Flyover rights
Flyover rights or airline flyovers are established by various airlines over specific countries who have granted them formal permission to do so on a continuing basis.

Some countries levy fees for this permission.

Rights can be looked at from two perspectives. From the grantor - A large nation geographically difficult to avoid on a commercial route can require large fees for this right.

The grantee must be on good terms with the grantor. On occasion, the grantor must approve of the use made of the airspace. For example, the grantor might take the opportunity to express disapproval of a requestor's attempt to make war, denying them use of their airspace for that purpose.

Modern history

In 1986, France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 and Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 denied the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 permission to overfly their respective airspaces in order to bomb Libya.

In 2008, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 temporarily denied Lufthansa Cargo
Lufthansa Cargo
Lufthansa Cargo AG is a cargo airline from Germany, operating worldwide air freight and logistics services on behalf of Lufthansa, of which it is a wholly owned subsidiary. The company is headquartered in Building 451 of the Frankfurt Airport area in Frankfurt, the major hub of Lufthansa...

 permission to overfly its airspace with cargo.

Europe pays Russia €300 million a year for flyover permissions for its airlines. Europe has made the dropping of fees an official pre-condition for Russian membership in the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
The World Trade Organization is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on January 1, 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade , which commenced in 1948...

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