surrounded by the Jaintia, Khasi and Tripura hills...

    , Bangladesh
    Bangladesh
    Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

    ): No fatalities, CFIT
    Controlled flight into terrain
    Controlled flight into terrain describes an accident in which an airworthy aircraft, under pilot control, is unintentionally flown into the ground, a mountain, water, or an obstacle. The term was coined by engineers at Boeing in the late 1970s...

     onto a rice field approx 1 mile from runway. Aviation-Safety.net report
  • TANS Peru Flight 222
    TANS Perú Flight 222
    TANS Peru Flight 222 was a TANS Perú flight of a Fokker F28-1000 Fellowship which crashed near Chachapoyas, Peru on January 9, 2003 while on approach to Chachapoyas Airport. None of the 46 passengers and crew aboard the Fokker F-28 survived....

     - January 9, 2003: None of the 46 passengers aboard the Fokker F-28 survived after the aircraft hit a mountain near Chachapoyas
    Chachapoyas
    Chachapoyas may refer to:* Chachapoyas culture, existed until the 15th century in the highlands in northern Peru* Chachapoyas city, the capital of the province with the same name and the Amazonas Region* Chachapoyas Province, Amazonas Region, Peru...

    , Peru
    Peru
    Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

  • Biman Bangladesh parked at Shahjalal International Airport - April 22, 2003 Aviation-Safety.net report
  • Biman Bangladesh Flight 601 - October 8, 2004 (Sylhet
    Sylhet
    Sylhet , is a major city in north-eastern Bangladesh. It is the main city of Sylhet Division and Sylhet District, and was granted metropolitan city status in March 2009. Sylhet is located on the banks of the Surma Valley and is surrounded by the Jaintia, Khasi and Tripura hills...

    , Bangladesh
    Bangladesh
    Bangladesh , officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh is a sovereign state located in South Asia. It is bordered by India on all sides except for a small border with Burma to the far southeast and by the Bay of Bengal to the south...

    ): No fatalities, overran runway on landing. Pictures at AirDisaster.com - Aviation-Safety.net report
  • Icaro Air
    Icaro Air
    Icaro Air is an airline based in Quito, Ecuador. It operates domestic passenger services under the name of Icaro Express, as well as fixed-wing and helicopter charters...

     Flight 504 crashed during take off at Quito's Mariscal Sucre Airport No deaths, or injuries occurred.


According to http://www.airsafe.com/events/models/rate_mod.htm, the Fokker F28 has an average fatal accident rate of 1.67 per million flights (which notably is one of the highest of all commercial jet aircraft and surpassed only by the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 types - excluding the following types which are no longer in commercial service and which may have had relatively good or bad safety statistics):
1. de Havilland Comet
2. Convair CV880/990
3. Sud Aviation Caravelle
4. Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde
5. Dassault Aviation Mercure
6. Hawker Siddeley Trident
7. Vickers VC-10.
Of the above seven models, the Dassault Mercure had an impressive safety history with zero (0) accidents in 440,000 flights/360,000 flight hours carrying 44,000,000 passengers, while the de Havilland Comet was initially one of the most dangerous aircraft in the sky.

A more complete list of accidents and incidents can be found at the following websites:
http://www.boeing.com/news/techissues/pdf/statsum.pdf
http://www.faa.gov/data_research/accident_incident/
http://www.ntsb.gov/aviation/stats.htm
http://www.airdisaster.com
Also see:
Aviation accidents and incidents
Aviation accidents and incidents
An aviation accident is defined in the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, in which a...


Operators

In August 2006 a total of 92 Fokker F28 aircraft (all variants) remained in airline service. Major operators included: Garuda Indonesia
Garuda Indonesia
PT Garuda Indonesia Tbk , publicly known as Garuda Indonesia, is the flag carrier of Indonesia. It is named after the mystical giant bird Garuda of Hinduism and Buddhist mythology. It is headquartered at Soekarno-Hatta International Airport in Tangerang, near Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia...

 (62 in total, the largest F-28 fleet in the world), MacRobertson Miller Airlines
MacRobertson Miller Airlines
MacRobertson Miller Airlines Ltd. , callsign "Miller", IATA code "MV", was established in Australia in late 1927, by pilot Horrie Miller with the backing of chocolate millionaire Sir Macpherson Robertson....

, Ansett Group Australia (more than 15), Toumaï Air Tchad
Toumaï Air Tchad
Toumaï Air Chad is the national flag carrier airline of Chad. It operates domestic services within Chad as well as scheduled international services to other African nations. Its main base is N'Djamena International Airport. International flights appear to have been operated by primarily South...

 (1), AirQuarius Aviation
AirQuarius Aviation
AirQuarius Aviation is an airline based in Johannesburg, South Africa, operating chartered flights and aircraft leasing contracted by companies throughout Africa and the Middle East. The airline's base is at Lanseria Airport, Johannesburg.-History:...

 (3), SkyLink Arabia
SkyLink Arabia
SKA is a charter airline based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Its main base is Dubai International Airport.-Destinations:SKA operates the following services : Jordan**Amman United Arab Emirates...

 (1), Satena
SATENA
SATENA is an Colombian military airline based in Fontibón, Bogotá, Colombia. It operates regional, domestic and international routes...

 (1), Gatari Air Service (5), Montenegro Airlines
Montenegro Airlines
Montenegro Airlines d.o.o., operating as Montenegro Airlines, is the national carrier airline of the country of Montenegro, and flag carrier of the Montenegro, headquartered in Podgorica. It operates scheduled services in Europe, as well as charter flights throughout Europe during the summer...

 (5), LADE
Lade
Lade may refer to:People* Brendon Lade , Australian rules footballer* Sir John Lade , baronet and Regency horse-breeder* Heinrich Eduard von Lade , German banker and amateur astronomer...

 (1),Aerolineas Argentinas operated 3 1000 series and one 4000 series, all scrapped by the end of the nineties, Pelita Air (5), AirQuarius Aviation
AirQuarius Aviation
AirQuarius Aviation is an airline based in Johannesburg, South Africa, operating chartered flights and aircraft leasing contracted by companies throughout Africa and the Middle East. The airline's base is at Lanseria Airport, Johannesburg.-History:...

 (4) and Merpati Nusantara Airlines
Merpati Nusantara Airlines
Merpati Nusantara Airlines is a commuter airline based in Central Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia. It is a major domestic airline operating scheduled services to more than 25 destinations in Indonesia, as well as scheduled international services to East Timor and Malaysia. Its main base is...

 (1). Some 22 airlines operated smaller numbers of the type.

Military Operators

  • Argentine Air Force
    Argentine Air Force
    The Argentine Air Force is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. , it had 14,606 military and 6,854 civilian staff.-History:...

  • Argentine Navy
    Argentine Navy
    The Navy of the Argentine Republic or Armada of the Argentine Republic is the navy of Argentina. It is one of the three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic, together with the Army and the Air Force....

     - Argentine Naval Aviation
    Argentine Naval Aviation
    The Argentine Naval Aviation is the naval aviation branch of the Argentine Navy and one of its four operational commands...



: (Dutch Royal Flight)

: (Domestic Presidential Flights).The aircraft was named "Kalayaan"

Specifications

Data from
-1000 -2000 -3000 -4000 -6000
Length: 89 in 11 in (27.41 m) 97 in 2 in (29.62 m) 89 ft 11 in (27.4 m (89.9 ft) 2 in (29.61 m) 97 in 2 in (29.62 m)
Seating capacity
Seating capacity
Seating capacity refers to the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, both in terms of the physical space available, and in terms of limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats...

:
65 79 65 85 79
Wingspan: 77 in 4 in (23.57 m) 82 in 3 in (25.07 m)
Wing area: 822.4 ft2 850 ft2
Max takeoff weight: 65000 lb (29,483.5 kg) 73000 lb (33,112.2 kg)
Max cruising speed: 528 mph (849 km/h) 523 mph (843 km/h)
Range: 2,000 km 1350 km (838.9 mi) (2,743 km) 1180 mi (1,899 km) 1025 nm
Service ceiling: 35000 ft (10,668 m)
Engines: 2× Rolls-Royce RB183-2 "Spey" Mk555-15  2× Rolls-Royce RB183-2 "Spey" Mk555-15P turbofan engines

See also

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